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Various Classes of Belierers. much stress on the contracting of abomination from himself, so "uncorruptness" though, doubtless, unoutward things (cf. Leviticus, 11. 10-13; Romans, 2. 22). corruptness of the doctrine will be sure to follow as a disobedient-to God (ch. 3. 3; Ephesians. 2. 2; 5. 6), re consequence of the Christian minister being of simple. probate-rejected as worthless when tested (Notes, Ro uncorruptintegrity himself. gravity-dignified seriousmans, 1. 28; 1 Corinthians, 9. 27; 2 Timothy, 3. 8). ness in setting forth the truth. sincerity--Omitted in CHAPTER II.

the oldest MSS. 8. speech-discourse in public and Ver. 1-16. DIRECTIONS TO TITUS: How to Ex private ministrations. he that is of the contrary part HORT VARIOUS CLASSES OF BELIEVERS: THE GRACE - the adversary (ch. 1. 9: 2 Timothy, 2. 25), whether he OF GOD IN CHRIST OUR GRAND INCENTIVE TO LIVE be heathen or Jew, may be ashamed-put to confusion GODLY. 1. But...thop-in contrast to the reprobate by the power of truth and innocence (cf. v. 6, 10; seducers stigmatized ch. 1. 11, 16, 16. "He deals more 1 Timothy, 6. 14; 6. 1). Do evil thing-in our acts, or in exhortations, because those intent on useless ques demeanour of you--So one of the oldest MSS. Other tions needed chiefly to be recalled to the study of a very old MSS. read, "of us," Christians. 9. servantsholy, moral life; for nothing so effectually allays men's "slaves." to piease the well-"to give satisfaction." wandering curiosity, as the being brought to recognise (ALFORD.) To be complaisant in every thing: to have those duties in which they ought to exercise them- | that zealous desire to gain the master's good will which selves." (CALVIN.) speak-without restraint: contrast will anticipate the master's wish, and do even more ch. 1. 11, "mouths...stopped," doctrine-"instruction | than is required. The reason for the frequent recuror teaching." 2. sober-translated "vigilant," as sober | rence of injunctions to slaves to subjection (Ephesians, men alone can be, 1 Timothy. 3. 2. But "sober" here 6.6, &c.; Colossians, 3. 22; 1 Timothy, 6.1, &c.; 1 Peter, answers to “not given to wine," v. 3; ch. 1. 7. grave 2. 18) was, that in no rank was there more danger of the - "dignified:" bebaving with reverent propriety. doctrine of the spiritual equality and freedom of temperate-"self-restrained" "discreet" (ALFORD.) | Christians being misunderstood, than in that of slaves. (ch. 1. 8; 1 Timothy, 2. 9). faith ... charity ( love ) ... It was natural for the slave who had become a Chrispatience--combined in 1 Timothy, 6. 11. "Faith, hope, tian, to forget his place and put himself on a social level charity" (1 Corinthians, 13. 13). "Patience," Greek, with his master. Hence the charge for each to abide in ** enduring perseverance," is the attendant on, and is the sphere in which he was when converted (1 Corinsupported by "hope" (1 Corinthians, 13. 7; 1 Thessalo thians, 7. 20-24). not answering again-in contradiction pians, 1. 3). It is the graee which especially becomes to the master : so the Greek, "not contradicting." old men, being the fruit of ripened experience derived (WAHL) 10. Not purloining-Greek, "Not appropriatfrom trials overcome (Romans, 6.3). 3. behaviour-"de ing" what does not belong to one. It means "keeping portment.' as becometh holiness -"as becometh wo-back" dishonestly or deceitfully (Acts, 6, 2, 3). showmen consecrated to God" (WAHL): being by our Chris. | ing-manifesting in acts. all-all possible, good-really tian calling priestesses unto God (Ephesians, 5. 3; good; not so in mere appearance (Ephesians, 6. 6, 6; 1 Timothy, 2. 10). "Observant of sacred decorum." Colossians. 3. 22-24). "The heathen do not judge of the (BENG EL.) not false accusors-not slanderers: a beset Christian's doctrines from the doctrine, but from his ting sin of some elderly women, given to much wine- actions and life." (CHRYSOSTOM.) Men will write, the besetting sin of the Cretians (ch. 1. 12). Lit. I fight, and even die for their religion; but how few live

enslaved to much wine." Addiction to wine is slavery for it! Translate, “That they may adorn the doctrine (Romans, 6. 16; 2 Peter, 2. 19). teachers-in private: not in of our Saviour God," i.e., God the Father, the originatpublic (1 Corinthians, 14. 34; 1 Timothy, 2. 11, 12): in ing author of salvation (cf. Note, 1 Timothy, 1. 1). God fluencing for good the younger women by precept and deigns to have His gospel-doctrine adorned even by example. 4. to be sober-Greek,"self-restrained," " dis slaves, who are regarded by the world as no better than creet:" the same Greek as in v. 2, "temperate." But see beasts of burden. "Though the service be rendered to Note; cf. Note, 2 Timothy, 1. 7. ALFORD therefore an earthly master, the honour redounds to God, as the translates," That they school (admonish in their duty servant's good will flows from the fear of God." the young women to be lovers of their husbands," &c. (THEOPHYLACT.) Even slaves, low as is their status,

the foundation of all domestic happiness). It was should not think the influence of their examples matter judicious that Titus, a young man, should admonish the l of no consequence to religion: how much more those in young women, not directly, but through the elder a high position. His love in being "Our Saviour" is women. 5. keepers at home-as "guardians of the I the strongest ground for our adorning His doctrine by house," as the Greek expresses. The oldest MSS, read, our lives. This is the force of "For" in v. 11. 11. the * Workers at home;" active in household duties (Pro-grace of God-God's gratuitous favour in the scheme of verbs, 7. 11; 1 Timothy, 5. 13). good--kind, beneficent redemption. hath appeared-Greek.“ hath been made to (Matthew, 20. 16: Romans, 5. 7; 1 Peter, 2. 18). Not I appear," or "shine forth" (Isaiah, 9. 2; Luke, 1. 79), churlish and niggardly, whilst thrifty as housewives. "hath been manifested” (ch. 3. 4), after having been obedient-rather, "submissive," as the Greek is trans- long bidden in the loving counsels of God (Colossians, lated, see Notes, Ephesians, 6. 21, 22, 24. their own-11. 26; 2 Timothy, 1. 9, 10). The image is illustrated Acts. marking the duty of subjection which they owe them, I 27. 20. The grace of God hath now been embodied in as being their own husbands (Ephesians, 6. 22; Colos. | Jesus," the brightness of the Father's glory." manifested sians, 3. 18). biasphemed-evil spoken of." That no l as the sun of righteousness," "the Word made flesh." reproach may be cast on the gospel, through the in-The gospel dispensation is hence termed "the day" consistencies of its professors (0.8. 10; Romans, 2. 24; 1 (1 Thessalonians, 6. 5, 8; there is a double "appearing." 1 Timothy, 6, 14; 6.1). "Unless we are virtuous, blas- that of "grace" here, that of "glory." v. 13; cf. Romans, pbemy will come through us to the faith." (THEO- 13. 12). Connect it not as English Version, but, "The PHYLACT.) 6. Young-Greek, "The younger men." grace...that bringeth salvation to all men hath apsooer minded-sell-restrained. (ALFORD.) "Nothing is peared," or "been manifested" (1 Timothy, 2. 4; 4. 10). so hard at this age as to overcome pleasures and follies." Hence God is called “Our Saviour" (v. 10). The very LCHRYSOSTOM.) 7. In-With respect to all things. thy-name Jesus means the same. to all--of whom he self a pattern-though but a young man thyself. All I enumerated the different classes (v. 3-0): even to serteaching is useless, unless the teacher's example con- vants; to us Gentiles once aliens from God. Hence firm his word. in doctrine-in thy ministerial teaching arises our obligation to all men (ch, 3. 2. 12. Teach(showing) uncorruptness. i.e., untainted purity of ling-Greek, “disciplining us." Graco exercises discimotive on thy part (cf. 2 Corinthians, 11. 3), so as to be pline, and is imparted in connexion with disciplining **s pattern" to all. As "gravity," &c., refers to Titus chastisements (1 Corinthians, 11. 32; Hebrews, 12.6, 7).

What the Gospel's Teaching is.


Hon to Rebule, The education which the Christian receives from the share in it. Even the Socinian explanation, making grace of God" is a discipline often trying to flesh and "the great God" to be the Father. "Our Saviour," the blood: just as children need disciplining. The disci. Son, places God and Christ on an equal relation to pline which it exercises teaches us to deny ungodliness "the glory" of the fature appearing: a fact incompatible and worldly lusts, and to live soberly. righteously, and with the notion that Christ is not Divine; indeed it godly, in this present world (Greek, age, or course of would be blasphemy so to couple say mere created things) where such self-discipline is needed, seeing that being with God. 14. gave himself-" The forcible its spirit is opposed to God (ch. 1. 12, 16: 1 Corinthians, l'Himself. His whole self, the greatest gift ever given, 1, 20; 3. 18, 19,: in the coming world we may gratify must not be overlooked." for as-Greck." in our beball." every desire without need of self-discipline, because redeem us- deliver us from bondage by paying the prio all desires there will be conformable to the will of God. of His precious blood. An appropriate image in adthat-Greek, " in order that:" the end of the " disciplin- dressing bond servants (v. 9, 10). from all iniquity-the ing" is " in order that...we may live soberly." &c. This essence of sin, riz.. "transgression of the law. in point is lost by the translation, "teaching us." denying bondage to which we were till then. The aim of Elis ...lasts-(Luke, 9. 23.) The Greek aorist expresses redemption was to redeem us, not merely from the "denying once for all." We deny them when we withI penalty, but from the being of all iniquity. Thus he hold our consent from them, when we refuse the delight reverts to the "teaching" in righteousness, or disciwhich they suggest, and the act to which they solicit plining effect of the grace of God that bringeth salvation us, nay, tear them up by the roots out of our soul and iv. 11, 12). peculiar-peculiarly His onon, as Israel w25 mind. (ST. BERNARD, Serm. 11.) worldly laste-The of old. zealous-in doing and promoting good works. Greek article expresses, "the lusts of the world," "all | 15. with all anthority-translate, "authoritativeness worldly lusts" (ALFORD) (Galatians, 6. 16; Ephesians, I (cf." sharply." ch. 1. 13). Let no man despise thee-Speak 2. 3; 1 John, 2. 15-17; 6. 19. The world (cosmos) will with such vigour as to command respect (1 Timothy. not come to an end when this present age aon) or 4. 12). Warn them with such authority that no one course of things shall end. live soberly, righteous y, and may think himself above (so the Greek li2.) the need of godly-the positive side of the Christian character: as admonition. (TITTMANN, Synonyms of New Testamenl. "denying...lusts" was the negative. "Soberly." i.e..

CHAPTER III. with self-restraint, in relation to one's sell: "right Ver. 1-16. WHAT TITUS IS TO TEACH CONCERNING eously" or justly, in relation to our neighbour; "godly" CHRISTIANS BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS THE WORLD: or piously, in relation to God (not merely amiably and | How BE IS TO TREAT HERETICS: WIEX AND WHERE justly, but something higher, godly, with love and HE IS TO MEET PAUI.. SALUTATION. CONCLUSION. reverence toward God. These three comprise our 1. Put them in mind -as they are in danger of forgetting "disciplining" in faith and love, from which he passes their duty, though knowing it. The opposition of to hope (v. 13). 13. Philippians, 3. 20. 21.) Looking | Christianity to heathenism, and the natural disposition for-with constant expectation so the Greek) and witbl to rebellion of the Jews under the Roman empire lol joy (Romans, 8. 19). This will prove the antidote to whom many lived in Crete), might lead many to forget worldly lusts, and the stimulus to live in this present practically what was a recognised Christian principle world" conformably to this expectation. The Greek is in theory, submission to the powers that be. Diodorus translated "waiting for" in Luke, 2. 25. that-Greek, I Siculus mentions the tendency of the Cretians to

the." blessed-bringing blessedness (Romans, 4. 7, 8). riotous insubordination, principalities...powers-Greck, hopei.e., object of hope (Romans, 8. 24; Galatians, 6. 5; / "magistracies...authorities." to be subject-willingin Colossians, 1. 5). the glorious appearing-There is but I (so the Greek). to obey-the commands of " magistrates one Greek article to both "hope" and "appearing." | not necessarily implying spontaneous obedience. Will which marks their close connexion (the hope being ing obedience is implied in " ready to every good work." about to be realized only at the appearing of Christ). | CY. Romans, 13. 3, as showing that obedience to the Translate, The blessed hope and manifestation (cf. magistracy would tend to good works, since the Note, u. 11) of the glory." The Greek for manifestation" magistrate's aim generally is to favour the good and is translated “brightness" 2 Thessalonians, 2. 8. As punish the bad. Contrast " disobedient" (e. 3). 2. To His "coming" (Greek, parousia) expresses the fact ; so I speak evil of no man-especially, not of "dignities" * brightness, appearing," or "manifestation" (epiph- and magistrates. Do brawlers-"not quarrelsome," not ancia) expresses His personal visibility when He shall attacking others. gentle-towards those who attack us. come. the great God and our Saviour Jesus-There is Yielding, considerate, not urging one's rights to the but one Greek article to "God" and "Saviour," which uttermost, but forbearing and kindly (Note, Philip shows that both are predicated of one and the same pians, 4, 5). Very different from the innate greedince, Being. "Of Him who is at once the great God and our and spirit of aggression towards others which characSaviour." Also. (2.) “appearing" (epiphancia) is dever | terized the Cretians, showing-in acts, all-all possible. by Paul predicated of God the Father (John, 1. 18; / meekness-(Note, 2 Corinthians, 10. 1)--the opposite of 1 Timothy, 6. 16), or even of "His glory" as ALFORD passionate severity. unto all men-The duty of Chrisexplains it): it is invariably applied to CHRIST's com tían conduct towards all men is the proper consequence ing, to which at His first advent, cf. 2 Timothy, 1. 20) of the universality of God's grace to all men, so oftea the kindred verb "appeared" (epephanee), v. 11, refers set forth in the pastoral epistles. 3. For-Our Own (1 Timothy. 6. 14; 2 Timothy, 4, 1, 8). Also, (3.) in the past sins should lead us to be lenient towards those of context (v. 14) there is no reference to the Father, but others. "Despise none, for such wast thon also," as to Christ alone; and here there is no occasion for the penitept thief said to his fellow-thief, "Dost thou reference to the Father in the exigencies of the con- not fear God...seeing that thou art in the same cotext. Also, (4.) the expression "great God," as applied demnation." we-Christians. were-Contrast 8.4 to Christ, is in accordance with the context, which "But when," &c., i.e., now: a favourite contrast in refers to the glory of His appearing: just as "the true Paul's writing, that between our past state by nature, God" is predicated of Christ i John, 6. 20. The phrase and our present state of deliverance from it by grace. occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, but often | As God treated us, we ought to treat our neighbour. in the Old Testa nent. Deuteronomy, 7, 21; 10. 17, pre sometimes-once. foolish-Wanting right reason in our dicated of Jehovah, who, as their manifested Lord, course of living. Irrational. The exact picture of led the Israelites through the wilderness, doubtless the human life without grace. Grace is the sole remets Second Person in the Trinity. Believers now look for even for foolisbness. disobedient-to God. deceivedthe manifestation of His glory, inasmuch as they shall led astray. The same Greek, "out of the way."

Spiritual Effects of Baptism.


Spiritual Effects of Baptism.' Hebrews, 5. 2. serving-Greek." in bondage to," "serv- | instrument. The Word, the instrument to the individing as slaves." divers--the cloyed appetite craves con ual; Baptism, in relation to the Society of Christians. stant variety. pleasureg-of the flesh. malice-malig- The laver of cleansing stood outside the door of the nity. hateful... hating-Correlatives. Provoking the tabernacle, wherein the priest had to wash before enter. hatred of others by their detestable character and ing the Holy Place : so we must wash in the laver of conduct, and in turn hating them. 4. To show how regeneration before we can enter the church, whose little reason the Cretian Christians had to be proud of members are "a royal priesthood." "Baptism by the themselves, and despise others not Christians (Notes, Spirit" (whereof water-baptism is the designed accomV. 2, 3). It is to the "kindness and love of God." not to l panying seal) makes the difference between Christian their own merits, that they owe salvation. kindness baptism and that of John. As Paul presupposes the -Greek, "goodness," "benignity," which manifests | outward church is the visible community of the reHis grace. love...toward man-teaching us to have such deemed, so be speaks of baptism on the supposition "love (benevolence toward man" (Greek, philanthropy). I that it answered to its idea : that all that is inward "showing all meekness unto all men" (v. 2), even as God belonging to its completeness accompanied the onthad " toward man" ch. 2. 11): opposed to the "hateful ward. Hence be here asserts of outward baptism and hating" characteristics of unrenewed men, whose whatever is involved in the helieving appropriation wretchedness moved God's benerolent kindness. of God of the divine facts which it symbolizes, wbatever is our Saviour-Greek, "of our Saviour God," viz., the realized when baptism fully corresponds to its original Father ch. 1. 3), who "saved us" (v. 6) "through Jesus design. So Galatians, 3. 27: language holding good Christ our Saviour" (v. 6). appeared-Greele," was made only of those in whom the inward living communion to appear:" was manifested. 5. Not by-Greek, “Out and outward baptism coalesce. "Saved us" applies of * "not as a result springing from works," &c. of fully to those truly regenerate alone; in a general sense righteousness--Greek, in righteousness," *e., wrought it may include many who, though put within reach of in a state of righteousness: as “deeds...wrought in salvation, sball not finally be saved. "Regeneration" God." There was an utter absence in us of the element occurs only once more in New Testament, Matthew, frighteousness", in which alone righteous works 19. 28, i.e., the new birth of the heaven and earth at could be done, and so necessarily an absence of the Christ's second coming to renew all material things works. "We neither did works of righteousness, nor the human body included, when the creature, now were saved in consequence of thein ; but His goodness travailing in labour-throes to the birth, shall be dedid the whole." (THEOPHYLACT.) ve- Emphatically livered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious opposed to "His." mercy--the prompting cause of our liberty of the children of God. Regeneration, which salvation individually: "In pursuance of His mercy." now begins in the believer's soul, snall then be exHis kindness and love to man were manifested in re-tended to his body, and thence to all creation and demption once for all wrought by Him for mankind renewing-pot "the laver (washing') of renewing." but generaily: His mercy is the prompting cause for our in "and by the renewing." &c., following "saved us." dividual realization of it. Faith is pre-supposed as the To make "renewing of the Holy Ghost* follow "the instrument of our being "saved :" our being so, then.laver," would destroy the balance of the clauses of the is spoken of as an accomplished fact. Faith is nct sentence, and would make baptism the seal, not only mentioned, but only God's part, as Paul's object here of regeneration, but also of the subsequent process of is not to describe man's new state, but the saving progressive sanctification ("renewing of the Holy agency of God in bringing about that state, independent Ghost). Regeneration is a thing once for all done; reof all merit on the man's part (Note, c. 4). bi-Greek, newing is a process daily proceeding. As "the wash**through:" by means of the wasting-rather, "the ing," or "laver," is connected with "regeneration,' so laver," i.e., the baptismal font, or lavatory. of regenera the "renewing of the Holy Ghost" is connected with tion--designed to be the visible instrument of regenera-/shed on us abundantly* (v. 6). 6. Which-the Holy tion. "The apostles are wont to draw an argument Ghost. he shed--Greek, " poured out:" not only on the from the sacraments to prove the thing therein church in general at Pentecost, but also "on us" insignified, because it ought to be a recognised principle dividually. This pouring out of the Spirit comprehends among the godly, that God does not mock us with the grace received before, in, and subsequently to, empty signs, but by His power inwardly makes good | baptism. abundantly-Greek, "richly" (Colossians, 3. 16). what be demonstrates by the outward sign. Wherefore through Jesus Christ-the channel and Mediator of the baptism is congruously and truly called the laver' of gift of the Holy Ghost. our Saviour-immediately: as regeneration. We must connect the sign and thing the Father is mediately "our Saviour." The Father 18 signified, so as not to make the sign empty and ineffec

. 80 as not to make the sign empty and ineffec the Author of our salvation, and saves us by Jesus tual; and yet not, for the sake of honouring the sign, Christ. 7. That, &c.--the purpose which He aimed at to detract from the Holy Spirit what is peculiarly lin having * saved us" (v. 6), viz., "That being (having His" (CALVIN) (1 Peter, 3, 21). Adult candidates for

been) justified (accounted righteous through faith at baptism are presupposed to have had repentance and

our "regeneration,' and made righteous by the daily faith (for Paul often assumes in faith and charity that renewing of the Holy Ghost') by His grace (as opposed those addressed are what they profess to be, though in

to works, v. 5) we should be made heirs." his gracefact some of them were not so, 1 Corinthians, 6. 11), in Greek, “the grace of the former," i.e., God (v. 4; Rowhich case baptism would be the visible "laver of re

mans, 5. 15). heirs-(Galatians, 3. 29.) according to the generation" to them, "faith being thereby confirmed,

hope of eternal life-ch, 1.2, and also the position of the and grace increased, by virtue of prayer to God" (Church Greek words, confirm English Version, i.e., agreeably of England. Article 27). Infants are charitably pre-l to the hope of eternal life: the eternal inheritance wity sumed to have received a grace in connexion with their satisfying the hope. BENGEL, ELLICOTT, &c., explain Christian descent, in answer to the believing prayers of lit. "heirs of eternal life, in the way of hope," 1.6., not their parents or guardians presenting them for baptism, yet in actual possession. Such a blessed hope which which grace is visibly sealed and increased by baptism, once was not possessed, will lead a Christian to " the laver of regeneration." They are presumed to practical holiness and meekness toward others, the be then regenerated, until years of developed con- lesson especially needed by the Cretians. 8. Grcek. scionsness prove whether they have been actually so faithful is the saying." A formula peculiar to the or not. "Born of (from) water and (no 'of' in Greek) pastoral epistles. Here "the saying is the statement the Spirit." The Word is the remote and anterior in-1 1v. 4-7) as to the gratuitousness of God's gift of salvastrument of the new birth; Baptism, the proximate tion. Auswering to the " Amen." these things, &c.

Titus is to Reject Heretics :


Meet Paul at Nicopolis. Greek, “ Concerning these things (the truths dwelt on, send (have sent) Artemas or Tychicag--to supply thy place t. 4-7; not as English Version, what follow, I will that in Crete. Artemas is said to have been subsequently thou affirm (insist) strongly and persistently, in order | bishop of Lystra. Tychicus was sent twice by Paul from that they who have believed God the Greek for believed Rome to Lesser Asia in his first imprisonment, (which in God' is different, John, 14. 1. They who have shows how well qualified he was to become Titus learnt to credit God' in what He saith) may be care- successor in Crete): Ephesians, 6.21; and in his second. ful (* solicitously sedulous; diligence is necessary) to 2 Timothy, 4. 12. Tradition makes him subsequently maintain lit.. to set before themselves so as to sustain') | bishop of Chalcedon, in Bithynia. Nicopolis-"The good works." No longer applying their care to "unpro- | city of victory." called so from the battle of Actium, in fitable" and unpractical speculations (0.9. these things | Epirus. This epistle was probably written from Corinth - These results of doctrine (good works") are "good in the autumn. Paul purposed a journey through and profitable unto men, whereas no such practical Etolia and Acarnania, into Epirus, and there to results flow from "foolish questions," SO GROTIUS & winter." See my Introduction to the pastoral epistles. WIESINGER, But ALFORD, to avoid the tautology, 13. Bring...on their journey - Enable them to proceed "these (good works) are good unto men," explains, forward by supplying necessaries for their journey. "these truths" (v. 4-7). 9. foolish-Greek, “insipid:" | Zenas--the contracted form of Zenodorus. lawyer-A producing no moral fruit. “Vain talkers." genealogies Jewish "scribe," who, when converted, still retained -akin to the " sables" (see Note, 1 Timothy, 1. 4). Not the title from his former occupation. A civil lawyer. so much direct heresy as yet is here referred to as pro- | Apollos - with Zenas, probably the bearers of this fitless discussions about genealogies of wons, &c., 1 epistle. In 1 Corinthians, 16, 12, Apollos is mentioned which ultimately led to Gnosticism. Synagogue dis- as purposing to visit Corinth: his now being at Corinth coarses were termed daraschoth, i.e., discussions. Cf. I on the theory of Paul being at Corinth when he wrote: "disputer of this world (Greek, dispensation)." strivings accords with this purpose. Crete would be on his about the law-about the authority of the "command-way either to Palestine or his native place, Alexandria ments of men," which they sought to confirm by the Paul and Apollos thus appear in beautiful harmony law (ch. 1. 14; Note, 1 Timothy, 1. 7), and about the in that very city where their names bad been formerly mystical meaning of the various parts of the law in the watchword of unchristian party work. It was to connexion with the "genealogies." avoid-stand aloof avoid this party rivalry that Apollos formerly was from. Same Greek, as in Note, 2 Timothy, 2. 16. 10. unwilling to visit Corinth, though Paul desired him heretic-Greek heresy, originally meant a division re- HIPPOLYTUS mentions Zenas as one of the Seventy. sulting from individual self-will: the individual doing and afterwards bishop of Diospolis. 14. And..alsoand teaching what he chose independently of the teach- Greek, "But...also." Not only thou, but let otbers also ing and practice of the church. In course of time it of " our" fellow-believers (or " whom we have gained came to mean definitely “heresy" in the modern sense; over at Crete") with thee, for necessary ases-to supply and in the later epistles it has almost assumed this the necessary wants of Christian missionaries and meaning. The heretics of Crete, when Titus was there, brethren, according as they stand in need in their were in doctrine followers of their own self-willed journeys for the Lord's cause. CI. ch. 1. 8."a lover of ** questions" reprobated in v. 9, and immoral in prac hospitality." 15. Greet-"Salute them that love us in tice. reject-decline, avoid: not formal excommunica- the faith." All at Crete had not this love rooted in tion, but. "have nothing more to do with him, either faith, the true bond of fellowship. A salutation in admonition or intercourse. 11. is...subverted - "is peculiar to this epistle, such as po forger would have become perverse." condemned of himself-He cannot used. Grace-Greek, "The grace," vie., of God, with say. no one told him better; continuing the same after you all-not that the epistle is addressed to all the frequent admonition he is self condemned. “He Cretian Christians, but Titus would naturally impart sinneth" wilfully against knowledge. 12. When I shall ' it to his flock.



THE testimonies to its authenticity are, Origen, Homily 19. on Jerem., vol. I, p. 185, el. Huet, cites it as the letter I of Paul to Philemon concerning Onesimus; Tertullian against Marcion, 5. 91, "The brevity of this epistle is the sole cause of its escaping the falsifying hands of Marcion;" Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, & 23, mentions it among the universally acknowledged epistles of the canon;" Jerome, Procemium in Philemonein, vol. iv., p. 442, argues for it against those who objected to its canonicity on the ground of its subject being beneath an apostle to write about. Ignatius, Ep. and Magnes. 12., seems to allude to Philemon, 20. Cf. epistle to Polycarp (ch, 1 and 6... Its brevity is the cause of its tot being often quoted by the Fathers. Paley, Hora Paulina, has shown striking proofs of its authenticity in the undesigned coincidences between it and the epistle to the Colossians.

PLACE AND TIME OF WRITING.-This epistle is closely linked with the epistle to the Colossians. Both were carried by the same bearer, Opesimus (with whom, however, Tyehicus is joined in the epistle to the Colossians), Coloss, 4. 9. The persons sending salutations are the same, except one, Jesus called Jhastus (Colossians, & 11. In both alike Archippus is addressed (v. 2; Colossians, 4. 17). Paul and Timothy stand in the beadings of both. And in both Pra! appears as a prisoner (v. 9; Colossians, 4. 18). Hence it follows, it was written at the same time and place as the epistle to the Colossians (which was about the same time as the epistle to the Ephesians), vis., at Rome, during Paul's first imprisement, A.D. 61 or 62 OBJECT.-Onesimus, of Colosse (**one of you," Colossians, 4. 9), slave of Philemon, had fled from his master to Rose,

there was converted to Christianity by St. Paul, and being induced by him to return to his master, he was furnished with this epistle, recommending him to Philemon's favourable reception, as being now no longer a mere servant, but also a brother in Christ. Paul ends by requesting Philemon to prepare him a lodeug, as he trusted soon to be set free and visit Colosse. This epistle is addressed also to Apphia, supposed from its domestic ealgee Praise of Philemon's Love and Faith.


Request for Onesimus. to have been Philemon's wife, and Archippus (a minister of the Colossian church, Colossians, 4, 17), for the same reason, supposed to be a near relative and inmate.

Onesimus in the Apostolical Canons (73), is said to have been emancipated by his master. The Apostolical Constitutions (7. 46) state that he was consecrated by Paul, bishop of Berea, in Macedonia, and that he was martyred at Rome. Ignatius, Epistola ad Ephesum, cb. l., speaks of him as bishop of the Ephesians.

STYLE.-It has been happily termed, from its graceful and delicate urbanity. " the polite epistle." Yet there is notiring of insincere compliment, miscalled politeness by the world. It is manly and straightforward, without misrepresentation or suppression of facts; at the same time that it is most captivatingly persuasive. Alford quotes Luther's eloquent description, "This epistle showeth a right, noble, lovely example of Christian love. Here we see how St. Paul lageth himself out for the poor Onesimus, and with all his means pleadeth his cause with his master, and 80 setteth himselr as if he were Onesimus, and had himself done wrong to Philemon. Yet all this doeth he, not with force, as if he had right thereto, but he strippeth himself of his right, and thus enforceth Philemon to forego his right also. Even as Christ did for us with God the Father, thus also doth St. Paul for Onesimus with Philemon: for Christ also stripped Himself of His right, and by love and humility enforced (?) the Father to lay aside His wrath and power, and to take us to His grace for the sake of Christ, who lovingly pleadeth our cause, and with all His heart 'aveth Himself out for us: for we are all Hig Onesimi, to my thinking."

Ver. 1-25. ADDRESS. THANKSGIVING FOR PHILE- answers to v. 5," Thy love and faith toward all saints." MON'S LOVE AND FAITH. INTERCESSION FOR ONE-Paul never ceases to mention him in his prayers, in SIMUS. CONCLUDING REQUEST AND SALUTATIONS. order that his faith may still further show its power in This epistle affords a specimen of the highest wisdom his relation to others, by exhibiting every grace which as to the manner in which Christians ought to manage is in Christians to the glory of Christ. Thus he paves social affairs on more exalted principles. 1. prisoner the way for the request in behalf of Onesimus. 7. of Jesus Christ-one whom Christ's cause bas made a For-A reason for the prayer, v. 4-6. we have-Greek, prisoner (cf. "in the bonds of the gospel," v. 13). He "we had." joy and consolation -Joined in 2 Corinthians, does not call himself, as in other epistles, “ Paul ad 7. 4. saints are refreshed by thee-his house was open to apostle," as he is writing familiarly, not authoritatively. them. brother---put last, to conciliate his favourable our...fellow-labourer - in building up the church at attention to the request which follows. 8. Wherefore, Colosse, whilst we were at Ephesus. See my Introduc- Because of my love to thee, I prefer to "beseech," rather tion to Colossians, 2. Apphia-The Latin "Appia," than "enjoin," or authoritatively command. Imight... Either the wife or some close relative of Philemon. enjoin-In virtue of the obligation to obedience which She and Archippus, if they had not belonged to his Philemon lay under to Paul, as having been converted family, would not have been included with Philemon through his instrumentality. in Christ-the element in in the address of a letter on a domestic matter. which his boldness has place. 9. for love's sake-mine Archippus-a minister of the Colossian church (Colos- to thee, and [what ought to be] thine to Onesimus. sians, 4. 17). fellow-soldier--(2 Timothy, 2. 3.) church Or, that Christian love of which thou showest so bright in thy house-In the absence of a regular church build an example (v. 7). being such an one-Explain, Being ing, the houses of particular saints were used for that such a one s thou knowest me to be. viz., Paul (the purpose. Observe St. Paul's tact in associating with founder of so many churches, and an apostle of Christ, Philemon those associated by kindred or Christian and thy father in the faith) the aged (a circumstance brotherhood with his house, and not going beyond it. calculated to secure thy respect for anything I request), 4. always - Joined by ALFORD with "I thank my and novo also a prisoner of Jesus Christ (the strongest God." 5. Hearing-The ground of his thanksgiving.claim I have on thy regard : if for no other reason, at It is a delicate mark of authenticity, that he says least in consideration of this, through commiseration * hearing as to churches and persons whom he had gratify me). 10. I beseech thee-Emphatically repeated not seen or then visited. Now Colosse, Philemon's from v. 9. In the Greek, the name "Onesimus” is residence, he had never yet seen. Yet v. 19 here im skilfully put last; he puts first & favourable descripplies that Philemon was bis convert. Philemon, doubt- tion of him before he mentions the name that had less, was converted at Ephesus, or in some other place fallen into so bad repute with Philemon, "I beseech where he met Paul. love and faith-The theological thee for my son, whom I bave begotten in my bonds, order is first faith, then lore, the fruit of faith. But Onesimus." Scripture does not sanction slavery, but he purposely puts Philemon's love in the first place, as I at the same time does not begin & political crusade it is to an act of love that he is exhorting him toward against it. It sets forth principles of love to our ... toward-Different Greek words: tovoards...unto. To-fellowmen which were sure (as they have done) in due wards implies simply direction; unto, to the advantage time to undermine and overthrow it, without violently of. 6. That, &c.-The aim of my thanksgiving and convulsing the then existing political fabric, by stirring prayers for thee is, ir order that the, &c. the communi-l up slaves against their masters. 11.Which...was...unprocation of thy faith-the imparting of it and its fruits (viz., fitable-Belying his name Onesimus, which means proacts of love and beneficence: as Hebrews, 13, 16, "To Ifitable. Not only was he unprofitable, but positively communicate," i.e.. to impart a share to others; or, injurious, having "wronged" his master. Paul uses a the liberality to others flowing from thy faith (so the mild expression. now profitable-Without godliness a Greek is translated, "Liberal distribution," 2 Corin- man is so in no station. Profitable in spiritual, as well thians, 9. 13). effectual by--Grecke," IN " the element l as in temporal things. 12. mine own bowels as dear to in which his liberality had place, i.e., may be proved me as my own heart. [ALFORD.) Cf. v, 17," as myself." by acts in, &c. acknowledging-Greek, “the thorough The object of my most intense affection as that of a knowledge," i.e., the experimental or practical recog. parent for a child. 13. I-Empbatical. I for my part, nition of every good thing which is in you-The oldest Since I had such implicit trust in him as to desire to MSS. read," which is in 18," i.e., the practical recog. keep him with me for his services, thou mayest. I nition of every grace which is in us Christians, in so far I would have retained-Different Greek from the "would." as we realize the Christian character. In short, that l v. 14: "I could have wished," "I was minded" here: thy faith may by acts be proved to be "a faith which but "I was not willing." &c., 0. 14. in thy stead--that he worketh by love." in Christ Jesus-rather as Greek, might supply in your place all the services to me which ** unto Christ Jesus," i.e., to the glory of Christ Jesus. you, if you were here, would render in virtue of the Two of the oldest MSS. omit "Jesus." This verse I love you bear to me (v. 19), bonda of the gospel-my

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