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Paul's Assurance Tests


on God's Faithfulnes... fast the form-rather as Greek, "Have fi.e., keep) a l abiding state of power in the grace-the element IN pattern of sound (Greek, healthy, words which thou hast which the believer's strength has place. Cf. ch. 1. 7, heard from me, in faith and love." "Keep" suits the "God hath given us the spirit of power." 2. among reference to a deposit in the context. The secondary |-Greek, "through,' i.e., with the attestation (lit , inposition of the verb in the Greek forbids our taking it tervention) of many witnesses, viz., the presbyters and SO strongly as English Version, “Hold fast." The others present at his ordination or consecration Greek for "form" is translated " pattern" in 1 Timothy. (1 Timothy, 4. 14; 6. 12). commit-in trust, as a deposit 1. 16, the only other passage where it occurs. Havel (ch. 1. 14). faithful-The quality most needed by those such & pattern drawn from my sound words, in op- having a trust committed to them. who-Greek, "perposition to the unsound doctrines so current at sons) such as shall be competent to teach (them to) Ephesus, vividly impressed (WAHL translates it "de- others also." Thus the way is prepared for inculcating lineation;" the verb implies to make a lively and last- the duty of faithful endurance (v. 3-13). Thou shouldest ing impress) on thy mind. in faith and love-the element consider as a motive to endurance, that thou hast not IN which my sound words had place, and in which only to keep the deposit for thyself, but to transruit it thou art to have the vivid impression of them as thy unimpaired to others, who in their turn shall fulfil the inwardly delineated pattern, moulding conformably | same office. This is so far from supporting oral tradithy outward profession. So nearly BENGEL explains, tion now, that it rather teaches bow precarious & mode 1 Timothy, 3. 9. 14. Translate as Greek. "That goodly 1 of preserving revealed truth it was, depending as it deposit keep through the Holy Ghost," viz., " the sound did, on the trustworthiness of each individual in the words which I have committed to thee" (v. 13; ch. 2. 2). chain of succession; and how thankful we ought to be in as-in all believers, not merely in you and me. The that God Himself has given the written Word, which indwelling Spirit enables us to keep from the robbers is exempt from such risk. 3. Thou therefore endure of the soul the deposit of His word committed to us hardness-The oldest MSS, have no Thou therefore," by God. 15. all they which are in Asia-Proconsular and read, “Endure hardship with" (me). "Take thy Asia : "All who are there now, when they were in Rome | share in suffering." (CONYBEARE & Howsox.) 4. inot "be" or are, but) turned from me" then: were "No one whilst serving as a soldier." the affairs, &c. "asbamed of my chain," in contrast to Onesiphorus: -"the businesses of life" (ALFORD): mercantile, or did not stand with me but forsook me (ch. 4. 16). It is other than military. him who hath chosen him--the possible that the occasion of their turning from him general who at the first enlisted bim as a soldier. Paul was at his apprehension in Nicopolis, whither they had himself worked at tent-making (Acts, 18.3). Therefore escorted him on his way to Rome, but from which what is prohibited here is, not all other save religious they turned back to Asia. A hint to Timothy, now occupation, but the becoming entangled, or overin Asin, not to be like them, but to imitate rather engrossed therewith. 5. Aud-"Moreover," strive for Onesiphorus, and to come to him (ch. 4. 21). Phygellus masteries-"strive in the games" (ALFORD): viz., the and Hermogenes - specified perhaps, as being persons / great national games of Greece. yet is he not crowned, from whom such pusillanimous conduct could least be except-even though he gain the victory. strive law. expected; or, as being well known to Timothy, and fully-observing all the conditions of both the contest spoken of before in conversations between him and keeping within the bounds of the course and stript of Paul, when the latter was in Asia Minor. 16. Toe Lord | his clothes and the preparation for it, vir., as to selfgive mercy--even as Onesiphorus bad abounded in I denying diet, anoin ting exercise, self-restraint, works of mercy. the house of Obesiphorus-He bimself chastity, decorum, &c. (1 Corinthians, 9. 24-27). 6. must was then absent from Ephesus, which accounts for the l be first partaker-The right of first partaking of the form of expression (ch. 4. 19). His household would fruits belongs to him who is labouring; do not thou, hardly retain his name after the master was dead, as I therefore, relax thy labours, as thou wouldest be foreBENGEL supposes him to have been, Nowhere has Paul most in partaking of the reward. CONYBEARE EXprayers for the dead, which is fatal to the theory, fa I plains, first," before the idler. 7. Consider the force of voured by ALFORD also, that he was dead. God blesses the illustrations I have given from the soldier, the connot only the righteous man himself, but all his house-tender in the games, and the husbandmen, as applying hold. my chain-Paul in the second, as in his first im- to thyself in thy ministry. aud the Lord give thee, &c.prisonment, was bound by a chain to the soldier who | The oldest MSS. read, "for the Lord will give thee unguarded him. 17. found me-in the crowded metropolis. derstanding." Thou canst understand my meaning so So in turn "may he find mercy of the Lord in that as personally to apply it to thyself; for the Lord will day” when the whole universe shall be assembled. give thee understanding when thou seekest it from 18. grant unto hun-as well as "unto his house" (v. 16). | Him "in all things." Not intellectual perception, but the Lord-who rewards a kindness done to His dis- personal appropriation of the truths metaphorically ciples as if done to Himself (Matthew, 25. 45). of expressed, was what he needed to be given him by the from the Lord: "the Lord" is empbatically put in- Lord. 8. Rather as Greek, "Remember Jesus Christ, stead of "from Himself," for solemnity and emphasis raised from the dead." Remember Christ risen, so as (2 Thessalonians, 3. 5). in how many things-"how to follow Him. As He was raised after death, so if many acts of ministry he rendered." unto me--Omitted thou wouldest share His risen "life," thou must now in the oldest MSS., so that the ministered" may in- sbare His “death" (v. 11). The Greek perfect passive clude services rendered to others as well as to Paul. participle, implies & permanent character acquired by very well-rather as Greek, "Thou knowest better" | Jesus as the risen Saviour, and our permanent interest (than I can tell thee, seeing that thou art more of a l in Him as such. Christ's resurrection is put promiregular resident at Ephesus).

nently forward as being the truth now assailed iv. 18), CHAPTER II.

and the one best calculated to stimulate Timothy to Ver. 1-26. EXHORTATIONS: To FAITHFULNESS AS A stedfastness in sharing Paul's sufferings for the gospei's Good SOLDIER OF CHRIST: ERRORS TO BESHUNNED: sake Note, v. 3). my gospel-that which I always TRE LORD'S SURE FOUNDATION: THE RIGRT SPIRIT taught. of the seed of David-The one and only geneFOR A SERVANT OF CARIST. 1. Thou therefore-follow alogy (as contrasted with the "endless genealogies, ing my example ich, 1. 8. 12), and that of Onesiphorus | 1 Timothy. 1. 4) worth thinking of, for it proves Jesus (ch. 1. 16-18), and shunning that of those who forsook to be the Messiah. The absence of the article in the me (ch. 1. 16). my son-Children ought to imitate their Greek, and this formula, "of the seed of David" (cf. father be strong-lit., "be invested with porcer." Romans, 1. 3), imply, that the words were probably part Have power, and sbow tbyself to have it: implying an of a recoguised short oral creed. In His death He

- not merely “I passively am ready from a father mating

bread among his car Pro

Rightly Divide the Word of Truth.


Shun Vain Babblings. assured us of His humanity; by His resurrection, of thou in words." &c. to Do profit-not qualifying His divinity. That He was not crucified for His oronwords" but Gr. neuter, in apposition with "strive sin, appears from His resurrection : that He was cruci- | in words," " (thing tending) to no profit." lit., "profied, shows that He bore sin, on Him, though not in fitable for nothing" the opposite of "meet for the Him. 9. Wherein--In proclaiming which gospel, suffer master's use" (v. 21). to the sabverting-sure to subtronble-lit.. "evil." I am a sufferer of evil as though I vert overturn) the hearers: the opposite of "edifying" were a doer of evil. bonds- ch, 1. 16.) word...bot bound (building up) (2 Corinthians, 13. 10). 15. Study-Greck, -Though my person is bound, my tongue and my pen | " Be earnest." or "diligent." to show-Greck, "preare not (ch. 4. 17: Acts, 28. 31). Or he alludes not merely sent," as in Romans, 12, 1. thyself-23 distinguished to his own proclamation of the gospel, though in chains, from those whom Timothy was to charge (c. 14. apbut to the freedom of its circulation by others, even proved-tested by trial: opposed to " reprobate" (litus, though his power of circulating it is now prescribed 1. 16). workınau-Alluding to Matthew, 20. 1. &c. not (Philippians, 1. 18). He also hints to Timothy, that he to be ashamed-by his work not being * approved" being free ought to be the more earnest in the service (Philippians, 1. 20). Contrast "deceitful workers of it. 10. Therefore--Because of the anxiety I feel that (2 Corinthians, 11. 13). rightly dividing-"rightly handthe gospel should be extended; that anxiety being im- ling (Vulgate): "rightly administering” (ALFORD): plied in v.9. endure-not merely "I passively suffer," but | lit., cutting " straight," or "right;" the metaphor being *I actively and perseveringly endure," and "am ready from a father or a steward (1 Corinthians, 4. 1) to endure patiently all things." the elect--for the sake ting and distributing bread among his children of the church: all the members of Christ's spiritual (VITRINGA & CALVIN] (Luke, 12. 42). LXX., Probody (Colossians, 1. 24. they...also-as well as myself: verbs, 3. 6, and 11, 6, use it of "making one's way:* $ both God's elect not yet converted and those already so. BaxGEL here takes Paul to mean that Timothy may salvation...glory-not only salration from wrath, but make ready a straight ray for the word of truth." glory in reiming with Him eternally (v. 12). Glory is and may himself walk straight forward according to the full expansion of salvation (Acts 2. 47; Romans, 8. this line, turning neither to the right nor to the left, 21-24, 30; Hebrews, 9. 28). So grace and glory Psalm teaching no other doctrine" (1 Timothy, 1.3). The 84. 12. 11. Greek, “Faithful is the saying." Por-For same image of a way appears in the Greck for “inthe fact is so that." if we be dead with Him (the Greek crease" (Note, v. 16. The opposite to "rightly handaorist tense implies a state once for all entered into ling." or "dispensing" is, 2 Corinthians, 2. 17, “corrupt in past times at the moment of regeneration, Romans, the word of God. truth-Greek, the truth" (cf. o. 18 6. 3, 4, 8; Colossians, 2. 12), we shall also live with 16. shan-lit., "stand above," separate from, and saHim." The symmetrical form of "the saying." ». 11-13.perior to. vain-opposed to "the truth" (e. 15). baband the rhythmical balance of the parallel clauses. blings-with loud voice : opposed to the temperate make it likely, they formed part of a church bymn" word” (Titus, 3. 9). increase-Greek, "advance, lit.. (Note, 1 Timothy, 3. 16), or accepted formula, perhaps "strike forward an image from pioneers cutting first uttered by some of the Christian " prophets" in away all obstacles before an advancing army. They the public assembly (1 Corinthians, 14. 26). The phrase pretend progress; the only kind of progress they make " faithful is the saying," which seems to have been the is to a greater pitch of impiety. more ungodlinessusual formula (cf. 1. Timothy. 1. 15:31: 4. 9: Titus, | Greek, "a greater degree of impiety." 17. will eai-il. 3. 8) in such cases, favours this. 12. suffer-rather, as "will have pasture." The consuming progress of the Greek is the same as in v. 10, "If we endure (with mortification is the image. They pretend to give rich Him," &c. (Romans, 8. 17), reign with him-The pecu- spiritual pasture to their disciples: the only pasture liar privilege of the elect church now suffering with is that of a spiritual cancer feeding on their vitals. Christ, then to reign with Him (Note, 1 Corinthians, 6.2. canker-- cancer or gangrene. Hymeneus - otka Reigning is something more than mere salvation Ro- 1 Timothy, 1. 20.) After his excommunication he seems mans, 6. 17: Revelation, 3. 21; 6. 10: 20. 4, 6). deny to have been re-adniitted into the church and acain to with the mouth. As "believe" with the heart follows, have troubled it 18. erred--Greek, “missed the aim 0. 12. Cf. the opposite, "confess with thy mouth'' and Note, 1 Timothy, 6. 21). is past already-has already ** believe in thine heart” (Romans, 10. 9, 10, he also taken place. The beginnings of the subsequent Guostac will deny ne-(Matthew, 10. 33.) 13. believe not-" If we heresy already existed. They "wrested” (2 Peter, 8. 16 are unbelievers (lit., unfaithful), He remains faith | Paul's own words (Romans, 6. 4; Ephesians, 2. 6: Colosful" (Deuteronomy, 7. 9, 10). The oldest MSS. read, sians, 2. 12)," to their own destruction," as though the * For He cannot fit is an impossibility that He should resurrection was merely the spiritual raising of sous deny Himself." He cannot be unfaitbful to His word from the death of sin. C. 1 Corinthians, 15. 12, where that He will deny those who deny Him, though we be he shows all our hopes of future glory rest on the litera! not faithful to our profession of faith in Him (Romans. | reality of the resurrection. To believe it past is the 3. 3). Three things are impossible to God, to die, to Seleucians or Hermians did, according to AUGC lie, and to be deceived (AUGUSTINE, Symbolism ad TINE, Ep. 119. 68, ad Januarium, sec. 4.), is to deny it Catechumenos, 1. 1.) (Hebrews, 6. 18). This impossi in its true sense. overthrow-trying to subvert "the bility is not one of infirmity, but of infinito power and | foundation" on which alone faith can rest secure ir.. majesty. Also, indirectly, comfort is suggested to be cf. Titus, 1. 11). 19. Nevertheless-Notwithstandung lievers, that He is faithful to His promises to them; at subversion of their faith, "the firm foundation of God the same time that apostates are shaken out of their standeth" fast (so the Greek ought to be translata. self-deceiving fancy, that because they change, Christ The "foundation" here is "the church" (ALFORDI similarly may change. A warning to Timothy to be the ground” or basement support of the truth stedfast in the faith, 14. them-those over whom thou l (1 Timothy, 3. 16), Christ Himself being the ultimate dost preside (Titus, 3. 1). charging-Greek, "testifying 1 " foundation" (1 Corinthians, 3. 11). In the stecktast continually:" "adjuring them." before the Lord- standing of the church there is involved the stedias (1 Timothy. 6. 21.) that they strive not about words- I certainty of the doctrine in question (v. 18). Thus the rather, "strive with words:" "not to have a mere "house" (v. 20) answers to the foundation" it is made war of words 0, 23, 24; 1 Timothy, 6. 4) where the most / up of the elect whom "the Lord knoweth" (acknow vital matters are at stake (v. 17, 18; Acts, 18. 15). The ledgeth, recognises, Psalm 1. 6: Matthew, 7. 93: Joba. oldest MSS. put a stop at "charging them before the | 10. 14:1 Corinthians, 8. 3) as "His," and wbo persevere Lord" (which clanse is thus connected with "put them to the end, though others "err concerning the faith in remembrance") and read the imperative,“ Strive nct Matthew, 21, 21; John, 10, 28; Romans, 10. 38, 39: Joon. What to Flee


and What to Follovo. 2. 19). BENGEL takes the foundation" to be the im- | church in general. youthful-Timothy was a youth moveable faithfulness of God (to His promises to His (1 Timothy, 4. 12). righteousness-The opposite of elect CALVIN]). This contrasts well with the erring / "iniquity." é.e., unrighteousness (v. 19: cf.1 Timothy. from the faith on the part of the reprobate, t. 18. / 6. 11). peace, with-rather put no comma, "peace with Though they deny the faith, God abates not His faith-them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart" fulness (cf.v.13), having-seeing that it has. (ELLICOTT.) (1 Timothy, 1, 5; Ephesians, 6. 5; Colossians, 3. 22). seal-inscription: indicating ownership and destination; We are to love all men, but it is not possible to be at inscriptions were often engraven on a "foundation" peace with all men, for this peeds community of purstone (Revelation, 21. 14). (ALFORD.] This will agree | pose and opinion; they alone who call on the Lord sinwith the view that "the foundation" is the church cerely (as contrasted with the false teachers who had (Ephesians, 2. 20). If it be taken God's immoveable only the form of godliness, ch. 3, 6, 8; Titus, 1. 15, 16) faithfulness, the "seal" will be regarded as attached have this community (THEODORET) (Romans, 12. 18). to His covenant promise, with the inscription or legend, 1 23. (Titus, 3. 9.) unlearned-Greek, "undisciplined :" on one side of its round surface,“ The Lord knoweth (it not tending to promote the discipline of faith and is knew' in LXX., Numbers, 16. 5, to which Paul here | morals (Proverbs, 5. 23). "Uninstructive:" in contrast alludes, altering it for his purpose by the Spirit) them with "instructing" 10. 26), and "wise unto salvation" that are His; on the obverse side, “Let every one that ch. 3. 15). avoid " decline." 24. not strive - "The nameth (as His Lord, Psalm 20. 7, or preacheth in His servant of the Lord" inust imitate his master in not name, Jeremiah, 20. 9) Christ." &c. depart-Greek, I striving contentiously, though uncompromising in ear"stand aloof." from iniquity-Isaiah, 62. 11.) In botb nestly contending for the faith (Jude, 3; Matthew, clauses there may be an allusion to Numbers, 16. 5, 26. 12. 19). gentle un to all men--"patient" (

Greek, " patient LXX. God's part and man's part are marked out. in bearing wrongs") in respect to adversaries. He is to God chooseth and knoweth His elect; our part is to be- be gentle so that he may occasion no evils; patient so lieve, and by the Spirit depart from all iniquity, an that he may endure evils. apt to teach-Implying not unequivocal proof of our being the Lord's (cf. Deuter- only solid teaching and ease in teaching, but patience onomy, 29, 29; Luke, 13. 23-27). St. Lucian when asked and assiduity in it. (BENGEL.) 25. instructing-Greek, by his persecutors, "Or what country art thout re- disciplining," instructing with correction, which those plied, "I am a Christian." "What is your occupation. who deal in "uninstructire" or " undisciplined Ques"I am a Christian." "Of what family!" "I am a tions" need (Notes, v. 23; 1 Timothy, 1. 20). those that Christian." (CHRYSOSTOM Orationes, 76.) He cannot oppose themselves-Greek, "oppositely affected :" those be honoured with the narne Christian, who dishonours, 1 of a different opinion. if...peradventure--Greek, "if at by iniquity, Christ, the Author of the name. Blan- any time." repentance-which they need as antecedent dina's refreshment amidst her torures was to say, "1 to the full knowledge (so the Greek for "acknowledgam & Christian, and with us Christians no evil is ment") of the truth (1 Timothy, 2. 4), their minds being done." (EUSEBIUS, Ecclesiastical History, 6.1.) Apostasy corrupted (ch, 3. 8), and their lives immoral. The cause from the faith is sure soon to be followed by indul of the spiritual ignorance which prompts such "quesgence in iniquity. It was so with the false teachers tions" is moral, having its seat in the will, not in the

ch. 3. 2-8, 13). 20. in a great house-i.e., the visible pro intellect (John, 7, 17). Therefore repentance is their fessing Christian church (1 Timothy, 3. 15). Paul is first need. That, not man, but God alone can "give" speaking, not of those without, but of the (visible] (Acts, 6. 31). 26. recover themselves-Greek, "awake family of God. (CALVIN.) So the parable of the up to soberness," viz., from the spiritual intoxication sweep net (Matthew. 13. 47-49) gathering together of whereby they have fallen into the snare of the devil. every kind, good and bad : as the good and bad cannot the share-(Ephesians, 6. 11, "the wiles of the devil;" be distinguished whilst under the waves, but only 1 Timothy. 3. 7; 6. 9.) taken captive by him at his will when brought to shore, so believers and unbelievers -so as to follow the will of "THAT" (the Greek emphaticontinue in the same church, until the judgment makes cally marks Satan thus) foe. However, different Greek the everlasting distinction. "The ark of Noah is a type I propouns stand for "him" and " his;" and the Greek of the church; as in the former there were together the for "taken captive" means not "captivated for destrucleopard and the kid, the wolf and the lamb ; so in the tion," but " for being saved alive," as in Luke, 6. 10, latter, the righteous and sinners, vessels of gold and "Thou shalt catch men to save them unto life;" also silver, with vessels of wood and earth" (JEROME.contra there is no article before the Greek participle, which the Luciferianos, 302) (cf. Matthew, 20. 16). vessels of gold | English Version "who are taken captive," would re...silver-precious and able to endure fire. of wood and quire. Therefore translate, " That they may awake," earth-worthless, fragile, and soon burnt (1 Corinthians, &c., taken as saved (and willing) captives by him (the 3. 12-15; 16. 47). some...some--the former...the latter. to servant of the Lord, v. 24). so as to follow the will of disponour--(Proverbs, 16. 4; Romans, 9, 17-23.) 21. Ifa HIM (the Lord, v. 24, or "God," v. 25). There are here man...purge himself from these-The Greek expresses two evils, "the "snare" and sleep, from which they "If one (ex. gr., thou, Timothy) purify himself (so as I are delivered : and two goods to which they are transto separate from among these" (vessels unto dishonour. Ilated, awaking and deliverance. Instead of Satau's sanctified-Set apart as wholly consecrated to the Lord. thrall comes the free and willing captivity of obedience and meet-Some oldest MSS. omit "and." the master I to Christ (2 Corinthians, 10. 5). It is God who goes -Ti., of "the house." the Lord. Paul himself was before, giving repentance (v. 25); then the work of His sucb a vessel: once one among those of earth, but after servant following is sure to be crowned with success, wards he became by grace one of gold. prepared unto leading the convert henceforth to "live to the will every good work-(ch. 3. 17; Titus, 3. 1.) Contrast of God" (Acts, 22. 14; 1 Peter, 4. 2). Titus, 1. 16. 22. also Greek, "But:" in contrast to

CHAPTER III. "every good work," 0. 21. flee-There are many lusts | Ver. 1-17. COMING EVIL DAYS: SIGNS OF EVIL from which our greatest safety is in flight (Genesis. ALREADY: CONTRAST IN THE DOCTRINE AND LIFE 39. 12). Avoid occasions of sin. From the abstemious OF PAUL, WHICH TIMOTHY SHOULD FOLLOW, IN ACcharacter of Timothy (1 Timotby, 6. 23) it is likely CORDANCE WITH HIS EARLY TRAINING IN SCRIPthat not animal indulgences, but the impetuosity, rash | TURE. 1. also-Greek, “but." last days-preceding self-confidence, hastiness, strife, and vain glory of Christ's second coming (2 Peter, 3. 3; Jude, 18). "The young men (1 John, 2. 14-16), are what he is here latter times," 1 Timothy, 4.1, refer to a period not so warned against: though the Spirit probably intended remote as "the last days," viz., the long days of Papal toe warning to include both in its application to the and Greek anti-Christianity, perilous- lit., "difficult

Coming Evil Days:


Signs of Evil Already. times." in which it is difficult to know what is to be English Version 'increase' upto more ungodliness." done: "grievous times." shall come-Greek, "shall be yet there is a final limit beyond whicb they shall not imminent; "shall come unexpectedly." (BENGEL) 2. be able to proceed further” (Job. 38. 11; Revelation, then-in the professing church. C. the catalogue, Ro- 11, 7, 11). They themselves shall “war worse and mans, 1. 29, &c., where much the same sins are attri- l worse" (v. 13), but they shall at last be for ever prebuted to heathen men, it shall be a relapse into virtual vented from seducing others. "Often malice proceeds heathendom. with all its beast-like propensities, I deeper down, when it cannot extend itself." [BENOEL whence the symbol of it is "a beast" (Revelation, 13. 1, | their folly-lit.." dementation:" rise though they think 11, 12, &c. : 17, 3, 8, 11). covetous-translate, *money themselves. shall be manifest-Greek, "sball be loving." a distinct Greek word from that for "covet- brought forth from concealment into open day" ous" (Note, Colossians, 3. 6). The cogoste Greek sub (BENGEL) (1 Corinthians, 4. 5). as theirs...was-as that stantive (1 Timothy, 6. 10) is so translated, "the lore of those magicians was, when not only could they no of money is a (Greek, not“ the root of all evil." boasters longer try to rival Moses in sending boils, but the boils -empty boasters (ALFORD): boasting of having what fell upon themselves: so as to the lice (Exodus, 8. 18: they have not. proud-overweening:lit., showing them-9. 11). 10. fally kuowa-lit.,"fully followed up and selves above their fellows. blasphemers-rather,“ evil traced, viz., with a view to following me as thy patspeakers," revilers. disobedient to parents-The charactern, so far as I follow Christ; the same Greek as Luke, ter of the times is even to be gathered especially from 1 1. 3, "having had perfect understanding of all things." the manners of the young. (BENG UL.) unthankful His pious mother Lois, and grandmother Eunice, The obligation to gratitude is next to that of obedience would recommend him to study fully Paul's Christian to parents. unholy-irreligious (ALFORD); inobservant course as & pattern. He had not been yet the comof the offices of piety, 3. truce-breakers-rather as the panion of Paul at the time of the apostle's persecutious Greek is translated Romans, 1, 31, "implacable." false in Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra (Acts, 13. 50; 14. 5, 19. accusers-slanderers (1 Timothy, 3. 11; Titus, 2. 3), in- but is first mentioned as such Acts, 16. 1-3. However, continent, fierce-at once both soft and hard: incontin- he was "a disciple already, when introduced to us in ently indulging themselves, and inhuman to others. Acts, 16. 1-3; and as Paul calls him " my own son in despisers, &c.-"no lovers of good" (ALFORD]: the op the faith," he must have been converted by the apostle posite of "a lover of good" (Titus, 1. 8). 4. beady-pre- previously : perhaps in the visit to those parts three cipitate in action and in passion. high-minded-lit, years before. Hence arose Timothy's knowledge of ** putfed up" with pride, as with smoke blinding them. | Paul's persecutions, which were the common talk of lovers of pleasure... God-Love of pleasure destroys the the churches in those regions about the time of his con. love and sense of God. 5. form-outward semblance. version. The incidental allusion to them here forms godliness--piety. denying-rather as Greek, "having an undesigned coincidence between the history and the denied," i.e., renounced. the power--the living regene- epistle indicating genuineness. (PALEY'S Horae Paul rating, sanctifying influence of it. turn away-implying inc.) A forger of epistles from the Acts would never that some of such characters, forerunners of the last allude to Timothy's knowledge of persecutions, when days, were already in the church. 6. of this sort-Greek, I that knowledge is not expressly mentioned in the his"of these, such as were described (v. 5). creep into tory, but is only arrived at by indirect inference; also stealthily. laden with sing-(Isaiah,1.4)-applying to the the omission of Derbe here, in the epistle, is in mi"silly women" whose consciences are burdened with nute accordance with the fact that in Derbe no perse sins, and so are & ready prey to the false teachers cution is mentioned in the history, though Derbe Ged who promise ease of conscience if they will follow them. | Lystra are commonly mentioned together. The reason A bad conscience leads easily to shipwreck of faith why he mentions his persecutions before Timothy be(1 Timothy, 1. 19). divers lusts-not only animal lusts, came his companion, and not those subsequent, was but passion for change in doctrine and manner of because Timothy was familiar with the latter as an teaching; the running after fashionable men and fash-eye-witness, and Paul needed not to remind him of onable tenets, drawing them in the most opposite direc-them, but the former Timothy had traced up by seeking tions. (ALFORD.) 7. Ever learning-some new point, the information from others, especially as the date and for mere curiosity to the disparagement of what they scene of them was the date and scene of his own converseemed to know before, the knowledge-Greek," the sion. doctrine- teaching." manner of life--"conduct, perfect knowledge." the only safeguard against further "behaviour." purpose The Greek is elsewhere usually novelties. Gnosticism laid hold especially of the used of God's "purpose." But here, as in Acts, IL. 22 female sex (IRENÆUS, 1, 13. 3.): so Roman Jesuitism, of Paul's determined "purpose of heart in clearing 8. Now-Greek, " But;' it is no wonder there should be unto the Lord." My set aim, or resolution, in its now such opponents to the truth, for their prototypes apostolic function, and in every action is, not my self existed in ancient times. (ALFORD.) JanDes...Jambres ish gain, but the glory of God in Christ. long-sufering

Traditional names of the Egyptian magicians who towards my adversaries, and the false teachers; resisted Moses (Exodus, 7, 11, 22), derived from "the wards brethren in bearing their infirmities; towards the unwritten teaching of the Jews." (THEODORET.) In a unconverted, and the lapsed when penitent (ch. 4 point so immaterial as the names, where Scripture had 2 Corinthians, 6. 6; Galatians, 6. 22; Ephesians, 4. 2; Conot recorded them, Paul takes the names which general lossians, 3. 12). cbarity-love to all men. Patienceopinion had assigned the magicians. EUSEBIUS, Pra "endurance:" patient continuance in well-doing amids! paratio Evangelica, quotes from Numenins, “Jadnes | adversities (v. 11: Romans, 2. 7). 11. afilictions-"sader and Jambres were sacred scribes a lower order of priests | ings." which-Greek, "such as." in Antioch-of Pisidia in Egypt) skilled in magic." HILLER interprets Jannes (Acts, 13. 14, 60, 61). Iconinm-(Aets, 14. 1-5) Igstra from the Abyssinian language a trickster, and Jambres -(Acts, 14. 6, 19.) what-How grievous, out of... al. a juggler (Acts, 13, 8). resist-" withstand," as before. Lord delivered me-(ch. 4. 17; Psalm 31. 17: 2 Corinthians, They did so by trying to rival Moses" miracles. So the | 1. 10.) An encouragement to Timothy not to fear per false teachers shall exhibit lying wonders in the last secutions. 12. Yea, and-An additional consideratios days (Matthew, 24. 24; 2 Thessalonians, 2.9: Revelation, | for Timothy: if he wishes to lire godly in Christ, he 13. 14, 16). reprobate-incapable of testing the truth must make up his mind to encounter persecution, that (Romans, 1. 28). [BENGEL ) ALFORD takes passively, will-Greek, "all whose will is to live," &c. So far ** not abiding the test, rejected on being tested (Jere- should persecution be from being a stumblingblock to miah, 6. 90) 9. they shall proceed no further--though Timothy, he should consider it a mark of the pious. So for a time ich. 2. 16) "they shall advance or proceed the same Gieek is used of the same thips. Luke 14, 25, S.

* intending Greekin in Christ-(Galatians.


biously) with English the same time not harsa: Most of the


the "godly lo med / But this wonlome Scripture also useful," wol

Paul Appeals to Timothy's


Knowledge of his life. * intending Greek, wishing) to build a tower...counteth the other must be so too. ALFORD admits his transthe cost live godly in Christ-(Galatians,' 2. 20; Philip-lation to be harsh. though legitimate. It is better pians. 1. 21.) There is no godliness Grecke." piously") | with English Version to take it in a construction legiti. or piety out of Christ. The world easily puts up with | mate, and at the same time not harsh. The Greek, the mask of a religion which depends on itself, but the 1 "God-inspired," is found nowhere else. Most of the piety which derives its vigour directly from Christ is New Testament books were written when Paul wrote as odious to modern Christians as it was to the an this his latest epistle : so he includes in the clause, cient Jews. (BENGEL) shall suffer persecution-and “All Scripture is God-inspired," not only the Old will pot decline it (Galatians, 6. 11). BISHOP PEARSON | Testament, in which alone Timothy was taught when a proves the divine origination of Christianity from its child (v. 15), but the New Testament books according success being inexplicable on the supposition of its as they were recognised in the churches which had being of human origin. The nature of its doctrine was men gifted with "discerning of spirits." and so able to no way likely to command success: (1) it condemned distinguish really inspired utterances, persons, and so all other relizions, some established for ages; (2) it their writings, from spurious. St. Paul means, "All enjoins precepts ungrateful to flesh and blood, the scripture is God inspired and therefore useful." because mortifying of the flesh, the love of enemies, and the we see no utility in any words or portion of it, it does bearing of the cross ; (3) it enforces these seemingly not follow it is not God-inspired. It is useful, because unreasonable precepts by promises seemingly incredi- God inspired, not God-inspired, because useful. One ble; not good things such as afford complacency to reason for the article not being before the Greek, our senses, but such as cannot be obtained till after "Scripture," may be that, if it bad, it might be supthis life, and presuppose what then seemed impossible, posed that it limited the sense to the hiera grammata, the resurrection; (1) it predicts to its followers what" Holy Scriptures" (v.16) of the Old Testament, whereas would seem sure to keep most of the world from em here the assertion is more general: "all Scripture bracing it, persecutions. 13. Reason why persecutions (cf. Greek, 2 Peter, 1. 20). The translation,"all Scripmust be expected, and these becoming worse and worse ture that is God-inspired is also useful," would imply As the end approaches. The breach between light and that there is some Scripture which is not God-inspired. darkness, so far froin being healed, shall be widened.But this would exclude the appropriated sense of the (ALFORD.) evil men-in contrast to the "godly" (v. 12). word "Scripture," and who would need to be seducers-lit., "conjurors." Magical arts prevailed at that "all divine Scripture is useful" ("profitable") ? Ephesus (Acts, 19. 19), and had been renounced by many Hebrews, 4. 13, would, in ALFORD's view, have to be Ephesians on embracing Christianity; but now when rendered, "All naked things are also open to the eyes of Paul was writing to Ephesus, symptoms of a return Him," &c. : so also 1 Timothy, 4. 4, which would be to conjuring tricks appeared : an undesigned coinci- absurd. (TREG ELLES on Daniel.) KNAPP well defines dence. [BURTon.) Probably sorcery will characterise | inspiration, "An extraordinary divine agency upon the final apostasy (Revelation, 13. 15; 18. 23; 22. 15). wax teachers whilst giving instruction, whether oral or worse-lit.. "advance in the direction of worse" (Note, written, by which they were taught how and what 1. 9). Not contradictory to that verse: there the diffu- they should speak or write" (cf. 2 Samuel, 23. 1; Acts, sion of the evil was spoken of; here its intensity.

4. 25; 2 Peter, 1. 21). The inspiration gives the (ALFORD.) deceiving, and being deceived-He who has Divine sanction to all the words of Scripture, thougli once begun to deceive others, is the less easily able | those words be the utterances of the individual writer, to recover himself from error, and the more easily and only in special cases revealed directly by God embraces in turn the errors of others. (BENGEL.] 14. (1 Corinthians, 2. 13). Inspiration is here predicated of But...thou-Whatever they may do. Resuming the the writings, "all Scripture," not of the persons. The thread begun ato. 10. learned-from me and thy mother question is not how God has done it; it is as to the and grandmother (ch. 1. 6; 2. 2). assured of-from Scrip. | word, not the men who wrote it. What we must beture (v. 15). of whom-plural, not singular, in the lieve is that He has done it, and that all the sacred oldest MSS., "from what teachers." Not only from writings are every where inspired, though not all alike me, but from Lois and Eunice. 15. from a child-lit.. matter of special revelation; and that even the very * from an infant." The tender age of the first dawn of words are stamped with Divine sanction, as Jesus used reason is that wherein the most lasting impressions of thom lex. gr., in the temptation, and John, 10. 34, 35). faith may be made. holy scriptures-The Old Testa for deciding all questions of doctrine and practice. Inent taught by his Jewess mother. An undesigned There are degrees of revelation in Scripture, but not of coincidence with ch, 1.5; Acts, 16, 1-3. able-in them. inspiration. The sacred writers did not even always selves: though through men's own fault they often do kuow the full significancy of their own God-inspired not in fact make men savingly alive. wise unto salva words (1 Peter, 1. 10, 11, 12). Verbal inspiration does not tion-1.c., wise unto the attainment of salvation. Con mean mechanical dictation, but "all Scripture is (so) in. trast * folly" (v. 9). Wise also in extending it to spired by God," that every thing in it, its narratives, others, through faith-as the instrument of this wis-prophecies, citations, the whole-ideas, phrases, and dom. Each knows divine things only as far as his own words--are such as He saw fit to be there. The present experience in himself extends. He who has not faith, condition of the text is no ground for concluding has not wisdom or salvation, which is in-ie., rests on against the original text being inspired, but is a reason Christ Jesus, 16. All Scripture-Greek, "Every Scrip-why we should use all critical diligence to restore the ture," i.e., Scripture in its every part. However, English original inspired text. Again, inspiration may be acVersion is sustained, though the Greek article be want companied by revelation or not, but it is as much ing, by the technical use of the term "Scripture" being needed for writing known doctrines or facts authori. so notorious as not to need the article (cf. Greek, Ephe- tatively, as for communicating new truths. (TREsians, 3. 15; 2. 21), The Greek is never used of writings GELLES.) The omission here of the substantive verb in general, but only of the sacred Scriptures. The posi- is, I think, desigued to mark that, not only the Scription of the two Greek adjectives closely united by ture then existing, but what was still to be written till "and, forbids our taking the one as an epithet, the the canon should be completed, is included as Godother as predicated and translated as ALFORD and inspired. The Old Testament law was the school. ELLICOTT, "Every Scripture given by inspiration of master to bring us to Christ; so it is appropriately said God is also profitable," Vulgate in the best MSS.. I to be able to make wise unto salvation through faith favours English Version. Clearly the adjectives are so in Jesus Christ:" the term wisdom being appropriated closely connected, that as surely as one is a predicate, / to a knowledge of the relations between the Old and

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