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The Apostasy and

Man of Sin. Antichrist. characterized by similar blasphemous | Zechariah, 6. 9, 10). "Wickedness" (translated by the arrogance. 5. Remember, &c.-Confuting those who re- | LXX. by the same Greek, meaning "lawlessness." present Paul as having laboured under error as to which St. Paul employs here), embodied there as a Christ's immediate coming, when writing his first woman, answers to "the mystery of iniquity," here epistle, and as now correcting that error. I told you- | embodied finally in "the man of sin." as the former more than once, lit., “I was telling," or "used to tell,' ) was ultimately banished for ever from the Holy land to 6. Dow ye know-by my having told you. The power her own congenial soil, Babylon, so iniquity and the must have been one "known" to the Thessaloniane. I man of sin shall fall before Michael and the Lord what withholdeth-that which holds him back: "keeps Himself, who shall appear as the Deliverer of His him in check:" the power that has restrained the man people (Daniel, 12. 1-3; Zechariah, 14. 3-9). CI. Matthew, of sin from his full and final development, is the moral 12. 43, The Jewish nation dispossessed of the evil spirit, and conserrative influence of political states (OLSUAU- | the demon of idolatry being cast out through the SEN): the fabric of human polity as a coercive power; | Babylonian captivity, receives ultimately a worse form as "he who now letteth" refers to those who rule that of the evil spirit, Christ-opposing self-righteousness, polity by which the great upbursting of godlessness is Also, the Christian church in course of time taken kept down. (ALFORD) The "what withholdeth" | possession of by the demon of Romish idolatry, then refers to the general hindrance; "he who now letteth," | dispossessed of it by the Reformation, then its house to the person in whom that hindrance is summed up. "garnished" by hypocrisy, secularity, and rationalism, Romanism, as a forerunner of Antichrist, was thus kept | but "swept empty" of living faith, then finally in check by the Roman Emperor (the then representa apostatizing and repossessed by "the man of sin," tive of the coercive power) until Constantine, having and outucardly destroyed for a brief time (though even removed the seat of empire to Constantinople, the then Christ shall have witnesses for him among both Roinan Bishop by degrees first raised himself to pre- the Jews, Zechariab, 13. 9, and Gentiles, Matthew, 28. cedency, then to primacy, and then to sole empire above (20), when Christ shall suddenly come (Daniel, 11. 32-45; the secular power. The historical fact from which Luke, 18. 7,8). already-13 John, 9, 10; Colossians, 2. 18-23; Paulstarts in his prediction, was probably the emperor | 1 Timothy, 4. 1)-cf." even now already" (1 John, 2. 18; Claudius' expulsion of the Jews, the representative of 4. 3) as distinguished from "in his own time of being the anti-Christian adversary in Paul's day, from Rome, revealed hereafter. Antiquity, it appears from hence, thus - withholding them in some degree in their l is not a jnstification for unscriptural usages or dogma, attacks on Christianity; this suggested the principle since these were "already." even in Paui's time, beginholding good to the end of time, and about to find its ning to spring up: the written word is the only sure final fullment in the removal of the withholding person test. “Judaism infecting Christianity is the fuel; the or authority, whereupon Antichrist in his worst shape mystery of iniquity is the spark." "It is one and the shall start up. that he might be-Greek, " in order I same impurity diffusing itself over many ages." that." ye know that which keeps him back, in God's (BENGEL) only he who now letteth will let-The italicpurposes, from being sooner manifested," in order that ised words are not in the Greek. Therefore translate he may be revealed in his own time" (i.e., the time ap- rather, "Only (i.e., the continuance of the MYSTERY OJ pointed by God to him as his proper time for being I iniquity-working will be only) until he who now withmanifested), not sooner (cf. Daniel, 11.36). The removal holdeth (the same Greek as in v. 6) be taken out of the of the withholding power will be when the civil polity. I way." "Only (waiting, Hebrews, 10. 13) until he," &c. derived from the Roman empire, which is to be, in its Then it will work no longer in mystery, but in open last form, divided into ten kingdoms (Revelation, manifestation. 8. Translate. “The lawless one;" the 17.3, 11-13), shall, with its leading representative head embodiment of all the godless "lawlessness" which for the time being ("he wbo now letteth," Greek,"with-has been working in "mystery" for ages (v.7): "the man holdeth," as in v. 6). yield to the prevalent godless of sin" (v. 3). whom the Lord-Some of the oldest MSS. ** lawlessness" with "the lawless one" as its embodi. read, "the Lord Jesus." How awful that He whose ment. The elect church and the Spirit cannot well be. I very name means God-Saviour, should appear as the as DE BURGI suggests, the withholding power meant; Destroyer; but the salcation of the Church requires for both shall never be wholly "taken out of the way" the destruction of her foe. As the reign of Israel in Matthew, 28. 20). However, the testimony of the elect | Canaan was ushered in by judgments on the nations for church, and the Spirit in her, are the great hindrance | apostasy (for the Canaanites were originally worshipto the rise of the apostasy; and it is possible that, pers of the true God; thus Melchisedek, king of Salem. tbough the Lord shall have a faithful few even then, I was the " priest of the most high God," Genesis, 14. 18: yet the full energy of the Spirit in the visible church, Ammon and Moab came from righteous Lot), so the counteracting the energy or working" of "the mystery | Son of David's reign in Zion and over the whole earth, of lawlessness" by the testimony of the elect, shall is to be ushered in by judgments on the apostate Chrishave been so far "taken out of the way," or set aside, tian world. consume...and...destroy-So Daniel, 7. 26. as to admit the manifestation of "the lawless one;" and "consume and destroy: Daniel, 11. 45. He shall so DE BURGI's view may be right (Luke, 18. 8: Revela | "consume" him by His mere breath (Isaiah, 11. 4; tiop, 11, 3-12). This was a power of which the Thessalo- | 30. 33): the sentence of judgment being the sharp sword nians might easily " know through Paul's instruction. ) that goeth out of His mouth (Revelation, 19. 15, 21). 7. the mystery of iniquity - the counterwork to "the Antichrist's manifestation and destruction are declared mystery of godliness (1 Timothy, 3. 16). Anti-Chris- in the same breath; at his greatest height he is nearest tianity latently working, as distinguished from its final his fall, like Herod his type (Isaiah, 1. 24-27; Acts, 12. oper: manifestation. "Mystery" in Scripture means, 20-23). As the advancing fire, whilst still at a distance not what remains always a secret, but that which is consumes little insects (CHRYSOSTOM) by its mere heat, for a while hidden, but in due time manifested (cf. 8. Christ's mere approach is enough to consume antiEphesians, 3. 4, 5). Satan will resort to a mode of op- | christ. The mere "appearance of the coming" of the position more conformed to the then imminent Lord of glory is sufficient to show to antichrist his * appearing" and "presence of the Saviour, and will perfect nothingness. He is seized and cast alive into apticipate flim with a last effort to maintain the the lake of fire" (Revelation, 19. 20). So the worlddominion of the world (DE BURGH), just as at His kingdoms, and the kingdom of the beast, give place Pirat advent he rusbed into open opposition, by taking to that of the Son of man and His saints. The Greek possession of the bodies of men. "Iniquity," Greek, I for "destroy" means "A BOLISH" (the same Greek is so larclessness: defant rejection of God's law icf. Note, I translated, 2 Timotby, 1. 101: 1.c., cause every yestige of

The Apostasy and

Man of Sin. him to disappear. Ci, as to Gog attacking Israel and 24-26, 28). They first cast off the love of the truth, then destroyed by Jehovah (Ezekiel, 38. and 39.), so as not God gives them up to Satan's delusions, then they to leave a vestige of him with the brightness of his settle down into " believing the lie" an awful climax coming-Greek, "the manifestation (or appearance) of a Kings, 22, 22, 23; Ezekiel, 14. 9; Job, 12. 16; Matthew, His presence:" the first outburst of His advent-the 24. 6. 11; 1 Timothy. 4. 1). strong delusion-Greck, "the first gleam of His presence-is enough to abolish utterly powerful working of error," answering to the energis. all traces of antichrist, as darkness disappears before ing "working of Satan" (v. 9); the same expression as the dawning day. Next, his adherents are " slain with is applied to the Holy Ghost's operation in believers: the sword out of his mouth" (Revelation, 19. 21). "powerful" or "effectual (energising) working Ephe BENGEL's distinction between “the appearance of His sians, 1. 19). believe a lie-rather "the lie" wbich anticoming" and the "coming" itself is not justified by christ tells them, appealing to his miracles as proofs 1 Timothy. 6. 14; 2 Timothy, 1. 10; 4. 1, 8; Titus, 2. 13, of it (v. 9). 12. they all...damned-rather as Greek, " that where the same Greek for appearing (English Version, all," &c. He here states the general proposition which here “the brightness") plainly refers to the coming applies specially to antichrist's adherents. Not all in itself. The expression, "manifestation (appearing of the Church of Rome, or other anti-Christian systems, His presence, is used in awful contrast to the rerela- shall be damned, but only “all who believed not the tion of the wicked one in the beginning of the verse. truth" when offered to them, "but bad pleasure in un9. whose coming-The same Gr ck as was used for the righteousness" (Romans, 1. 32; 2. 8). Love of unrigittLord's coming (v. 8), or personal " presence." is-in itseousness being the great obstacle to believing the truth essential character. after-according to the working | 13. But-In delightful contrast to the damnation of the ("energy") of Satan, as opposed to the energy or work- lost (v. 12) stands the "salvation" of Paul's convert ing of the Holy Spirit in the Church (Note, Ephesians, are bound-in duty ch.1.3). thanks to God-not to our 1. 19). As Christ is related to God, so is antichrist to selves, your ministers, nor to you, our converts. bem Satan, his visible embodiment and manifestation: Satan loved of the Lord-Jesus Romans, 8. 87Galatians, 2. 20; works through him. Revelation, 13. 2. "The dragon Ephesians, 5, 2, 25). Elsewhere God the Father is said gave him the beast) his power...seat...great authority." | to love us (v. 16; John, 3. 16; Ephesians, 2. 4; Coloslying wonders-lit.. "wonders" or "prodigies of false- sians, 3. 12). Therefore Jesus and the Father are one. hood. His " power, signs, and wonders," all bave from the beginning" before the foundation of the

se, essence, and aim (John, 8.44). / world” (Ephesians, 1. 4; cf. 1 Corinthians, 2. 1: (ALFORD.) In Matthew, 24, 24, Jesus implies that the 2 Timothy, 1.9); in contrast to those that shall "Formiracles shall be real, though demonic, such mysteri. ship the beast, whose names are not written in the ous effects of the powers of darkness, as we read of in book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the case of the Egyptian sorcerers, not such as Jesus the world" (Revelation, 13. 8). Some of the oldest MSS. performed in their character, power, or aim; for they read as English Version, but other oldest MSS. and are against the revealed Word, and therefore not to Vulgate read, "as first-fruits." The Thessalonians be accepted as evidences of truth; Day, on the authority were among the first converts in Europe (cf. Romans, of that sure Word of prophecy (here, and Matthew, 16. 5; 1 Corinthians, 16. 16). In a more general sense, 24. 24), to be known and rejected as wrought in support it occurs in James, 1. 18; Revelation, 14. 4; so I underof falsehood Deuteronomy, 13. 1-3, 6; Galatians, 1.8, 9; I stand it here including the more restricted sense, Revelation, 13. 11-15; 19. 20). The same three Greek chosen you-The Greek is not the ordinary word for words occur for miracles of Jesus (Acts, 2, 22, and He-elected," implying His eternal selection, but takes brews, 2. 4); showing that as the Egyptian magician for Himsel, implying His having adopted them in His imitated Moses (2 Timothy, 3. 1-8). so antichrist tries eternal purpose. It is found in the LXX. (Deuterto imitate Christ's works as a "sign," or proof of onomy, 7. 7: 10. 16). through - rather as Greek, "IS divinity. 10. deceivableness-rather as Greek, "deceit sanctification" as the element in which the choice to of (to promote) unrighteousness" (v. 19). in-The oldest salcation had place (cf. 1 Peter, 1. 2), standing in conMSS, and versions omit "in." Translate. "Unto them trast to the "unrighteousness," the element in which that are perishing" (2 Corinthians, 2. 15, 16; 4. 3): the antichrist's followers are given over by God to damadvictims of him whose very name describes his perish- tion (v. 12). of the Spirit-wrought by the Spirit wbo ing nature, "the son of perdition;" in contrast to you sanctifies all the elect people of God, first by eternally whom (v. 13) "God hath from the beginning chosen to consecrating them to perfect holiness in Christ. Once salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief for all, next by progressively imparting it. belief of th: of the truth." because--lit.. "in requital for." in just truth-contrasted with "believed not the truth" (c. 19. retribution for their having no love for the truth which 14. you-The oldest MSS. read, "us." by our gospe was within their reach (on account of its putting a "through" the gospel wbich we preach. to...glory-B check on their bad passions), and for their having | v. 13, it was "salvation," i. e., deliverance from allevil. pleasure in uprighteousness" (v. 12; Romans, 1. 18); they of body and soul (1 Thessalonians, 6. 9) : here it is are lost because they loved not, but rejected, the truth positive good, even "glory," and that "the glory of which would have saved them. received not-Greek, our Lord Jesus" Himsell, which believers are privi** welcomed not;" admitted it not cordially. love of the leged to share with Him (John, 17. 22, 24: Romans, & truth-not merely love of truth, but love of The truth 17, 29; 2 Timothy, 2. 10). 15. Therefore-God's sovereico (and of Jesus who is the Truth, in opposition to Satan's choice of believers, so far from being a ground fes "lie," v. 9, 11; John, 8. 42-44), can save (Ephesians, 4. 21). | inaction on their part, is the strongest incentive to We are required not merely to assent to, but to lore the action and perseverance in it. Cf. the argument, truth (Psalm 119. 97). The Jews rejected Him who came | Philippians, 2. 12, 13, "Work out your own salvation. in His Divine Father's name; they will receive anti- FOR it is God which worketh in you," &c. We cannot christ coming in his own name (John, 5. 43). Their fully explain this in theory; but to the sincere and pleasant sin shall prove their terrible scourge. 11. for humble, the practical acting on the principle is pisin. this cause-Because "they received not the love of the "Privuege first, duty afterwards." (EDXUNDS.) stand truth." The best safeguard against error is "the love fast--so as not to be "shaken or troubled" (D. 91. boid of the truth." sball send-Greek, “sends," or "is send. -80 as not to let go. Adding nothing, subtractias ing: the "delusion" is already beginning. God nothing. (BENGEL) The Thessalonians had not held judicially sends hardness of heart on those who have fast his oral instructions, but had suffered themselves rejected the truth, and gives them up in righteous judge to be imposed upon by pretended spirit-revelations. ment to Satan's delusions (Isaiah, 6, 9, 10; Romans, l. I and words and letters pretending to be from Paul.c. I.

Eschortation to Stedfastness.

Paul asks their Prayers. to the effect that "the day of the Lord was instantly | as worldly consolations in trials (Romans, 8. 38, 39). imminent." traditions-truths delivered and trans This for all time present, and then "good hope" for mitted orally, or in writing (ch. 3. 6: 1 Corinthians, I the future. (ALFORD.) through grace-rather as Greek, 11. 2, Greek,"traditions"). The Greek verb from which | "IN grace;" to be joined to "bath given." Grace is the noun comes, is used by Paul 1 Corinthians, 11. 23; the element in which the gift was made. comfort your 15, 3. From the three passages in which "tradition" is hearts-unsettled as you have been through those who used in a good sense, Rome has argued for her ac announced the immediate coming of the Lord. good camulation of uninspired traditions, virtually over word and work-The oldest MSS. invert the order, riding God's word, whilst put forward as of co-ordinate | “work and word." Establishment in these were what authority with it. She forgets the ten passages (Mat. | the young converts at Thessalonica needed, not fanathew, 16. 2, 3, 6; Mark, 7. 3, 5, 8, 9, 13; Galatians, 1. 14; | tical teaching (cf. 1 Corinthians, 15. 58). Colossians, 2. 8) stigmatizing man's uninspired tradi

CHAPTER III. Not even the apostles' sayings were all inspired Ver. 1-18. HE ASKS THEIR PRAYERS: HIS CONFIDle.e.. Peter's dissimulation, Galatians, 2. 11-14), but | ENCE IN THEM: PRAYER FOR THEM: CHARGES AGAINST only when they claimed to be so, as in their words DISORDERLY IDLE CONDUCT; HIS OWN EXAMPLE: Coxafterwards embodied in their canonical writings. Oral CLUDING PRAYER AND SALUTATION. 1. Finally-lit., inspiration was necessary in their case, until the canon "As to what remains." may have free course - lit.. of the written word should be complete; they proved "may run :" spread rapidly without a drag on the their possession of inspiration by miracles wrought in wheels of its course. That the new-creating word may support of the new revelation, which revelation, more | "run" as "swiftly" as the creative word at the first over, accorded with the existing Old Testament revela (Psalm 147. 15). The opposite is the word of God being tion: an additional test needed besides miracles (cf. "bound" (2 Timothy, 2. 9. glorified-by sinners acDeuteronomy, 13. 1-6; Acts, 17, 11). When the canon cepting it (Acts, 13. 48; Galatians, 1. 23, 21). Contrast was complete, the infallibility of the living men was "evil spoken of (1 Peter, 4. 14). as it is with youtransferred to the written word, now the sole unerr- (1 Thessalonians, 1. 6; 4. 10; 6. 11.) 2. that we... be deing guide, interpreted by the Holy Spirit. Little else livered from unreasonable...men-lit., men out of place, has come down to us by the most ancient and univer- | inept, unseemiy: out of the way bad: more than ordisal tradition save this, the all-sufficiency of Scripture narily bad. An undesigned coincidence with Actr, 18. for salvation. Therefore, by tradition, we are con-5-9. Paul was now at Corinth, where THE JEWS" op. strained to cast off all tradition not contained in, or posed themselves" to his preaching: in answer to his pot proveable by, Scripture. The Fathers are valuable prayers and those of his converts at Thessalonica and soitresses to historical facts, which give force to the inti- elsewhere, “the Lord, in vision," assured him of exmnations of Scripture : such as the Christian Lord's emption from "hurt," and of success in bringing in day, the baptism of infants, and the genuineness of the | "much people." On the unreasonable, out-of-the-way canon of Scripture. Tradition in the sense human perversity of the Jews, as known to the Thessalotestimony) cannot establish a doctrine, but can aus nians, see 1 Thessalonians, 2, 16, 16. have not faith-or thenticate a fact, such as the facts just mentioned. In-l as Greek. " the faith" of the Christian: the only antispired tradition, in St. Paul's sense, is not a supple- | dote to what is "unreasonable and wicked." The mentary oral tradition completing our written word, Thessalonians, from their ready acceptance of the bat it is identical with the written word now complete: 1 gospel (1 Thessalonians, 1. 6, 6), might think "all" tben, the latter not being complete, the tradition was I would similarly receive it; but the Jews were far necessarily in part oral, in part written, and continued from having such a readiness to believe the truth. 3. so until, the latter being complete before the death of faithful-alluding to "faith" (v. 2): though many will St. John, the last apostle, the former was no longer not believe, the Lord (other very old MSS. read,"God") needed. Scripture is, according to Paul, the complete is still to be believed in as faithful to His promises and sufficient rule in all that appertains to making (1 Thessalonians, 6. 24; 2 Timothy, 2. 13). Faith on the ** the man of God perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all part of man, answers to faithfulness on the part of good works" (2 Timothy, 3. 16, 17). It is by leaving God. stablish yoq-as he had prayed (ch. 2. 17). St. Paul's God-inspired tradition for human traditions Though it was on himself that wicked men were mak. that Rome has become the forerunner and parent of ing their onset, he turns away from asking the Thessalothe antichrist. It is striking that, from this very nians' prayers for his deliverance (v. %: so unselfish chapter denouncing antichrist, she should draw an was he, even in religion), to express his assurance of aryument for her "traditions" by which she fosters THEIR establishment in the faith, and preservation anti-Christianity. Because the apostles' oral word was from evil. This assurance thus exactly answers to his as trustworthy as their written word, it by no meansprayer for them, ch. 2. 17, "Our Lord...&tablish you in follows that the oral word of those not apostles, is as every good word and work." He has before his mind trustworthy as the scritten word of those who were the Lord's prayer, "Lead us not into temptation, but apostles, or inspired evangelists. No tradition of the deliver us from evil:" where, as here, the translation apostles, except their written word, can be proced may be, "from the evil one;" the great binderer of genuine on satisfactory evidence. We are no more "every good word and work." CI. Matthew, 13, 19, bound to accept implicitly the fathers' interpretations "the wicked one.* 4. we have confidence in the Lordof Scripture, because we accept the Scripture canon op as "faithful" (0, 3). Have confidence in no man when their testimony, than we are bound to accept the Jews' left to himself. (BENOEL.) that ye both do-Some of interpretation of the Old Testament, because we accept the oldest MSS. insert a clause, “That ye both have the Old Testament canon on their testimony. our | done" before, "and are doing, and will do." He means epistle--as distinguished from a "letter As from us," | the majority by "ye," not all of them (cf. v. 11; ch.

2. ris., that purports to be from us, but is not. He | 1.3:1 Thessalonians, 3. 6). 5. If "the Lord" be here refers to his first epistle to the Thessalonians. 16. 17. I the Holy Ghost (2 Corinthians, 3. 17), the three Persons nimseli-by His own might, as contrasted with our l of the Trinity will occur in this verse. love of Godfeebleness; ensuring the efficacy of our prayer. Here love to God. patient waiting for Christ - rather as orer Lord Jesus stands first; in 1 Thessalonians, 3. 11, | Greek," the patience (endurance) of Christ," viz., which - God our Father." which...loved 18-in the work of Christ showed (ALFORD] (ch. 2. 4; 1 Thessalonians, 1. 3). our redemption. Referring both to our Lord Jesus Esrius, however, supports English Version (cf. Re

Romans, 8. 37: Galatians, 2. 20) and God our Father | velation, 1. 9; 3. 10). At all events, this grace, Wohn, 3. 16). everlasting consolation-Not transitory.! "Patience." or persevering endurance, is connected

His Condence in them.


The Disorderly to be Aroided. with the "hope" (1 Thessalonians, 1. 3, 10) of Christ's it as a punishment of the idle. Paul often quotes good ooming. In ALFORD's translation we may compare adages current among the people, stamping tbemn with Hebrews, 12. 1. 2. "Run with patience (endurance)... | inspired approval. In the Hebrew, Bereshitb Rabba. looking to JESUS...who, for the joy that was before the same saying is found; and in the book Zeror, "He Him, endured the cross." So we are to endure, as look who will not work before the Sabbath, must not eat on ing for the hope to be realized at His coming (Hebrews, the Sabbath." 11. busy bodies-In the Greek the similar 10. 86, 37). 6. we command you-Hereby he puts to a lity of sound marks the antithesis,“ Doing none of their particular test their obedience in general to his com own business, yet overdoing in the business of others." mands, which obedience he had recognised in 0. 4. Busy about every one's business but their own. withdraw - lit., to furt the sails: as we say, to steer | "Nature abhors & vacuum;* so if not doing one's own clear of (cf. v. 14). Some bad given up labour as though I business, one is apt to meddle with his neighbour's busithe Lord's day was immediately coming. He had en-nessIdleness is the parent of busy bodies (1 Timothy. joined mild censure of such in 1 Thessalonians, 6. 14, 6. 13). Contrast i Thessalonians, 4. 11. 12. bz-The * Warn...the unruly:" but now that the mischief had l oldest MSS. read, “Is the Lord Jesus." So the Greek, become more confirmed, he enjoins stricter discipline, I i Thessalonians, 4. 1, implying the sphere wherein such viz., withdrawal from their company cf. 1 Corinthians, conduct is appropriate and consistent. We exhort you 6. u: 2 John, 10, 1): not a formal sentence of excom / thus, as ministers in Christ, exhorting our people in munication, snch as was subsequently passed on more Christ." with quietness-quiet industry; laying aside heinous offenders, as in i Corinthians, 6.6; 1 Timothy, restless, bustling, intermeddling officiousness (o. 11. 1. 20. He says "brother," i.e., professing Christian; for their own-Bread earned by themselves, not another's in the case of unprofessing heathen, believers needed bread (v. 8). 13. be not weary-The oldest MSS. read, not be so strict (1 Corinthians, 6. 10-13). disorderly- "Be not cowardly in;" do not be wanting in strenuousSt. Paul plainly would not have sanctioned the Order ness in doing well. EDMUNDS explains it. Do not of Mendicant friars, who reduce such a "disorderly culpably neglect to do well, viz., with patient industry and lazy life to a system. Call it not an Order, but a I to do your duty in your several callings. In contrast burden to the community BENGEL alluding to the I to the "disorderly, not-working, busybodies" (8.11;. Greek, v. 8, for "be chargeable," lit., be a burden). the Galatians, 6.9. 14. note that man-mark him in your tradition-the oral instruction which he had given to own minds as one to be avoided t. 6), that he may be them when present (v. 10), and subsequently com- ashamed-Greek, " made to turn and look into bimsel, mitted to writing (1 Thessalonians, 4, 11, 12), which he l and so be put to shame." Feeling himself shundel received of as-Some oldest MSS. read," Ye received:* | by godly brethren he may become ashamed of his others, "they received." The English Version reading course. 15, admonish him as a brother - not yet ex. has no very old authority. 7. how ye ought to follow us communicated (cf. Leviticus, 19. 17). Do not shun him

-how ye ought to live so as to "imitate" (so the Greek for in contemptuous silence, but tell him why he is so * follow", us (cf. Note, 1 Corinthians, 11. 1; 1 Thessalo-lavoided (Matthew, 18. 15; 1 Thessalonians. 5. 14. 16. nians, 1. 6). 8. eat any man's bread-Greck, " eat bread | Lord of peace-Jesus Christ. The same title is given to from any man," i.e., live at any one's expense. Con- Him as to the Father, "the God of peace Romans, trast 1. 12, "Eat TIIEIR Owx bread," wronght-(Acts, 16. 33: 16. 20; 2 Corinthians, 13. 11). An appropriate 20. 34.) In both epistles they state they maintained title in the prayer here, where the harmony of the themselves by labour; but in this second epistle they Christian community was liable to interruption from do so in order to offer themselves herein as an example the "disorderly.* The Greek article requires the to the idle; whereas, in the first, their object in doing so translation,"Give you the peace" which it 18 " His to is to vindicate themselves from all imputation of mergive." "Peace" outward and inward, here and herecenary motives in preaching the gospel 1 Thessalonians, I after (Romans, 14. 17). always-upbroken, not chang2.5,9). (EDMUNDS.) They preached gratuitously, though ing with outward circumstances. by all means-trek. they might have claimed maintenance from their con-"in every way." Most of the oldest MSS. read, "in verts. Labour and travail "toil and hardship" (Note, I every place;" thus he prays for their peace in all time 1 Thessalonians, 2. 9). night and day-Scarcely allowing |("always") and places. Lord be with you all-May He time for repose, chargeable-Greek, "a burden," or bless you not only with peace, but also with His prus * burdensome." The Philippians did not regard it as a lence (Matthew, 28, 20). Even the disorderly brethrek burden to contribute to his support Philippians, 4.16,16). (cf. v. 15.a brother") are included in this prayer. 17. sending to him whilst he was in this very Thessalonica The epistle was written by an amanuensis (perhaps (Acts, 16. 15, 34, 40). Many Thessalonians, doubtlese, Silas or Timothy), and only the closing salutation wat would have felt ita privilege to contribute, but as he saw ten by Paul's "own hand" cf. Romans, 16. 22;1 Co some idlers among them who would have made a pretext rinthians, 16. 21; Colossians, 4. 18). Wherever Paul of his example to justify themselves, he waived his right does not subjoin this autograph salutation, we may His reason for the same course at Corinth was to mark | presume he wrote the whole epistle himself (Galatistes, how different were his aims from those of the false teach- / 6. 11), which-uchrch autograph salutation, the tokeers who sought their own lucre (2 Corinthians, 11.9,12,13). I to distinguish genuine epistles from spurious ones pas It is at the very time and place of writing these epistles forth in my name ch.2.2). n every epistie-Some think that Paul is expressly said to have wrought at tent- he signed his name to every epistle with his own hand. maling with Aquila (Acts. 18. 3: an undesigned coin. I but as there is no trace of this in any MSS. of all the cidence. 9. (1 Corinthians, 9. 4-6, &c.; Galatians, 6. 6.) | epistles, it is more likely that he alludes to his soritos 10. For even-translate," For also." We not only set with his oron hand in closing every epistle, even in thos you the example, but gave a positive "command." epistles (Romans, 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippesos, commanded-(ireek imperfect, "We were command- 1 Thessalonians) wherein he does not specify his baris ing;" we kept charge of you. would not work-Greek, done so. $0 I write-so I sign my name: this is a speci * is unwilling to work." BENGEL makes this to be the men of my handwriting, by which you may distinguish argument: not that such & one is to have his food with my genuine letters from forgeries. 18. He closes ere, drawn from him by others; but he proves from the ne- epistle similarly by praying for GRACE to those whom be cessity of eating, the necessity of working; using this addresses. Amen-Omitted in the oldest MSS. It was pleasantry, Let him who will not work show himself I doubtless the response of the congregation after heartas an angel, i.e., do without food as the angels do (but the epistle read publicly; hence it crept into copies since he cannot do without food, then he ought to be The Subscription is spurious, as the epistle was will uot unwilling to work). It seems to me simpler to take ten not * from Athens," bat from Corinth.


INTRODUCTION. CENUINENESS. -The ancient church never doubted of their being canonical and written by St. Paul. They are in U the Peschito Syriac version of the second century, Muratori's Fragment on the Canon of Scripture, at the close of

m as such. Irenæus, adversus Hæreses, I, and III. 3.3; IV. 16. 3; II. 14, 8; III. 12 1; I. 16. 3, quotes, 1 Timothy, 1, 4, 9; 6. 20; 2 Timothy, 4. 9-11; Titus, 3. 10. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 9. 457; 3. 634,836; 1. 350, quotes, 1 Timothy, 4, 1, 20; 2 Timothy, as to deaconesses ; Titus, 1. 12 Tertullian, de prescriptione Hæreticorum, 25. and 6, quotes, 1 Timothy, 6. 20; 2 Timothy, 1. 14; 1 Timothy, 1. 18; 6. 13, &c.; 2 Timothy, 2. 3; Titus, 3. 10, 11; and adeeraus Marcion. Eusebius includes the three in the universally acknowledged" Scriptures Also Theophilus of Antioch tad Autolycus, 3. 14), quotes, 1 Timothy, 2. 1. 2; Titus, 3. 1; and Caius (in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History. 6. 20) recognises their authenticity. Clement of Rome, in th

Clement of Rome, in the end of the first century, in his first Epistle to Corinthians, ch. 29., quotes. 1 Timothy, 2, & Ignatius, in the beginning of the second century, in Epistle to Polycarp, sec. 6, alludes to 9 Timothy, 24 Polycarp, in the beginning of the second century (Epistle to Philippians, ch. 4), alludes to 9 Timothy, 2. 4; and in ch.. to 2 Timothy, 4. 10. Hegisippus, in the end of the second century, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3. 32, alludes to 1 Timothy, 6.3, 20. Athenagoras, in the end of the second century, alludes to 1 Timothy, 6. 16. Justin Martyr, in the middle of the second century (Dialogue, contra Tryphonen, 47), alludes to Titus, & 4 The Gnostic Marcion alone rejected these epistles.

THE HERESIES OPPOSED in them form the transition stage from Judaism, in its ascetic form, to Gnosticism, as subsequently developed. The references to Judaism and legalism are clear (1 Timothy, 1. 7; 4. 3; Titus, 1. 10, 14; 8. 9). Traces of beginning Gnosticism are also unequivocal (1 Timothy, 1. 4). The Gnostic theory of a twofold principle from the beginning, evil as well as good, appears in germ in 1 Timothy, 4. 3, &c. In 1 Timothy, 6. 20, the term Gnosis (“science") itself occurs. Another Gnostic error, viz., that “the resurrection is past," is alluded to in 9 Timothy, 2. 17, 18. The Judaism herein opposed is not that of the earlier epistles which upheld the law and tried to join it with faith in Christ for justi. fication. It first passed into that phase of it which appears in the epistle to the Colossians, whereby will-worship and angelWorship were superadded to Judaizing opinions. Then a further stage of the same evil appears in the epistle to the Philippians, 3. 2, 18, 19, whereby immoral practice accompanied false doctrine as to the resurrection (cf. 2 Timothy, 2. 18, with 1 Corinthians, 15. 19, 32, 33). This descent from legality to superstition, and from superstition to godlessness, appears more matured in the references to it in these pastoral epistles. The false teachers now know not the true use of the law

Timothy, 17,8), and further, have put away good conscience as well as the faith (1 Timothy, l. 19; 4. 2); speak lies in hypocrisy, are corrupt in mind, and regard godliness as a means of earthly gain (1 Timothy, 6. 5; Titus, 1, 11); overthrow the faith by heresies eating as a canker, saying the resurrection is past (2 Timothy, 2. 17, 18), leading captive silly women, cer learning yet never knowing the truth, reprobate as Jannes and Jambres (2 Timothy, 3. 6-8), defiled, unbelieving, profc8a. ing to know God but in works denying Him, abominable, disobedient, reprobate (Titus, 1. 15, 16). This description accords with that in the catholic epistles of St. John and St. Peter, and in the epistle to the Hebrews. This fact proves the later date of these pastoral epistles as compared with Paul's earlier epistles. The Judaism reprobated herein is not that of an earlier date, so scrupulous as to the law: it was now tending to immorality of practice. On the other hand, the Gnosticisin opposed in these epistles is not the anti-Juduic Gnosticism of a later date which arose as a consequence of the overthrow of Judaism by the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, but it was the intermediate phase between Judaism and Gnosti. cism, in which the Oriental and Greek elements of the latter were in a kind of amalgam with Judaism, just prior to the overthrow of Jerusalem

THE DIRECTIONS AS TO CHURCH GOVERNORS and ministers, “bishop-elders, and deacons," are such as were natural for the apostle, in prospect of his own approaching removal, to give to Timothy, the president of the church at Ephesus, and to Titus holding the same office in Crete, for securing the due administration of the church when he should be no more, and at a time when heresies were rapidly springing up. Cf. his similar anxiety in his address to the Ephesian elders (Acts, 20, 91-30). The Presbyterate (elders : priest is a contraction from presbyter) and Diaconate had existed from the earliest times in the church (Acts, 6. 3; 11. 30; 14. 23). Timothy and Titus, as superintendents or overseers (so bishop subsequently meant), were to exercise the same power in ordaining elders at Ephesus, which the apostle had exercised in his general supervision of all the Gentile churches.

THE PECULIARITIES OP MODES, OF THOUGHT, AND EXPRESSION, are such as the diference of subject and circumstances of those addressed and those spoken of in these epistles, as compared with the other epistles, would lead us to expect. Some of these peculiar phrases occur also in Galatians, in which, as in the pastoral epistles, he, with his characteristic fervour, attacks the false teachers. CL. 1 Timothy, 2. 6; Titus, 2. 14, “ Gave Himself for us," with Galatians, 1.4: 1 Timothy, 1. 17; 2 Timothy, 4. 18," For ever and ever," with Galatians, 1. B: "Before God," 1 Timothy, 5. 21; 6. 13; 9 Timothy. 2 14; 4. 1, with Galatians, 1. 20: “ A pillar," 1 Timothy, 3. 15, with Galatians, 2. 9: “ Mediator," 1 Timothy, 2.5, with Galatians, 3. 20: "In due season," Galatians, 6.9, with 1 Timothy, 2. 6; 6. 15; Titus, 1. 3.

TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING.-The first epistle to Timothy was written not long after Paul had left Ephe. xus for Macedon (ch. 1. 3). Now, as Timothy was in Macedon with Paul (2 Corinthians, 1. 1) on the occasion of Paul's having passed from Ephesus into that country, as recorded Acts, 19. 92; 20. 1, whereas the first epistle to Timothy contemplates a longer stay of Timothy in Ephesus, Mosheira supposes that Paul was nine months of the "three years" stay mostly at Epbesus (Acts, 20. 31) in Macedouia and elsewhere [perhaps Crete), (the mention of only "three months" and two years." Acts, 19. 8, 10, favours this, the remaining nine months being spent elsewhere); and that during these bine months Timothy, in Paul's absence, superintended the church of Ephesus. It is not likely that Ephesus and the neighbouring churches should have beea left long without church officers and church organization, rules respecting which are given in this epistle. Moreover, Timothy was still "a youth" (1 Timothy. 4. 12), which he could hardly be called after Paul's first imprisonment, when he must bave been at least thirty-four years of age. Lastly, in Acts, 20. 98, St. Paul asserts his knowledge that the Ephesians should not all ses his face again, so that 1 Timothy, 1.3, will thus refer to his sojourn at Erhenus, recorded in Acts, 19. 10, whence he passed into Macedonia. But the difficulty is to account for the false teachers having sprung up almost immediately (according to this theory) after the foundation of the church. However, his visit

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