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Introduction, recorded Acts, 19., was not his first visit. The beginning of the church at Ephesus was probably made at his visit a year before (Acts, 18 19-91). Apollos, Aquila and Priscilla, carried on the work (Acts, 18. 94-86). Thue, as to the sudden growth of false teachers, there was time enough for their springing up, especially considering that the first converts at Ephesus were under Apollos' imperfest Christian teachings at first, imbued as he was likely to be with the tenets of Philo of Alexandria, Apollos' native town, combined with John the Baptist's Old Testament teachings (Acts, 18 24-95). Besides Ephesus, from its position in Asia, its notorious voluptuousness and sorcery (Acre, 19. 18, 19), and its lewd worship of Diana (answering to the Phænician Ashtoreth), was likely from the first to tinge Christianity in some of its concerts with Oriental speculations and Asiatie licentiousness of practices. Thus the phenomenon of the phase of error presented in this epistle, being intermediate between Judaism and later Gnosticism (see above), would be such as might occur at an early period in the Ephesian church, as well as later, when we know it had open "apostles" of error (Revelation, 2.2, 6), and Nicolaitans infamous in practice. As to the close connection between this first epistle and the second epistle (which must have

een written at the close of Paul's life), on which Alford relies for his theory of making the first epistle also written at the close of St. Paul's life, the similarity of circumstances, the person addressed being one and the same, and either in Ephesus at the time, or at least connected with Ephesus as its church-overseer, and having hereties to contend with of the same stamp as in the first epistle, would account for the connection. There is not so great identity of tone ns to compel us to adopt the theory that some years could not have elapsed between the two epistles.

However, all these arguments against the later date may be answered. This first epistle may refer not to the first organization of the church under its bishops, or elders and deacons, but to the moral qualifications laid down at a later period for those officers when scandals rendered such directions needful Indeed, the object for which he left Timothy at Ephesus he states (1 Timothy, 1. 3) to be, not to organize the church for the first time, but to restrain the false tesebers. The directions as to the choice of fit elders and deacons refers to the filling up of vacancies, not to their first appointment. The fact of there existing an institution for churcb-widows implies an established organization. As to Timothy's "yoath." it may be spoken of comparatively young compared with Paul now "the aged" (Philemon, 9), and with some of the Ephesian elders, senior to Timothy their overseer. As to Acts, 20. 25, we know not but that "all" of the elders of Ephesus called to Miletus "never saw Paul's face" afterwards, as he "knew" (doubtless by inspiration) would be the case, wbich obvistes the need of Alford's lar view, that Paul was wrong in this his positive inspired anticipation (for such it was, Dot mere beding surmise as to the future). Thus he probably visited Ephesus again a Timothy, 1. 3; 2 Timothy, l. 18; 4 , be would bardly bave been at Miletum, so near Ephesus, without visiting Ephesus) after his first imprisonment in Rome, though all the Ephesian elders whom be had addressed formerly at Miletus did not again bee him. The general similarity of subject and style, and of the state of the church between the two epistles, favours the view that they were near epe Another in date. Also, against the theory of the early date is the difficulty of defining, wben, during Paul's two or three years' stay at Ephesus, we can insert au absence of Paul from Ephesus long enough for the requirements of the case which imply a lengthened stay and superintendence of Timothy at Ephesus (see, however, 1 Timothy, 3. 14, on the other side) after having been "left" by Paul there. Timothy did not stay there when Paul left Epbesue (Acts, 19. 99; 90. 1; 9 Corinthians 1. i). (In 1 Timothy. 3. 14, Paul says, "I write, hoping to come unto thee shortly:" but on the earlier occasion of his page ing from Ephesus to Macedon he had no such expectation, but had planned to spend the summer in Macedon, and the winter in Corinth, 1 Corinthians, 16. & The expression "Till I come," &e, 1 Timothy, 4. 18, implies that Timothy was not to leave his post till Paul should arrive: this and the former objection, however, do not hold good against Mosbeim's theory) Moreover, Paul in his farewell address to the Ephesian elders propketically anticipates the rise of false teachers hereafter of their own selves; therefore this first epistle, which speaks of their actual presence at Ephesus, would paturily seem to be not prior, but subsequent, to the address, ie, will belong to the later date assigned. In the epistle to the Ephe sians no notice is taken of the Judæo-Gnostic errors, which would bave been noticed, bad they been already in existence, however, they are alluded to in the contemporaneous sister epistle to Colossians (Colossians, 2).

Whatever doubt must always remain as to the date of the first epistle, there can be hardly any as to that of the second epistle. In % Timothy, 4. 13, Paul directs Timothy to bring the books and cloak which the apostle had left at Tross Assuming that the visit to Troas referred to is the one mentioned in Acts, 20. 5-7, it will follow that the cloak and pard ments lay for about seven years at Trous, that being the time that elapsed between the visit and Paul's first imprisonment at Rome: a very unlikely supposition, that he should have left either unused for so long. Again, when, during his first Roman imprisoument, be wrote to the Colossians (Colossiane, 4. 14) and Philemon (Philemon, 94), Demas was rith him ; but wben he was writing 2 Timothy, 4. 10, Demas had forsaken him from love of this world, and gone to Thessalonia Agnin, when he wrote to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, and Philemon, he had good hopes of a speedy liben tion ; but here in 9 Timothy, 4. 6-8, he anticipates immediate death, having been at least once already tried 1 Timothy. 4. 16). Again, be is in this epistle represented as in closer confinement, than he was when writing those former epistles in his first imprisonment (even in the Philippians, which represent him in greater uncertainty as to his life, he cberi bed the hope of soon being delivered, Philippians, 8. 94; 2 Timothy, 1. 16-18; 2. 9; 4. 6-8, 18). Again (9 Timothy. & 90), be speake of having left Trophimus sick at Miletum. This could not bave been on the occasion, Acts, 20. 15. For Tropbimas was with Paul at Jerusalem shortly afterwards (Acts, 91, 9). Besides he would thus be made to speak of an event six or seres years after its occurrence, as a recent event; moreover, Timothy was, on that occasion of the apostle being at Miletum, with Paul, and therefore needed not to be informed of Trophimus' sickness there (Acts. 25. 4.17). Also, the statement (eh. < * Erastus abode at Corinth," implies that St. Paul bad shortly before been at Corinth, and left Emastus there, but Pas had not been at Corinth for several years before bis first imprisonment, and in the interval Timothy had been with

subsequently about that visit. He must therefore have been liberated suter bis first imprisonment (indeed, Hebrews, 18. 93, 94, expressly proves that the writer was in Italy and at liberty), and re sumed his apostolic journeyings, and been imprisoned at Rome again, whence shortly before his death ho wrote second Timothy.

Eusebius, Chronicles, anno 9083 (beginning October, A.D. 67), says, "Nero, to his other crimes, added the persecution of Christians: under him the apostles Peter and Paul consummated their martyrdom at Rome." Bo Jerome, Catalogue Sery torum Ecclesiasticorum." In the fourteenth year of Nero, Paui was beheaded at Rome for Christ's sake, on the same das as Peter, and was buried on the Ostian Road, in the thirty-seventh year after the death of our Lord." Alfort resson conjectures the pastoral epistles were written near this date. The interval was possibly filled up (so Ciement of Rome statom that Paul preached as far as "to the extremity of the west") by a journey to Spain (Romans, 15. 34, 28), according to bus own original intention. Muratori's Fragment on the Canon (about 170 A.D.) also alleges Paul's journey into Spain. 30 Eusebius, Chrysostom, and Jerome. Be that as it may, he seems shortly before his second iroprisonment to have visited Ephesus, where a new body of elders governed the church (Acts, 20. 25), say in tbe latter end of 66 A.D., or beginning


Introduction. of €7. Supposing him thirty at his conversion, he would now be upwards of sixty, and older in constitution than in years, through continual hardship. Even four years before he called himself" Paul the aged" (Philemon, 9).

From Ephesus he went into Macedonia (1 Timothy, 1. 3). He may have written the first epistle to Timothy from that country. But his use of "went," not "came," iu 1 Timothy, 1. 8. " When I went into Macedonia," implies he was not there when writing. Wherever he was, he writes uncertain how long he may be detained from coming to imothy (1 Timothy, 3. 14, 15). Birks shows the probability that he wrote from Corinth, between which city and Ephesus the communication was rapid and easy. His course, as on both former occasions, was from Macedon to Corinth. He finds a coincidence between 1 Timothy, 2. 11-14, and 1 Corinthians, 14. 84, as to women being silent in church; and 1 Timothy, 5. 17, 18, and 1 Corinthians, 9. 8-10, as to the maintenance of ministers, on the same principle as the Mosaic law, that the ox should not be muzzled that treadeth out the corn; and 1 Timothy, 5. 19, 20, and 2 Corinthians, 13. 1-4, as to cbarges against elders. It would be natural for the apostle in the very place where thesa directions had been en forced, to reproduce them in his letter.

The date of the epistle to Titus must depend on that assigned to first Timothy, with which it is connected in subject, phraseology, and tone. There is no difficulty in the epistle to Titus, viewed by itself, in assigning it to the earlier date, vie., before Paul's first imprisonment. In Acte, 18. 18, 19, Paul, in journeying from Corinth to Palestine, for some cause or other landed at Ephesus. Now we find (Titus, 3. 13) that Apollos in going from Ephesus to Corinth, was to touch at Crete (which seems to coincide with Apollos' journey from Ephesus to Corinth, recorded Acts, 18. 94, 97; 19.1); therefore it is not unlikely that Paul may have taken Crete similarly on his way between Corinth and Ephesus ; or, perhaps been driven out of his course to it in one of his three shipwrecks spoken of in 2 Corinthians, 11. 95, 28: this will account for his taking Ephesus on his way from Corinth to Palestine, though out of his regular course. At Ephesus Paul may have written the epistle to Titus (Hug]: there he probably met Apollos, and gave the epistle to Titus to his charge, before his departure for Corinth by way of Crete, and before the apostle's departure for Jerusalem (Acts, 18. 19-21, 94). Moreover, on Paul's way tack from Jerusalem and Antioch, he travelled some time in Upper Asia (Acte, 19. ), and it was then, probably, that his intention to "winter at Nicopolis" was realized, there being a town of that name between Antioch and Tarsus, lying ou Paul's route to Galatia (Titus, 3. 12). Thus, first Timothy wil, in this theory, be placed two and a half years later * Acts, 20. 1; cf. 1 Timothy, 1. 3).

Alford's argument for classing the epistle to Titus with first Timothy, as written after Paul's first Roman imprisonnent, stands or falls with his argument for assigning first Timothy to that date. Indeed, Hug's unobjeetionable argument for the earlier date of the epistle to Titus, favours the early date assigned to first Timothy, which is so much akin to it, if other arguments be not thought to counterbalance this. The church of Crete had been just founded (Titus, 1. 5), and yet the same heresies are censured in it as in Ephesus, which shows that no argument, such as Alford alleges against the earlier dnte of first Timothy, can be drawn from them (Titus, 1. 10, 11, 15, 16; 3. 9, 11), But vice versa, if, as seems likely from the arguments adduced, the first epistle to Timothy be assigned to the later date, the epistle to Titus must, from similarity of style, belong to the same period. Alford traces Paul's last journey before his second imprisonment thus: To Crete (Titus, 1. 5), Miletua (2 Timothy, 4. 20), Colosse (fulfilling his intention, Philemon, 92), Ephesus (I Timothy, 1. 3;

Timothy. 1. 18), from which neighbourhood he wrote the epistle to Titus, Troas, Macedonia, Corinth (2 Timothy, 4, 20), Nicopolis (Titus, 3. 12) in Epirus, where he had intended to winter: a place in which, as being a Roman colony, he would be free from tumultuary violence, and yet would be more open to a direct attack from foes in the Metropolis, Rome. Being known in Rome as the leader of the Christians, he was probably (Alford) arrested as implicated in causing the fire in 64 A.D., attributed by Nero to the Christians, and was sent to Rome by the Duumvirs of Nicopolis. There he was imprisoned as a common malefactor (2 Timothy, 2. 9); his Asiatic friends deserted him, except Onesiphorus (2 Timothy, 1. 16). Demas, Crescens, and Titus, left him. Tychicus he had sent to Ephesus, Luke alone remained with him (2 Timotby, 4. 10-12). Under these circumstances he writes the second epistle to Timothy, most likely whilst Timothy was at Ephesus (2 Timotby, 2. 17; cf. 1 Timotby, 1. 20; 2 Timothy, 4, 13), begging him to come to him before winter (2 Timothy, 4. 21), and anticipating his own execution soon (2 Timothy, 4. 6). Tychicus was perhaps the bearer of the second epistle (2 Timothy, 4 12). His defence was not made before the emperor in person, for the latter was then in Greece (2 Timothy. 4, 16, 17). Tradition represents that he was executed by the sword, which accords with the fact that his Roman citizenship would exempt him from torture: probably late in 67 A.D., or 68 A.D., the last year of Nero.

Timothy is first mentioned, Acts, 16. 1, as dwelling in Lystra (not Derbe, of. Acts, 20. 4). His mother was a Jewest anmed Eunice (2 Timothy, 1.5): his father, "a Greek" (ie, a Gentile). As Timothy is mentioned as "a disciple" in Acts, 16. 1, he must have been converted before, and this by St. Paul (1 Timothy, 1, 2), probably at his former visit to Lystra (Acte, 14. 6): at the same time, probably, that his Scripture-loving mother, Eunice, and grandmother Lois, were convertei to Christ from Judaism (2 Timotby, 3. 14, 15). Not only the good report given as to him by the brethren of Lystra, but also his origin, partly Jewish, partly Gentile, adapted him specially for being St. Paul's assistant in missionary work, labouring as the apostle did in each place, firstly among the Jews, and then among the Gentiles. In order to obviate Jew ish prejudices, he first circumcised him. He seems to have accompanied Paul in his tour through Macedonia ; but when the apostle went forward to Athens, Timothy and Silas remained in Berea. Having been sent back by Paul to visit the Thessalonian church (1 Thessalonians, 3. 2), he brought his report of it to the apostle at Corinth (1 Thessalonians, 3. 6). Hence we find his name joined with St. Paul's in the addresses of both the epistles to Thessalonians, which were written at Corinth. We again find him “ministering to" St. Paul during the lengthened stay at Ephesus (Acts, 19. 92). Thence he was sent before Paul into Macedonia and to Corinth (1 Corinthians, 4. 17; 16. 10). He was with Paul when he wrote the second epistle to Corinthians (2 Corinthians, 1. 1); and the following winter in Corinth, when Paul sent from thence his epistle to Romans (Romany, 16. 91). On Paul's return to Asia through Macedonia, he went forward and waited for the apostle at Troas (Acts, 20. 3-5). Next we find him with Paul during his imprisonment at Rome, when the apostle wrote the epistles to Colossians (Colossians, 1. 1), Philemon (Philemon, l), and Philippians (Philippians, 1. 1). He was imprisoned and set at liberty about the same time as the writer of the Hebrews (Hebrews, 13. 23). In the pastoral epistles, we find him mentioned as left by the apostle at Ephesus to superintend the church there (1 Timothy, 1.3). The last notice of him is in the request wbich Paul makes to him (9 Timothy, 4. 91) to come before winter," ie, about 67 A.D. (Alford.) Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3. 42, reports that he was first bishop of Ephesus; and Nicophorus, Ecclesiastical History, 3. 11, represents that he died by martyrdom. It then, St. John, as tradition represents, resided and died in that city, it must have been at a later period. Paul himself ordained or consecrated him with laying on of his own hands, and those of the presbytery, in accordance with prophetic intimations given respecting bim by those possessing the prophetie gift (1 Timothy. 1. 18: 4. 14; 9 Timothy, 1. 6). His self-denying character is shown by his leaving home at once to accompany the apostle, and submitting to circumcision for the gospel's sake; and also by his abstemiousness (noticed 1 Timothy. 3. 23) notwithstanding his bodily infirmities which would have warranted a more generous diet. Timidity and a want of self-confidence and bold

Timothy is to Reprore

the Heerodor. ness in dealing with the dificulties of his position, seems to have been a defect in his otherwise beautifal charactar us Christian minister (1 Corinthians, 16. 10; 1 Timothy, 4. 19; 2 Timothy, 1.7)

TAE DESIGN of the first epistle was (1.) to direct Timothy to charge tbe false tenchers against continuing to teach other doctrine than that of the gospel (1 Timothy, 1.3-80; cf. Revelation, 2. 1-6); (2) to give him instructions as to the orderly conducting of worship, the qualifications of bishops and deacons, and the relection of widows who should, in returu for church charity, do appointed service (1 Timothy, 2, to 6.9); (3.) to warn against covetousness, a sin prevalent at Ephesus, and to urge to good works (1 Timothy, 6. 8-19).


| Panl's first imprisonment, the apparent discrepancy Ver. 1-20. ADDRESS : PAUL'S DESIGN IN HAVING between his prophecy and the event may be reconciled LEFT TIMOTHY AT EPHESUS, VIZ., TO CHECK FALSE by considering that the terms of the former were not TEACHERS: TRUE USE OF THE LAW; HARMONIZING that he should never visit Ephesus again (which this WITH THE GOSPEL: God's GRACE IN CALLING Paul verse implies he did), but that they all should see his ONCE A BLASPREMER, TO EXPERIENCE AND TO face no more." I cannot think with BIRKS, that this PREACH IT: CHARGES TO TIMOTHY. 1. by the com- / verse is compatible with his theory, that Paul did not mandment of God-The authoritative injunction, as well actually visit Ephesus, though in its immediate neighas the commission, of God. In the earlier epistles the bourhood (cf. ch. 3. 14; 4, 13). The corresponding con phrase is, "By the will of God." Here it is expressed junction to "as is not given, the sentence not being in a manner implying that a necessity was laid on him completed till it is virtundly so at v. 18. I besoughtto act as an apostle, not that it was merely at his op- A mild word, instead of authoritative command, to tion. The same expression occurs in the doxology, Timothy, as a fellow-helper. come-The indefinite pro probably written long after the epistle itself. (AL- noun is slightly contemptuous as to them (Galatians, 2 FORD.) (Romans, 16. 26.) God our Saviour-The Father | 12; Jude, 4). (ELLICOTT.) teach no other doctrine-thao (ch. 2. 3: 4. 10: Luke. 1. 47: 2 Timothy. 1. 9: Titus, 1. | what I have taught Galatians, 1. 6-9). Alis propbetic 3: 2. 10; 3, 4; Jude, 25). It was a Jewish expression bodings some years before (Acts, 20, 29, 30) were Dom in devotion, drawn from the Old Testament (cf. Psalm being realized (cf.ch. 6.3). 4. fables-Legends about the 106. 21). our hope-(Colossians, 1. 27; Titus, 1. 2; 2. 13.; l origin and propagation of angels, such as the false 2. my own son-lit., "& genuine son" (cf. Acts, 16.1; teachers taught at Colosse (Colossians, 2. 16-93). "Je 1 Corinthians, 4. 14-17). See Introduction. Inercy I ish fables (Titus, 1. 14). "Profane, and old wives Added here, in addressing Timothy, to the ordinary fables" (ch. 4. 7; 2 Timothy, 4. 4). genealogies-No salutation, "Grace unto you (Romans, 1. 7; 1 Corin. merely such civil genealogies as were common amons tbians. 1. 3. &c.), and peace." In Galatians, 6. 16, I the Jews, whereby they traced their descent from the ** peace and mercy occur. There are many similarities | patriarchs, to which Paul would not obiect, and wbich of style between the epistle to the Galatians and the he would not as here class with "fables," but Gnostic pastoral epistles (see Introduction); perhaps owing to genealogies of spirits and cons, as they called them. his there, as here, baving, as a leading object in writ-"Lists of Gnostic emanations." (ALJORD.) SO TER. ing, the correction of false teachers, especially as to the I TULLIAN adversus Valentinianos. c. 3, and IRES&CS, right and wrong use of the law (v. 9). If the earlier Pras. The Judaizers here alluded to, whilst maindate be assigned to 1 Timothy, it will fall not long I taining the perpetual obligation of the Mosaic law, after, or before according as the epistle to the Galatians I joined with it a theosophic ascetic tendency, pretendin was written at Ephesus or at Corinth), the writing of to see in it mysteries deeper than others could see the epistle to the Galatians, which also would account | The seeds, not the full-groron Gnosticism of the post for some similarity of style. .* Mercy" is grace of a apostolic age, then existed. This iormed the trans more tender kind, exercised towards the miserable, the tion stage between Judaism and Gnosticisini. "Endexperience of which in one's own case especially fits for lesso refers to the tedious unprofitableness of their the gospel MINISTRY, CT. as to Paul himself (v. 14, 16, lengthy genealogies (cf. Titus, 3. 9). Paul opposes to 1 Corinthians, 7. 26; 2 Corinthians, 4. 1; Hebrews, 2. 17). their "ons," the King of the wrons (so the Greck, e.lil. (BENGEL.] He did not use "mercy" as to the churches to whom be glory throughout the cons of wons. The because "mercy" in all its fulness already existed to word "con" was possibly not used in the technical wards them; but in the case of an individual minister, sense of the later Gnostics as yet: bat "tbe only wist fresh measures of it were continually needed. "Grace" God" (0.17), by anticipation, confutes the subsequentis has reference to the sins of men ; "mercy" to their adopted notions in the Gnostics own phraseology misery. God extends His gruce to men as they are questions-of mere speculation (Acts, 26, %), not prät guilty ; His mercy to them as they are miserable. tical; generating merely curious discussions. "Ques. ITRENCA] Jesus Carist- The oldest MSS. read the tions and strifes of words" (ch. 6. 4); "to do progo order." Christ Jesus." In the pastoral epistles "Christ" (2 Timothy, 2. 14);"gendering strifes" (2 Timothy, 2, is often put before "Jesus," to give prominence to the * Vain jangling" (v. 6, 71 of would-be * teachers of the fact that the Messianic promises of the Old Testament, law." godly eaifying-The oldest MSS. read, the dis well known to Timothy (2 Timothy. 3. 16), were fulfilled pensation of God," the gospel dispensation of God to in Jesus. 3. Timothy's superintendence of the church wards man (1 Corinthians, 9. 17), which is has its at Ephesus was as locum tenens for the apostle, and so element) in faith." CONYBEARE translates, "The ex was temporary. Thus, the office of superintending ercising of the stewardship of God" (1 Corinthians, 2. 17. overseer, needed for a time at Ephesus or Crete, in the He infers that the false teachers in Ephesus were pre absence of the presiding apostle, subsecuently became byters, which accords with the prophecy Acts, $. 32 a permanent institution on the removal, by death, of However, the oldest Latin versions, and LRENDS, 420 the apostles who beretofore superintended the | HILARY, support English Version reading. CL. churches. The first title of these overseers seems to "faith unseigped." 5. But-In contrast to the doctrine have been "angels (Revelation, 1. 20). 3. As I besought of the false teachers. the end-the aimn. the COMBI thee to remain-He meant to have added, "So I still medt-Greek, "of the cbarge which you ought to ura beseech thee," but does not complete the sentence un on your flock Referring to the same Greek word til he does so virtually, not formally, at v. 18. at Ephesus v. 3. 18: here, however, in a larger sense, es including -Paul, in Acts, 20. 25, declared to the Ephesian elders, the gospel "dispensation of God" (Note, c. 4 and .

I knoro that ye all shall see my face no more." If, which was the sum and substance of the "charge com then, as the balance of arguments seems to favour (see mitted to Timothy wherewith he should " charges bus Introduction), this epistle was written subsequently to flock, charity-LOVE: the sun and end of the law at

Lawful Use of the Law:


Not for the Righteous. of the gospel alike, and that wherein the gospel is the posers of the law, for whom it is enncted" (so the Greek fulfilment of the spirit of the law in its every essential for "is made");"ungodly and sinners" (Greek, he who jot and tittle (Romans, 13. 10). The foundation is faith does not reverence God, and he who openly sins against (n. 4), the "end" is loce (v. 14; Titus, 3. 15). out of - Him), the opposers of God, from whom the law comes; springing as from a fountain. pure heart-a heart puri. / “unholy and profane" (those inwardly impure, and fied by faith (Acts, 15.9; 2 Timothy, 2. 22; Titus, 1. 15). I those deserving exclusion from the outward participagood conscience-A conscience cleared from guilt by the tion in services of the sanctuary), sinners against the effect of sound faith in Christ (v. 19; ch. 3. 9; 2 Timotby. I third and fourth commandments; "murderers (or as 1. 3; 1 Peter, 3. 21). Contrast 1 Timothy, 4, 2; Titus, 1. the Greek may mean, *smiters) of fathers and... 15: cf. Acts, 23. 1. St. John uses "heart," where Paul / mothers." sinners against the fifth commandment; would use "conscience." In Paul the understanding is "manslayers," sinners against the sixth commandment. the seat of conscience: the heart is the seat of love. 10. whoremongers, &c.-sinners against the seventh (BENGEL) A good conscience is joined with sound commandment. men-stealers-i.e., slave-dealers. The faith; a bad conscience with unsoundness in the faith most heinous offence against the eighth commandment. (cf. Hebrews. 9. 14). faith unfeigned-Not a hypocritical, I No stealing of a man's goods can equal in atrocity the dead, and unfruitful faith, but faith working by love stealing of a man's liberty. Slavery is not directly as(Galatians, 6. 6). The false teachers drew men off from | sailed in the New Testament: to have done so would such a loving, working, real faith, to profitless, specu I have been to revolutionize violently the existing order lative "qnestions" (v. 4) and jangling (v. 6). 6. From of things. But Christianity teaches principles sure which-piz., from a pure heart, good conscience, and to undermine, and at last overthrow it, wherever faith unfeigned, the well-spring of love. having swerved | Christianity bas had its natural development (Matthew, -lit.. " having missed the mark (the end') to be aimed | 7. 12). liars...perjured-offenders against the pinth conat." It is translated "erred," ch. 6. 21: 2 Timothy, 2. | mandment. if there be any other thing, &c.-Auswering 18. Instead of aiming at and attaining the graces above to the tenth commandment in its widest aspect. He Darned, they have turned aside ch. 6. 15: 2 Timothy, | does not particularly specify it, because his object is to 4. 4; Hebrews, 12. 13) unto vain jangling:" lit., "vain bring out the grosser forms of transgression; whereas talk," about the law and genealogies of angels (v. 7:1 the tenth is deeply spiritual, so much so indeed, that Titus, 3. 9: 1. 10); 1 Timothy, 6. 20,"vain babblings | it was by it that the sense of sin, in its subtlest form of and oppositions,* &c. It is the greatest vanity when "lust," Paul tells us (Romans, 7. 7), was brought home divine things are not truthfully discussed (Romans, to his own conscience. Thus, Paulargues, these would1. 21. (BENGEL. 7. Sample of their "vain talk" (v. 6). I be teachers of the law whilst boasting of a higher perfecDasiring-They are would-be teachers, not really so. the I tion through it, really bring themselves down from the law-the Jewish law (Titus, 1. 14: 3. 9). The Judaizers | gospel elevation to the level of the grossly "lawless." here meant seem to be distinct from those impugned for whom, not for gospel believers, the law was de. in the epistle to the Galatians and Romans, who made signed. And in actual practice the greatest sticklers the works of the law necessary to justification in oppo- | for the law as the means of moral perfection, as in this sition to gospel grace. The Judaizers here meant cor case, are those ultimately liable to fall utterly from the rupted the law with "fables," which they pretended morality of the law. Gospel grace is the only true to found on it, subversive of morals as well as of truth. means of sanctification as well as of justification. sound Their error was not in maintaining the obligation of -healthy, spiritually wholesome (ch. 6. 3; 2 Timothy, 1. the law, but in abusing it by fabulous and immoral in- | 13; Titus, 1, 13; 2. 2), as opposed to sickly, morbid (as the terpretations of, and additions to it. neither what they Greck, of "doting" means, ch. 6. 4), and "canker" say, nor whereof-neither understanding their own asser

cir oron asser. (2 Timothy, 2. 17). "The doctrine," or "teaching, which tions, nor the object itself about which they make them. is according to godliness" (ch. 6. 3). 11. According to They understand as little about the one as the other. the glorious gospel-The Christian's freedom from the (ALFORD.) 8. Bat-"Now we know" (Romans, 3. 19; | laro as a sanctifier, as well as a justifier, implied in the 7. 14). law is good-in full agreement with God's holi previous v. 9, 10, is what this v. 11 is connected with. ness and goodness. if a man-Primarily, a teacher: This exemption of the righteous from the law, and asthen, every Christian. use it lawfully-in its lawful signment of it to the lawless as its true objects, is "acplace in the gospel economy, riz., not as a means of a cording to the gospel of the glory (so the Greek, cf. Note, * righteous man" attaining higher perfection than could 2 Corinthians, 4. 4) of the blessed God." The gospel be attained by the gospel alone (ch. 4. 8; Titus, 1. 14), | manifests God's glory (Ephesians, 1. 17: 3. 16) in accountwhich was the perverted use to which the false teachers ing "righteous" the believer, through the righteousness put it, but as a means of awakening the sense of sin in / of Christ, without the law" (v. 9); and in imparting the ungodly (v. 9, 10; cf. Romads, 7. 7-12; Galatians, 3. that righteousness wherety he loathes all those sins 21). 9. law is not made for a righteous man-Not for one against which (v. 9, 10) the law is directed. The term standing by faith in the righteousness of Christ put on "blessed," indicates at once immortality and supreme him for justification, and imparted inwardly by the happiness. The supremely-blessed One is He from Spirit for sanctification. “One not forensically amen- whom all blessedness flows. This term, as applied to able to the law." (ALFORD.) For sanctification, the Gon, occurs only here and ch. 6. 16: appropriate in law gives no inward power to fulfil it; but ALFORD speaking here of the gospel blessedness, in contrast to goes too far in speaking of the righteous man as "not the curse on those under the law (v. 9; Galatians, 3. 10). morally needing the law." Doubtless, in proportion as committed to my trust-translate as in the Greek order, he is inwardly led by the Spirit, the justified man needs which brings into prominent emphasis Paul, "comnot the law, which is only an outward rule (Romans, (mitted in trust to ME;" in contrast to the kind of law6. 14; Galatians, 8, 18, 23). But as the justified man teaching which they (who had no gospel-commission). oftep does not give himself up wholly to the inward | the false teachers, assumed to themselves (v. 8: Titus, leading of the Spirit, he morally needs the outward 1, 3). 12. The honour done him in having the gospel lau to show him his sin and God's requirements. The ministry committed to bim suggests the digression to reason why the ten commandments have no power to what he once was, no better (v. 13) than those lawless condemn the Christian, is not that they have no authoones described above (v. 9, 10), wben the grace of our ray over him, but because Christ has fulfilled them as Lord (v. 14) visited him, and-Omitted in most (not our surety (Romans, 10. 4). disobedient-Greck, "not all) of the oldest MSS. I thank-Greek, "I have (i.e., subject insubordinate: it is translated "unruly," feel) gratitude." enabled me-The same Greek verb as Titus. 1. 6. 10. "Lawless and disobedient" refer to op- l in Acts. 9. 22, "Saul increased the more in strength."

Paul Himself a Living Proof of

1 TIMOTHY, I. God's Grace Surmounting Man's Sin. An undesigned coincidence between Paul and Luke, I the grand fundamental truth of salvation through his companion. Enabled me, viz., for the ministry. Christ, confutes the false teachers' abstruse and ur * It is not in my own strength that I bring this doc- practical speculations (1 Corinthians, 1. 18-28; Titus, trine to med, but as strengthened and nerved by Him 2. 1). acceptation-reception (as of a boon) into the who saved me." (THEODORET.) Man is by nature heart, as well as the understanding, with all gladness: " without strength" (Romans, 6. 6. True conversion this is faith acting on the gospel offer, and welcoming and calling confer power. (BEXGEL.) for that-tbe main and appropriating it (Acts, 2. 41). Christ-as promised. ground of his "thanking Christ," he counted me faith Jesas-as manifested. (BENGKL) came into the worldfui-He foreordered and foresaw that I would be faith. | which was full of sin (John, 1. 29; Romans, 5.12; 1 Jobin, ful to the trust committed to me. Paul's thanking God 2. 2). This implies His pre-existence. John, 1.9, Greek, for this, shows that the merit of his faithfulness was "The true Light that, coming into the world, lighteth due solely to God's grace, not to his own natural every man." to save sioners-even notable sinners lika strength (1 Corinthians. 7. 25. Faithfulness is the | Saul of Tarsus. His instance was without a rival since quality required in a steward (1 Corinthians, 4. 2). the ascension, in point of the greatness of the sin and putting me into-rather as in 1 Thessalonians, 6.9,"Ap- the greatness of the mercy : that the consenter to pointing me (in His sovereign purposes of grace) unto Stephen, the proto-martyr's death, should be the suc the ministry" (Acts, 20. 24). 13. Who was before-Greek, cessor of the same! I am-not merely. "I was chief * Formerly being a blasphemer." "Notwithstanding (1 Corinthians, 16. 9; Ephesians, 3. &; cf. Luke, 18. 19. that I was before a blasphemer." &c. (Acts. 26. 9, 11). I To each believer his own sids must always appear, as persecutor (Galatians, 1. 13.) injurious-Wreck, "in- long as he lives, greater than those of others, which he sulter:" one who acts injuriously from arrogant con- | never can know as he can know bis OWD. chief-The tempt of others. Translate Romans, 1. 30." despiteful." | same Greck as in v. 16, "first," which alludes to this One who added insult to injury. BENOEL translates, 16th v. Translate in both verses, "foremost. Well "a despiser." I prefer the idea, contumelious to others. might he infer where there was mercy for him, there is (WAIL.) Still I agree with BENGEL that "blas- I mercy for all who will come to Christ (Matthew, 18. il; phemer" is against God," persecutor, against holy men, Luke, 19. 10). 16. How beit-Greck, "But." contrasting and "insolently-injurious" includes, with the idea of his own conscious sinfulness with God's gracious visi injuring others, that of insolent "uppishness" | tation of him in mercy. for this cause--for this very (DONALDSOX) in relation to one's self. This threefold | purpose. that in me-in my case. first-"foremost. relation to God, to one's neighbour, and to one's self, As I was "foremost" (Greek for chief, v. 15) in sin, 80 occurs often in this epistle (v. 8, 9, 14; Titus, 2. 12). I God has made me the "foremost" sample of mercy. obtained mercy-God's mercy, and Paul's want of it, show-to His own glory the middle Greck voice), Epbestand in sharp contrast (ELLICOTT). Greek," I was made sians, 2. 7. all long-suffering-Greek," the whole (of His! the object of mercy." The sense of mercy was perpetual | long-suffering," viz., in bearing so long with me whilst I in the mind of the apostle (cf. Note, v. 2). Those who was a persecutor. a pattern-a sample (1 Corinthians. have felt mercy can best have mercy on those out of 10.0, 11) to assure the greatest sinners of the certainty the way (Hebrews, 6.2, 3). because I did it ignorantly that they shall not be rejected in coming to Christ, since -Ignorance does not in itsell deserve pardon; but it even Saul found mercy. So David made his own 0830 is a less culpable cause of unbelief than pride and wilful of pardon, notwithstanding the greatness of his sin, s hardening of one's self against the truth (John, 9. 41; sample to encourage other sinners to seek pardon Acts, 26. 9). Hence it is Christ's plea of intercession (Psalm 32.5,6). The Greek for " pattern" is sometimes for His murderers (Luke, 23. 34); and is made by the used for "& sketch" or outline-the filling up to take apostles a mitigating circumstance in the Jews sin, and place in each inan's own case, believe on him-bebied one giving a hope of a door of repentance (Acts, 3. 17; rests on Him as the only foundation on which faith Romans, 10. 2). The "because," &c., does not imply relies. to life everlasting--the ultimate aim which faith that ignorance was & sufficient reason for mercy being always keeps in view (Titus, 1. 2). 17. A suitable codbestowed: but shows how it was possible that such a l clusion to the beautifully-simple enunciation of the sinner could obtain mercy. The positive ground of gospel, of which his own history is a living sample or mercy being shown to him, lies solely in the compas-pattern. It is from the experimental sense of grace that sion of God (Titus, 3. 6). The ground of the ignorance the doxology flows. (BENGEL) the King eternallies in the unbelief, which implies that this ignorance is lit., "King of the eternal ages." The LXX, translate not unaccompanied with guilt. But there is a great Exodus, 16. 18. "The Lord shall reign for ages and le difference between his honest zeal for the law, and a l yond them." Psalm 145. 13, Margin, “Thy kingdom 15 wilful striving against the Spirit of God (Matthew, 12. an everlasting kingdom," lit., “a kingdom of all ages. 24-32; Luke, 11, 62), (WIESINGER.) 14. Aud-Greek, | The "life everlasting" (v. 16) suggested here "the King ** But." Not only so (was mercy shown me). but, &c. eternal." or everlasting. It answers also to "for erat the grace-by which "I obtained mercy" (v. 13). was and ever" at the close, lit., "to the ages of the ages" exceeding abundant-Greek, "superabounded." Where the countless succession of ages made up of agessin abounded, grace did much more abound (Romans. | immortal - The oldest MSS. read, "incorruptible." 6. 20). with faith-accompanied with faith, the opposite | Vulgate, however, and one very old MS. read as Englis of “unbelief" (v. 13). love-in contrast to "a blas. Version (Romans, 1. 23). invisible-ch. 6. 16; Exodus, phemer, persecntor, and injurious." which is in Christ / 33. 20; John, 1. 18; Colossians, 1. 16; Hebrews, 11.1.1 -as its element and home (ALFORD]: bere as its ! the only wise God-The oldest MSS. omit "wise," which source whence it flows to us. 15. faithful-worthy of probably crept in from Romans, 16. 27, where it is mort credit, because "Godwho says it " is faithful" to Ris appropriate to the context than here (cf. Jude, $ word (1 Corinthians, 1,9; 1 Thessalonians, 6. 24; 2 Thes "The only Potentate" (ch. 6. 16; Psalm 86. 10: John, á. salonians, 3. 3; Revelation, 21. 6: 22. 6). This seems to 44). for ever, &c.-See Note, above. The thought of have become an axiomatic saving among Christians : eternity (terrible as it is to unbelievers) is delightful to the phrase, faithful saying, is peculiar to the pastoral those assured of grace (v. 16). (BENGEL 18. flere epistles (ch. 2. 11; 4. 9; Titus, 3. 8). Translate as Greek, I sumes the subject begun at o. . The conclusiou "Faithful is the saying." all-all possible: full: to be (apodosis) to the foregoing. " as I besought thee.. received by all, and with all the faculties of the soul, I charge" (v. 3), is here given, if not formally, at leas! mind, and heart. Paul, unlike the false teachers (v.7), substantially. This charge-viz., * That thou in the understands what he is saying, and whereof he afirms: 1 (so the Greeke) mightest war," &c. 1.6., fulfil thy higt and by his siunplicity of style and subject, setting forth calling, not only as a Christian, but as & piuter

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