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Charge to be Faithful, as before
1 TIMOTAY. VI.
Aim who shall soon Appear, worketh." patience-enduring perseverance amidst | Orthod., 61.) As He hath immortality, so will He give trials. meekness-The oldest MSS. read, "meek- l it to us wbo believe: to be ont of Him is death. spiritedness," viz., towards the opponents of the gospel. mere heathen philosophy that attributes to the soul 12. Fight the good fight-BIP.K8 thinks this epistle was indestructibility in itself, which is to be attributed written from Corinth, where contests in the national solely to God's gift. As He hath life in Himself, so kames recurred at stated seasons, which will account hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself John, for the allusion here as 1 Corinthians, 9. 24-26. Contrast 5. 26). The term used in the New Testament for im* strifes of words" (v. 4). Cl. ch. 1. 18; 2 Timothy, 4. 7. mortal, which does not occur, is "incorruptible. The "good profession" is connected with the "good Immortality "is found 1 Corinthians, 15. 53, 54. dwellfight" (Psalm 60.4). lay hold on eternal life-the crown, ing in the light which no mau can approach unto-After or garland, the prize of victory, laid hold of by the | life comes mention of light, as in John, 1. 4. That light winner in the good fight (2 Timothy, 4, 7, 8; Philip-is unapproachable to creatures, except so far as they are pians, 3. 12-14). "Fight (lit., 'strive') with such striving admitted by Him, and as He goes forth to them. earnestness as to lay hold on the prize, eternal life. (BENGEL.] It is unapproachable on account of its eralso--not in the oldest MSS. professed a good profes ceeding brightness. (THEOPHYLACT.) If one cannot sion--Greek, "didst confess THE good confession, viz.. gaze stedfastly at the sun, which is but a small part the Christian confession (as the Greek word is the same of creation, by reason of its exceeding heat and power, in this verse as that for "confession" in v. 13, probably how much less can mortal man gaze at the inesthe profession here is the confession that Christ's king pressible glory of God (THEOPHYLACT ad Autołyeus) dom is the kingdom of the truth, John, 18. 36, 37), at (Psalm 104, 2; 1 John, 1. 5). no man hath seen-Exodus, tby being set apart to thy ministerial function (whether 33. 20; John, 1. 18; Colossians, 1. 16; Hebrews, 11. 2; in general, or as overseer at Ephesus): the same occa- 1 John, 4. 12.) Perhaps even in the perfect state do sion as is referred to in ch. 1. 18; 4. 14; 2 Timothy, 1. 4. creature shall fully see God. Still the saints shall, in before many wituesses-who would testify against thee some sense, have the blessedness of seeing Him, which ir thou shouldest fall away. (BENGEL.) 13. quickepeth is denied to mere man (Matthew, 6, 8:1 Corinthians, all things-i.e., "maketh alive." But the oldest MSS. 13. 12:1 John, 3.2; Revelation 22. 4). 17. Resuming the read, “preserveth alive;" as the same Greek means in subject from above, v. 6, 10. The immortality of God, Acts, 7. 19; cf. Nehemiah, 9. 6. He urges Timothy to alone rich in glory, aud of His people through Him, is faithfulness here by the present manifestation of God's opposed to the lust of money (cf. o. 14-16). From power in preserving all things, as in v. 14, by the speaking of the desire to be rich, he here passes to future manifestation of God's power at the appearing those who are rich: 1. What ought to be their disposiof Christ. The assurance that "eternal life," v. 12, will tion; 2. what use they ought to make of their riches, be the result of " fighting the good fight," rests on the land, 3. the consequences of their so using them, rich fulness and power of Him who is the God of all life, in this worldpresent and to come. witnessed-It was the Lord's part kingdom to be the portion of believers at Christ's to witness, Timothy's part to confess (or "prosess," v. 12 "appearing." v. 14. bigb-ininded-often the charac *the good confession." (BENGEL.] The confession was teristic of the rich (see Romans, 12. 16). trust-Greek, His testimony that He was King, and His kingdom * to have their trust resting." in...in-rather, "upos that of the truth (v. 15; Note, v. 12; Matthew, 27. 11).... upon," as the oldest MSS. uncertain riches-rather Christ, in attesting, or bearing witness to this truth, as Greek, "the uncertainty of riches." They who rest attested the truth of the whole of Christianity, their trust on riches, rest trust on uncertainty itell Timothy's profession, or confession, included therefore (Proverbs, 23. 6). Now they belong to one person, bow the whole of the Christian truth. 14, keep this com to another, and that which has many masters is pos mandment-Greek, “the commandment," i.e., the gospel sessed by none. (THEODORET.) living God--The best rule of life (ch. 1. 6; John, 13, 34; 2 Peter, 2. 21; 3. 2). | MSS. and versions omit "living." He who trusts in without spot, unrebukeable-agreeing with "thou." Keep | riches transfers to them the duty he owes to God. the commandment and so be without spot,&c. “Pure" | (CALVIN.) who giveth-Greek, "affordeth," all things (ch. 5. 22; Ephesians, 6. 27: James, 1. 27; 2 Peter, 3. 14). | richly-temporal and eternal, for the body and for the until the appearing of ...Christ-His coming in person soul. In order to be truly rich, seek to be blessed of (2 Thessalonians, 2. 8; Titus, 2. 13). Believers then used | and in, God (Proverbs, 10. 22; 2 Peter, 1, 3). to enjoy in their practice to set before themselves the day of -Greek, "for enjoyment." Not that the heart máy Christ as near at hand; we, the hour of death.cleave to them as its idol and trust (ch. 4. 3). Enjoy (BENGEL) The fact bas in all ages of the church beenment consists in giving, not in holding fast. Non IDcertain, the time as uncertain to Paul, as it is to us: I ployment should be far removed, as from man, so from hence, in v. 15, he says, " in His times:" the church's his resources James, 6.2, 3). (BENGEL) 18. do good true attitude is that of continual expectation of her like God Hirnseif (Psalm 119.6s; Acts, 14. 17) and Lord's return (1 Corinthians, 1. 8; Philippians, 1. 6,10). Curist (Acts, 20, 38). TITTMANN translates, to do, o 15. in his times-Greek, "His own (fitting) times" act well; as the Greek for to be beneficent is a distinct (Acts, 1. 7). The plural implies successive stages in word, agathopoiein, rich in good works-s0 "rich is the manifestation of the kingdom of God, each having | faith, which produces good works (James, 2. 5). Cot its own appropriate time, the regulating principle and trasted with "rich in this world." e. 17. Lit., it is knowledge of which rest with the Father (ch, 2. 6; / "rich in honourable (right) works." Greek kalois, 2 Timothy, 1. 9; Titus, 1. 3; Hebrews, 1.1). he shall show ergois, are works good or right in themselves: agatoide -"display: an expression appropriate in reference | good to another. ready to distribute-freegivers to His "APPEARING," which is stronger than His (ALFORD): the heart not cleaving to possessions, bat " coming," and implies its visibility: "manifest:" make ready to impart to others. willing to communicate visible (cf. Acts, 3. 20): “He" is the Father (n. 16.) blessed ready contributors (ALFORD): liberal in admitting -in Himself: so about to be the source of blessing to others to share our goods in common with ourselve His people at Christ appearing, whence flows their (Galatians, 6, 6, Hebrews, 13, 16). 19. Laying ap in stors *blessed hope" (ch. l. 11: Titus, 2. 13). only-John, -"therefrom fi.e., by this means (ALFORD): bat 17. 3; Romans, 16. 27; Revelation, 16. 4.) King of kings BENGEL makes the Greek apo mean laying sport Elsewhere applied also to Jesus (Revelation, 1.6: 17, 14; 1 against a future time), laying up for themselves as 19. 16). 16. Who only hath immortality-in His own a treasure" (ALFORD) (Matthew, 6. 19, 20). This is a essence, not merely at the will of another, as all other treasure which we act wisely in laying up in cor, iminortal beings. (JUSTIN MARTYR, Quæst. ad whereas the wisest thing we can do with earthly irem
Keep the Deposit of the Faith:
1 TIMOTHY, VI.
Avoid Vain Babblings. sures is “to distribute them, and give others a share , LIRINENSIS, A.D. 434.] avoiding--" turning away from of them (v. 18). good foundation (Note, ch. 3. 13; Luke, (cf. 2 Timothy, 3. 4). Even as they have turned away G. 48: 1 Corinthians, 3. 11.) The sure reversion of the from the truth" (ch. 1. 6; 5, 15; 2 Timothy, 4. 4). profane future heavenly inheritance: earthly riches scattered 1-(ch. 4. 7; 2 Timothy, 2. 16.) vain-Greek, "empty:* in faith lay up in store a sure increase of heavenly mere "strifes of words," v. 4, producing no moral fruit. riches. We gather by scattering (Proverbs, 11. 24; 13. 7; oppositions-dialectic antitheses of the false teachers. Luke, 16. 9). that...eternal life-The oldest MSS. and (ALFORD.) WIESINGER, not so probably, "opposiversions read," that which is really life," its joys being tions to the sound doctrine." I think it likely germs solid and enduring (Psalm 16. 11). The life that now existed already of the heresy of dualistic oppositions, is cannot be called so, its goods being unsubstantial, | viz., between the good and evil principle, afterwards and itself a vapour (James, 4. 14). "In order that (with fully developed in Gnosticism. Contrast Paul's just their feet so to speak on this foundation' (DE WETTE)) | antithesis (ch. 3. 16: 6.5,6; 2 Timothy, 2. 15-23). science they may lay hold on that which is life indeed." 20, 21. falsely so called-where there is not faith, there is not Recapitulatory conclusion: the main aim of the whole knowledge. [CHRYSOSTOM] There was a true "knowepistle being here summarily stated. 20. O Timothy- ledge," a special gift of the Spirit, which was abused A personal appeal, marking at once his affection for by some (1 Corinthians, 8. 1; 12. 8; 14.6). This gift was Timothy, and his prescience of the coming heresies. soon counterfeited by false teachers arrogating to themkeep-from spiritual thieves, and from enemies who I selves pre-eminently the gift (Colossians, 2. 8, 18, 23). will, whilst men sleep, sow tares amidst the good seed Hence arose the creeds of the church, called symbols, sown by the Son of man. that which is committed to thy | i.e., in Greek watchroords, or a test whereby the orthotrust-Greek, “the deposit" (ch. 1. 18; 2 Timothy, 1. 12, 14; | dox might distinguish one another in opposition to the 2.2). The true or sound doctrine to be taught, as heretical. Perhaps here, v. 20, and 2 Timothy, 1. 13, 14, opposed to the science falsely so called, which leads to imply the existence of some such brief formula of docerror concerning the faith (v. 21). "It is not thine: it is trine then existing in the church; if so, we see a good another's property with which thou hast been en-| reason for its not being written in Scripture, which is trusted: Diminish it not at all." CHRYSOSTOM.) "That designed not to give dogmatic formularies, but to be which was entrusted to thee, not found by thee; which the fountain whence all such formularies are to be thou hast received, not invented; a matter not of drawn according to the exigencies of the several genius, but of teaching: not of private usurpation, but churches and ages. Probably thus a portion of the so of pubiic tradition : a matter brought to thee, not put called apostles' creed may have had their sanction, forth by thee, in which thou oughtest to be not an and been preserved solely by tradition on this account. enlarger, but a guardian; not an originator, but a dis "The creed, banded down from the apostles, is not ciple; not leading, but following. Keep,' saith he.'the / written on paper and with ink, but on fleshy tables of deposit; preserve intact and inviolate the talent of the the heart." (JEROME, adv. err, Johann. Hieros., ch. 9). catholic faith. What has been entrusted to thee, let Thus, in the creed, contrary to the oppositions” (the that same remain with thee; let that same be handed germs of which probably existed in the church in down by thee, Gold thou hast received, gold return. Paul's latter days) whereby the @ons were set of in I should be sorry thou shouldest substitute ought else. pairs, God is stated to be “the Father Almighty," or I should be sorry that for gold thou shouldest substi all-governing "maker of heaven and earth." (BISHOP tute lead impudently, or brass fraudulently. I do not HINDS.) 21. Which some professing-viz., professing want the mere appearance of gold, but its actual re- these oppositions of science falsely so called. erredality. Not that there is to be no progress in religion (Note, ch. 1. 6; 2. 18. -lit., missed the mark (2 Timothy, in Christ's Church. Let there be so by all means, and 3.7,8). True sagacity is inseparable from faith. grace the greatest progress; but then let it be real progress, Greek, “the grace," viz., of God, for which we Chrisnot a change of the faith. Let the intelligence of the tians look, and in which we stand, (ALFORD.) be with whole church and its individual members increase ex- | thee-He restricts the salutation to Timothy, as the ceedingly, provided it be only in its own kind, the doc epistle was not to be read in public. (BENGEL.) But trine being still the same. Let the religion of the soul the oldest MSS. read, "be with you" and the "thee" resemble the growth of the body, which, though it de- may be a transcriber's alteration to harmonize with velops its several parts in the progress of years, yet 2 Timothy. 4. 22: Titus, 3. ló. Amen - Omitted in remains the same as it was essentially." (VINCENTIUS I the oldest MSS.
THE SECOND EPISTLE OF PAUL THE APOSTLE TO
DLACE OF WRITING.-St. Paul, in the interval between his first and second imprisonment, after having written I first Timothy from Macedonia or Corinth ( Birks) (if we are to adopt the opinion that first Timotby was written after his first imprisonment), returned to Ephesus, as he intended, by way of Troas, where he left the books, &c. (mentioned ch. 4. 13), with Carpus. From Ephesug he went to Crete for a short visit, and returned, and then wrote to Titus Next he went by Miletus to Corinth (ch. 4. 20), and thence to Nicopolis (Titus, 3. 19), whence he proceeded to Rome. From his prison there he wrote the second epistle to Timothy, shortly before his martyrdom. It is not certain where Timothy was at the time. Some of the internal evidences favour the view of his having been then at Ephesus; thus the salutation of Priscilla and Aquila, who generally resided there (ch. 4. 19); also that of the household of Onesiphorus, who is stated in ch. 1. 16-18, to have ministered to Paul at Ephesus, a circumstance implying his residence there. Also, the Hymeneus of ch. 2. 17, seems to be the same as the Hymeneus at Ephesus (1 Timothy, 1. 20); and probably "Alexander the coppersmith" (ch. 4 14) is the same as the Alexander joined with Hymeneus (1 Timothy, 1. 90), and possibly the same as the Alexander put forward by the Jews to clear themselves, not to befriend Paul, at the riot in Ephesus (Acts, 19. 83, 84). The difficulty is, on this supposition, how to account for ch. 4. 12, 90: if Timothy was at Ephesus, why did he need to be told that Pau had sent Tychicus to Ephesust or that Paru had left Troprimus, himself an Ephesian (Acts, 21. 29), sick at Miltus, which we
Introduction. only thirty miles from Ephesus! See, however, the notes, ch. 4. 12, 92 Troas lay on the road to Rome from eitber Ephesus or Pontus, so that ch. 4. 13 will accord with the theory of either Ephesus or any other place in the North West of Asis Minor, being Timothy's place of sojourn at the time. Probably, he had the general supertatendence of the Pauline churches in Asia Minor, in scoordance with his mission combining the office of evangelist, or itinerant missionary, with that of presiding overseer. Ephesus was probably his bead quarters
TIME OF WRITING.-(1) Paul's first imprisonment, described in Acts, 28, was much milder than that in which he was when writing second Timothy. In the former, he bad liberty to lodge in his own hired house, and to receive all comers, guarded only by a single soldier; in the latter, he was so closely confined that Unesiphorus with diffeulty found him; be was chained, his friends had forsaken him, and he had narrowly escaped sentence of execution from the Roman Emperor. Medieval legends represent the Mamertine prison, or Tallianum, as the scene of his incarceration with Peter. But this is irreconcilable with the fact of Obesiphorus, Linus, Pudens, &c., baving sccess to him. He was probably under military custody, as in his former imprisonment, though of a severer kind (ch. 116-18; 29: 4. 6-8, 16, 171 (2) The visit to Troas (ch. 4. 13) can hardly bave been that mentioned Acts. 20.5-7, the last before his first imprisonment; for, if it were, the interval between that visit and the first imprisonment would be seven or eight years, a period most unlikely for him to have allowed to pass without sending for his cloak and parchments, when they might have been of service to him in the interim. (3.) Paul's leaving Trophimus sick at Miletus (ch. 4. 20), could not have been on the oconsion mentioned Acts ». 15; for, subsequent to that, Trophimus was with Paul in Jerusalem (Acts, a. 29). (4. The words (ch. 4. 90. “Erastus abode at Corinth," imply that St. Paul had shortly before been at Corinth, where he left Erastus. Bat before his first imprisonment, Paul bad not been at Corinth for several years; and in the interval Timothy bad been with him, so that Timothy did not need at a later period to be told about that visit (Acts, 20, 2, 4). Por all these reasons the imprisonment, during which he wrote second Timothy, is shown to be his second imprisonment. Moreover, Hebrews, 18 93, 94, represents the writer (who was probably Paul) as in Italy, and at lerty. So Clement of Rome (B. 1. 5), the disciple of Paul, es plicitly states, “In the east and west, Paul, as a prescher, instructed the whole world (ie, the Roman Empire) in right eousness, and having gone to the extremity of the west, and having borne witness before the rulers (of Rome), be so was Temoved from the world. This plainly implies that be fulfilled his design (Romans, 15. 94-98) of a missionary journey into Spain The Canon of the New Testament, compiled about 170 A.D. (called Muratori's Canon), also mentions "the journey of Paal from Rome to Spain." See Routh, Reliq Sacr., vol. 4, p. 1-12.
His martyrdom is universally said to have occurred in Xero's reign. (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History,2 12; Jerome Catalogus Scriptorum. ) Five years thus seem to have elapsed between the first imprisonment, A.D. (Acts, ), and his martyrdom, June 68 A.D., the last year of Nero's reign. He was probably arrested by the magistrates in Nicopolis (Titu. 3. 12) in Epirus, in the winter, on a double charge, first, of being one of the Christians who had conspired, it ras alleged by Nero's partisans, to set fire to Rome, A.D. 64; secondly, of introducing a novel and unlawful religion. His friends all left him, except Luke: Demas from *love of this present world :" the others from various causes (ch. 4 10, 11). On the first charge be seerns to have been acquitted. His liberation from his first imprisonment took place in @ A.D., the year before the great fire at Rome, which Nero made the pretext for his persecution of the Christians. Every cruelty was heaped on them; some were crucified; some were arrayed in the skins of wild beasts and bunted to death by dogs; some were wrapped in pitch-robes and set on fire by night to illuminate the circus of the Vatican and gardens of Nero, whilst that monster mixed among the spectators in the garb of a charioteer. But now (67 or 68 A.D) some years had elapsed since the first excitement which followed the fire. Hence, Paul, being a Roman citizen, was treated in his trial with a greater respeet for the forms of law, and hence was acquitted (ch. 4. 17) on the first change of baring instigated the Christians to their supposed act of incendiarisin before his last departure from Rome. Alexander the coppersmith seems to have been a Fitness against him (ch. 4. 14). Had he been condemned on the first charge, he would probably have been burnt alive, as the preceding martyrs were, for arson. His judge was the city Præfect. Clemens Romanus specifies that his trial was (not before the emperor, but) " before the rulers." No advocate ventured to plead his cause, no patron appeared for him, such as under ordinary circumstances might bare aided him ; for instance, one of the powerful Æmilian house, under which bts famus possibly enjoyed clientsbip (ch. 4, 16, 17), whence he may have taken his name Paul. The place of trial was, probably, ote of the great basilicns in the Forum, two of which were called the Pauline Basilicas, from L. Æmilius Paulus, who had built one and restored the other. He was remanded for the second stage of his trial. He did not expect this to come out the following "winter' (ch, 4.21), whereas it took place about midsummer; if in Nero's reign, not later than Jung In the interim Luke was his only constant companion; but one friend from Asia, Onesiphorus, bad diligently sougbt him sod visited him in prison, undeterred by the danger. Linus, too, the future bishop of Rome, Pudens, the son of a senator, and Claudia, his bride, perhaps the danghter of a British king (Note, ch. 4. 91), were among his visitors; and Tychicus, before he was sent by Paul to Ephesus (ch. 4. 12; perhaps benring with him this epistle).
OBJECT OF THE EPISTLE-He was anxious to see his disciple Timothy, before his death, and that Timothy should bring Mark with him (ch, 1.4; 4. 9, 11, 91). But feeling how uncertain it was whether Timothy should arrive in tint, he felt it necessary, also, to give him by letter a last warning as to the heresies, the germs of which were then being saat tered in the churches. Hence he writes a series of exhortations to faithfulness, and zeal for sound doctrine, and patience amidst trials: a charge which Timothy seems to have needed, if we are to judge from the apostle's carnestness in urging him to boldness in Christ's cause, as though St. Paul thought he saw in him some sigps of constitutional timidity feb. 2. 4. 1-5; 1 Timothy. 5. 22, 23).
ST. PAUL'S DEATH.-Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth (quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 2 93), abont AD.IT is the earliest authority for the tradition that Peter suffered martyrdom at Rome about the same time as Paul, after having laboured for some time there. He calls Peter and Paul " the founders of the Corinthiad and Roman churches The Roman Presbyter, Caius (about AD. 900), mentions the tradition that Peter suffered martyrdom in the Vatican. Bu (L.) Peter's work was among the Jews (Galatians, 2. 9), whereas Rome was a Gentile church (Romans, 1. 18). Moreover, the first epistle of Peter (1. 1; 5. 13) represents him as labouring in Babylon in Mesopotamia. (3.) The silence of St. Paul's epistles written at Rome, negatives the tradition of his having founded, or laboured long at Rome; though it is posilde he may have endured martyrdom there. His martyrdom, certainly, was not, as Jerome says," on the same day with that of Paul, elge Paul would have mentioned Peter's being at Rome in ch. 4. 11. The legend says that Peter, through fear was fleeing from Rome at early dawn by the Appian way, when he met our Lord, and falling at His feet, asked, der whither goest thou? to which the Lord replied, I go again to be crucified. The disciple returned penitent and ashamed and was martyred. The church of Domine quo vadis, on the Appian way, ommemorates the supposed fact. Paul, secord ing to Caius (quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 9. 28), euffered martyrdom on the Ostian tray. So also Jooml who gives the date, the 14th year of Nero. It was comingn to send prisoners, whose death might attract too ngel nation
Paul's Thankful Expression of Lore
2 TIMOTHY, I.
and Desire to see Timothy. at Rome, to some distance from the city, under a military escort, for execution; hence the soldier's sword, not the executioner's axe, was the instrument of his decapitation. (Orosius, Hist., 7. 7.] Paul appears, from Philippians, 1., to have had his partisans even in the palace, and certainly must have exercised such an intluence as would excite sympathy in his bebalf, to avoid which the execution was ordered outside the city. 04. Tacitus, Hist., 4, 11, The Basilica of St. Paul, first built by Constantine, now stands outside Rome on the road to Ostia: before the Reformation it was under the proteotion of the kings of England, and the emblem of the order of the Garter is still to be seen among its decorations. The traditional spot of the martyrdom is the tre fontane, not far from the Basilica. [Conybeare & Howson.)
-to be joined with "desiring to see thee” (Romans, 1. Ver. 1-18. ADDRESS : THANKFUL EXPRESSION OF 11, 12; 16. 32). 5. When I call to remembrance, &c.-This LOVE AND DESIRE TO SEE HIM : REMEMBRANCE OF increased his" desire to see" Timothy. The oldest MSS. HIS FAITU AND THAT OF HIS MOTHER AND GRAND read, " When I called to remembrance." implying that MOTHER. EXHORTATION TO STIR UP THE GIFT OF some recent incident perhaps the contrasted cowardice GOD IN HIM, AND NOT SHRINK FROM AFFLICTION, EN of the hypocrite Demas, who forsook him) had reminded FORCED BY THE COXSIDERATION OF THE FREENESS him of the sincerity of Timothy's faith. faith that is OF GOD'S GRACE IN OUR GOSPEL CALLING, AND BY in thee-ALFORD translates, “that was in thee." He THE APOSTLE'S EXAMPLE. THE DEFECTION or remembers Timothy's faith in the past as a fact: its MAXY: THE STEDFASTNESS OF ONESIPHORUS. 1. This | present existence in him is only matter of his conepistle is the last testament and swan-like death-song of fident persuasion or hope. which-Greek,“ such as." Paul. (BENGEL.) according to the promise of life...in Christ dwelt-"made its dwelling" or abode (John, 14. 23). -Paul's apostleship is in order to carry into effect this | The past tense implies they were now dead. firstpromise. CY."according to the faith...in hope of before it dwelt in thee. She was the furthest back of eternal life...promise," &c. (Titus, 1. 1, 2). This the progenitors of Timothy whom Paul knew. mother ** promise of life in Christ." (cf. v. 10; ch. 2. 8) was Eunice-a believing Jewess; but his father was a Greek, needed to nerve Timothy to fortitude amidst trials, 1 i.e., a heathen (Acts, 16. 1). The faith of the one parent and to boldness in undertaking the journey to Rome, sanctified the child (ch. 3. 15; 1 Corinthians, 7. 14). She which would be attended with much risk fv. 8). 2. my was probably converted at Paul's first visit to Lystra dearly beloved son--In 1 Timothy, 1. 2, and Titus. 1. 4, Acts, 14. 6). It is an updesigned coincidence, and so written at an earlier period than this epistle, the ex & mark of truth, that in Acts, 16. 1 the belief of the pression used is in the Greek, “My genuine son." mother alone is mentioned, just as here praise is beALFORD sees in the change of expression an intima stowed on the faith of the mother, whilst no notice is tion of an altered tone as to Timothy, more of mere taken of the father. [PALEY's Hore Paulina.) and love, and less of confidence, as though Paul saw in him -Greek. "but." i.e.. notwithstanding appearances. a want of firmness, whence arose the need of his stir. (ALFORD.) persuaded that it dwells, or it shall dwell ring up afresh the faith and grace in him (v. 6). But in thee also." The mention of the faith of his mother this seems to me not justified by the Greek word and grandmother is designed as an incentive to stir up agapetos, which implies the attachment of reasoning his faith, 6. Wherefore-Greek, "For which cause." and choice, on the ground of merit in the one "be- viz., because thou hast inherited, didst once possess, loved," not of merely instinctive love. See TRENCH, and I trust 1?"am persuaded") still dost possess, such
nyms of New Testament. 3. I thank-Greek, "I feel unfeigned faith. (ALFORD.) stir up-lit., "rekindle," gratitude to God." whom I serve from my forefathers, "revive the spark of the opposite of “quench' or er. sohom I serve (Romans, 1. 9) as did my forefathers. He tinguish (1 Thessalonians, 5. 19). Paul does not doubt does not mean to put on the same footing the Jewish the existence of real faith in Timothy, but he desires it and Christian service of God; but simply to assert his to be put into active exercise. Timothy seems to have own conscientious service of God as he had received become somewhat remiss from being so long without it from his progenitors (not Abraham, Isaac, &c., whom Paul (ch. 2. 22). gift of God-the spiritual grace received he calls " the fathers," not "progenitors" as the Greek for his ministerial office, either at his original ordina. is here: Romans, 9. 5). The memory of those who hadtion, or at his consecration to the particular office of gone before, to whom he is about to be gathered, is now, I superintending the Ephesian church (Note, 1 Timothy. on the eve of death, pleasant to him; hence also, he 4. 14), imparting fearlessness, power, love, and a sound calls to mind the faith of the mother and grandmother mind (v.7). by the putting on of my hands-In 1 Timothy. of Timothy: as he walks in the faith of his forefathers 4. 14, it is "with (not by the laying on of the bands of (Acty, 23. 1; 24. 14; 26. 6,7; 28. 20, so Timothy should the presbytery." The apostle was chief in the ordina. persevere firmly in the faith of his parent and grand tion, and to him "BY" is applied. The presbytery parent. Not only Paul, but the Jews who reject were his assistants : so "with," implying merely acChrist, forsake the faith of their forefathers, who companiment, is said of them. Paul was the instrulooked for Christ: when they accept Him, the hearts of ment in Timothy's ordination and reception of the the children shall only be returning to the faith of their grace then conferred; the presbyters were the concurforefathers (Malachi, 4, 6; Luke, 1, 17; Romans, 11, 23, rent participants in the act of ordination: so the Greek. 24. 28). Probably Paul had, in his recent defence, dwelt dia and meta. So in ordinations by & bishop in our on this topic, viz., that he was, in being a Christian, days, he does the principal act, t only following his hereditary faith. that...I have re hands with him. 7. For, &c. -Implying that Timothy membrance of thee-"How unceasing I make my men. needed the exhortation "to stir up the gift of God in tion concerning thee" (cf. Philemon, 4). The cause of him." being constitutionally timid: "For God did not Paul's feeling thankful is, not that he remembers | gire us (so the Greek, viz., at our ordination or conseTimothy unceasingly in his prayers, but for what cration) the spirit of fear." The spirit which He gave Timothy is in faith (v. 5) and graces: cf. Romans, 1.8, 9, / us, was not the spirit of timidity (lit., cowardice, which from which supply the elliptical sentence thus, "I is weakness), but of "power" (exhibited in a fearless thank God (for thee, for God is my witness) whom "testimony" for Christ, v. 8). "Power" is the invari. I serve, &c., that (or how, without ceasing I have re-l able accompaniment of the gift of the Holy Ghost. Luke, membrance (or make mention) of thee," &c. night and 24. 49; Acts, 1. 8; cf. 6. 6,"full of faith and of the Holy day-Note, 1 Timothy, 6, 6.) 4. desiring-Greek, "with Ghost," with v. 8, "full of faith and power." Fear is yearning as for one much missed." mindful of thy tears the result of "the spirit of bondage" (Romans, 8. 15).
not only at our parting (Acts, 20. 37), but also often | Fear within exaggerates the canses of fear without wben under pious feelings, that I may be filled with jog / "The spirit of power is the spirit of man dwelt in
God's Gift to us is Power
and Love, not fear. by the Spirit of God imparting powder: this power 1 plished in due time. in Christ-believers being re"casteth out fear" from ourselves, and stimulates us garded by God as in Arm, with whom the Father makes to try to cast it out of others (1 John, 4. 18). love the covenant of salvation (Ephesians, 1. 4; & 11). which moves the believer whilst "speaking the truth" before the world began - Greek, "before the times with powder, when giving his testimony for Christ (0.8), I (periods) of ages:" the enduring ages of which no end at the same time to do so "in love" (Ephesians, 4. 15). I is contemplated (1 Corinthians, 2.7: Ephesians, 3. 11). a sound mind-The Greek is rather, "the bringing of men | 10. But...now...manifest-In contrast to its concealto a sound mind." (WAHL) BENGEL supports English ment heretofore in the eternal purpose of God Version, "a sound mind," or "sobermindedness." a "before the world began" (v. 9; Colossians, 1. 28: Titus, duty to which a young man like Timothy especially 1.2,3). appearing-the visible manifestation in the flesh. needed to be exhorted to ch. 2. 22; 1 Timothy, 4. 12: | abolisbed death-Greek, “taken away the power from Titus, 2. 4.6. So Paul urges him, in ch. 2. 4, to give up death." TITTMANX.) The Greek article before worldly entanglements, which as thorns (Luke, 8. 14) "death," implies that Christ abolished death, not only choke the word. These three gifts are preferable to in some particular instance, but in its very essence, any miraculous powers whatever. 8. therefore-seeing being, and idea, as well as in all its aspects and consethat God hath given us such a spirit, not tbat of fear. quences John, 11. 26; Romans, 8.2, 38; 1 Corinthians, Be pot thou...asbamed-I agree with ELLICOTT, in opposi- | 16. 26,65; Hebrews, 2. 14). The carrying outof the abolition to ALFORD, that the Greek subjunctive here, with tion of death into full effect is to be at the resurrection the negative, implies action completed at one time, not (Revelation, 20. 14). The death of the body meanwhile continued action, which the present imperative would is but temporary, and is made no account of by Christ express: thus implying that Timothy had not de- and the apostles. brought... to light-making visible by cidedly yet evinced such feeling of shame; though I the gospel what was before hidden in God's purpose. think, Paul, amidst the desertion of others who once | life-of the Spirit, acting first on tbe soul bere, about promised fair, and from being aware of Timothy's con- to act on the body also at the resurrection, imaortality stitutional timidity Note, •. 7), felt it necessary to stir -Greek, "incorruptibility of the new life, not merely him up and guard him against the possibility of un- of the risen body (ALFORD) (Romans, 8. 11). througı christian dereliction of duty as to bold confession of -by means of the gospel, which brings to light the bfe Christ. Shame (v. 8) is the companion of fear it, 7); if and immortality purposed by God from eteroity, but fear be overcome, false shame flees. (BENGEL.) Paul manifested now first to man by Christ, who, in His own himself (v. 12, and Onesiphorus (t. 16), were instances of resurrection, has given the pledge of His people's final fearless profession removing false shame. He presents
triumph over death through Him. Before the gospel in contrast sad instances of fear and shame (v. 16). of revelation from God, man, by the light of nature, the testimony of our Lord-of the testimony which thou
testimony which thon | under the most favourable circumstances, had but a art bound to give in the cause of our Lord: he says | glimmering idea of the possibility of a future being of *our," to connect Timothy and himself together in
the soul, but not the faintest idea of the resurrection the testimony which both should give for their com of the body Acts, 17. 18, 32). If Christ were not the mon Lord. The testimony which Christ gave before
life." the dead could never live; if He were not the rePilate (1 Timothy, 6. 12, 13, is an incentive to the be surrection, they could never rise; had He not the keys liever that he should, after his Lord's example, witness of hell and death (Revelation, 1. 18), we could never a good testirnony or confession. nor of me his prisoner break through the bars of death or sates of hell The cause of God's servants is the cause of God Him- (BisHOP PEARSON.) 11. Whereunto-For the publica self (Ephesians, 4. 1). Timothy might easily be tempted tion of which gospel. I am appointed-Greek, "I mis to be ashamed of one in prison, especially as not only appointed." preacher-Greek, "berald.” teacher of the worldly shame, but great risk, attended any recogni- Gentiles-(1 Timothy, 2. 7.) He brings forward his own tion of Paul the prisoner. be thou partaker--with me, of example in this verse and v. 12, as a patter for the gospel-rather as Greek," for the gospel," i.e.,suffered Timothy, as a public preacher," an "apostle," or mis for the gospel (ch, 2. 3-5; Philemon, 13). according to the sionary from place to place, and a "teacher" in private power of God-exhibited in having saved and called us instructing His flock with patient perseverance. 12. (0.9). God who has done the greater act of power (i.e. For the which cause-For the gospel cause of which I saved us, will surely do the less (carry us safe through was appointed a preacher (v. 10, 11). I also suffer-beafflictions borne for the gospel). "Think not that thou | sides my active work as a missionary. ELLICOTT trans hast to bear these africtions by thine own power, nay, lates, "I suffer even these things the sufferings it is by the power of God. It was a greater exercise of attendant on my being a prisoner (v. 8, 16). I am not power than His making the heaven, His persuading the ashamed -neither be thou (0.8). for---Confidence as to world to embrace salvation." (CHRYSOSTOM.) 9. Who I the future drives away shame. (BENGEL) I know...called us-piz., God the Father (Galatians, 1.6). The though the world knows Him not (John, 10. 14: 17. 28. having "saved us in His eternal purpose of " grace, / whom I know what a faithful, promise keeping God given us in Christ before the world began," precedes | He is (ch. 2. 13). It is not, I know how I have believed His actual "calling" of us in due time with a call made but, I know WHOM I have believed: a feeble faith effective to us by the Holy Spirit; therefore, "saved I may clasp a strong Saviour. believed - rather, us comes before "called us" (Romans, 8. 28-30). holy "trusted :" carrying out the metaphor of a depositor calling--the actual call to a life of holiness. Hebrews. | depositing his pledge with one whom He trusts. I am 3. 1, "Heavenly calling" [TITTMANN, Synonyms) : persuaded-(Romans, 8. 38.) he is able-- in spite of to whereas we were sinners and enemies (Ephesians, 1, | many foes around me. that which I have committed unto 18: 4. 1). The call comes wholly from God, and claims him-Greek, “my deposit:" the body, soul, and spirit us wholly for God. “Holy" implies the separation of wbich I have deposited in God's safe keeping believers from the rest of the world unto God. not 1 (1 Thessalonians, 6. 23; 1 Peter, 4, 19). So Christ Hinaccording to not having regard to our works in His self in dying (Luke, 23. 46). "God deposits with us His election and calling of grace Romans, 9. 11; Ephesians, / word; we deposit with God our spirit." (GROTIUS 2. 8. 9). his own purpose_The origination of salvation | There is one deposit (His revelation committed by Was of His own purpose, flowing from His own good. God to us, which we ought to keep (2. 13, 14 and ness, not for works of ours coming first, but wholly be transmit to others (ch. 2. 2): there is another comcause of His own gratuitous, electing love. (THEO-mitted by God to us, which we should commit to His DORET & CALVIN.) grace... given ug-in His everlasting keeping, viz., ourselves and our heavenly portion, that purpose, regarded as the same as when actually accom-day-the day of His appearing (v. 18; ch. 4. 8). 13. Heid