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Sell-pleasing Humility Opposed


to Holding fast the Head. in my mind, whether he give, or only procure it. (Cau- crucifed Lord. into whose death ye were buried (Galations for times.) Scripture opposes the idea of tians, 6. 14; 1 Peter, 4. 1. 2). are ye subject to ordinances "patrons" or "intercessors" (1 Timothy, 2. 5, 6). True-why do ye submit to be made subject to ordinances! Christian bumility joins consciousness of utter personal Referring to t. 14: you are again being made subject to demerit, with a sense of participation in the divine life "ordinances," the "handwriting" of which had been through Christ, and in the dignity of our adoption by "blotted out" (v. 14). 21, CY, v. 16, "meat...drink." God. Without the latter being realized, a false self- He gives instances of the "ordinances" (v. 20) in the hamiliation results, which displays itself in ceremonies words of their imposers. There is an ascending climax and ascetic self-abasement (v. 23),which after all is but of superstitious prohibitions. The first Greek word spiritual pride under the mock guise of humility. Con- (hapse) is distinguished from the third (thiges), in that trast "glorying in the Lord" (1 Corinthians, 1, 31). the former means close contact and retention; the latter, intrading into... things which he hath not seen-So very momentary contact (cf. 1 Corinthians, 7.1; John, 20, 17, old MSS. and Vulgate and ORIGEN read. But the Greek, “Hold me not;" "cling not to me"). Translate. oldest MSS. and Lucifer omit "not:" then translate, / "Handle not, neither taste, nor even touch." The three " Haughtily treading on standing on' (ALFORD the refer to meats. "Handle not" a stronger term than things which he hath seen." TREGELLES refers this to "nor even touch"), "por taste" with the tongue, "nor fancied visions of angels. But if St. Paul had meant even touch." however slight the contact. 22. Whicha fancied seeing, he would have used some qualifying things, viz., the things handled, touched, and tasted. word, as." which he seemed to see," not "which he hath are to perish-lit., "are (constituted by their very nature) seep." Plainly the things were actually seen by him, I for perishing (or destruction by corruption) in (or with) whether of demoniacal origination (1 Samuel, 28. 11-20, their using up" (consumption). Therefore they cannot or phenomena resulting from natural causation, mis really and lastingly defile a man Matthew, 15. 17: taken by bim as if supernatural. Paul not stopping to 1 Corinthians, 6. 13). after-according to. Referring to discuss the nature of the things so seen, fixes on the , 20, 21. All these "ordinances" are according to human, radical error, the tendency of such a one in all this to not divine, injunction. doctrines-Greek, “teachings." walk by SENSE (viz., what he haughtily prides himself ALFORD translates, (doctrinal"systems." 23. haveon having SEEN), rather than by PAITH in the UNSEEN Greek, "are having :* implying the permanent cha* Head" (v. 19; cf. John, 20. 29; 2 Corinthians, 5. 7;racteristic which these ordinances are supposed to Hebrews, 11. 1). Thus in the parallelism, "vainly have show of wisdom - rather, "a reputation of

ed up" answers to “haughtily treading on," or wisdom." (ALFORD.) will-worship - arbitrarily-in* setting his foot on;" "his fleshly mind" answers to vented worship: would-be-worship, devised by man's "the things which he hath seen," since his fleshliness oron will, not God's. So jealous is God of human betrays itself in priding himself on what he hath seen, / will-worship, that He struck Nadab and Abihu dead rather than on the unseen objects of faith. That the for burning strange incense (Leviticus, 10. 1-3). So things seen may have been of demoniacal origination, Uzziah was stricken with leprosy for usurping the appears from 1 Timothy, 4.1, "Some shall depart from office of priest 2 Chronicles, 26, 16-21). Cf, the willthe faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines worship of Saul (1 Samuel, 13. 8-14) for which he was of devils" (Greek, "demons"). A warning to modern doomed to lose his throne. This "voluntary worship" spiritualists. puffed uy-implying that the previous 80- | is the counterpart to their “voluntary humility" called "humility” (Grcek, "lowliness of mind") was (p. 18: both specious in appearance, the former seemreally a "putting up." fleshly mind-Greek, " By the ing in religion to do even more than God requires (as mind of his own flesh." The flesh, or sensuous in the dogmas of the Roman and Greek churches), but principle, is the fountain head whence his mind draws really setting aside God's will for man's own; the latter its craving after religious objects of sight, instead of, I seemingly self-abasing, but really proud of man's selfin true humility as a member, "holding fast the (un-willed humility" (Greek, "lowliness of mind"), whilst seen) Head.* 19. Translate, "Not holding fast the virtually rejecting the dignity of direct communion Heau." He who does not hold Christ solely and with Christ, the Head, by worshipping of angels. Desupremely above all others, does not hold Him at all. glecting of the body-Greek, "not sparing of the body." (BENGEL) The want of firm holding of Christ has set This asceticism seems to have rested on the Oriental him loose to (pry into, and so) "tread haughtily on theory that matter is the source of evil. This also (pride himself on) things which he hath seen." Each looked plausible (cf. 1 Corinthians, 9. 27). not in any must hold fast the Head for himself, not merely be honour-of the body. As“neglecting of the body" deattached to the other members, however high in the scribes asceticism positively; so this clause, negatively. body. (ALFORD.) from which-rather," from whom." | Not paying any of that “honour" which is due to the all the body-.e., all the members of the body (Ephe-body as redeemed by such a price as the blood of sians, 4. 16), joints-the points of union where the Christ. We should not degrade, but have a just estisupply of nourishment passes to the different members, mation of ourselves, not in ourselves, but in Christ furnishing the body with the materials of growth. bands (Acts, 13. 46; 1 Corinthians, 3. 21; 6. 15; 7. 23; 12, 23, 24; -the sinews and nerves which bind together linband | 1 Thessalonians, 4. 4). True self-denial regards the limb. Faith, love, and peace, are the spiritual bands, spirit, and not the forms of ascetical self-mortification CI. "koit together in love" (v. 2; ch. 3. 14; Ephesians, I in "meats which profit not those occupied therein" 4. 3). having nourishment ministered-i.e., supplied to l (Hebrews, 13. 9), and is consistent with Christian selfit continually. "Receiving ministration." knit to- respect, the “honour" which belongs to the believeras gether-The Greek is translated "compacted" Ephe- dedicated to the Lord. Cf. "vainly," v. 18. to the sans. 4. 10: implying firm consolidation with the satisfying of the flesh-This expresses the real tendency increase of God-Ephesians, 4. 16;—i.e., wrought by God, I of their buman ordinances of bodily asceticism, volunthe Author and Sustainer of the believer's spiritual tary-humility, and will-worship of angels. Whilst life, in union with Christ, the Head (1 Corinthians, seeming to deny self and the body, they really are pam3. 6); and tending to the honour of God, being worthy pering the flesh. Thus" satisfying of the flesh" answers of Him, its Author. 20. Wherefore-The oldest MSS.) to "puffed up by his fleshly mind" (v. 18), so that omit "Wherefore." if ye be dead-Greek, if ye died (so "flesh" is used in its ethical sense," the carnal nature" as to be freed from," &c. (cf. Romans, 6. 2: 7. 2, 3; Gala- | as opposed to the spiritual: not in the sense, tians. 9. 19). rudiments of the world-(v. 8.) Carpal, / "body." The Greek for "satisfying." implies satiating outward, worldly, legal ordinances. as though living- to repletion, or to excess. “A surfeit of the carnal sense as though you were not dead to the world like your is human tradition." (HILARY THE DEACON, in Exhor alion to Hearenzy Aims.


Mortification of Earthly Members

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though seeminatify the flesh

BENGEL) Tradition puffs up: it clozs the heavenly in God--to whom Christ has ascended. Our "life" is perceptions. They put away true "honour" that they laid up for us in God (ch, 1. 6), and is secured by may "satiate to the full THE FLESH." Self-imposed the decree of Him who is invisible to the world ordinances gratify the flesh (viz., self-righteousness), (2 Timothy. 4. 8). 4. Translate. * When Christ shall be though seeming to mortify it.

manifested who is our life (John, 11. 26: 14. 6, 19). then CHAPTER III.

shall ye also with Him be manifested in glory" a Peter, Ver. 1-25. EXHORTATIONS TO HEAVENLY AIMS, AS 4. 13). The spiritual life our souls have now in Him, OPPOSED TO EARTALY, ON THE GROUND OF UNION TO shall be extended to our bodies (Romans, 8. 11). tben TRE RISEN SAVIOUR: TO MORTIFY AND PUT OFF THE and not till then. Those err who think to find a per OLD MAX. AND TO PUT ON THE NEW: IN CHARITY. fect church before then. The true Church is now HUMILITY, WORDS OF EDIFICATION, THANKFULNESS: militant. Rome errs in trying to set up a church now RELATIVE DUTIES. 1. If...thev-The connexion with regnant and triumphant. The true Church shall be ch. 2. 18, 23, is, he had condemned the “fleshly mind" visible as a perfect and reigning Church, when Christ and the "satiating to the full the flesh;" in contrast to shall be visibly manifested as her reigning Head. Rome this he now says, “If then ye have been once for all baving ceased to look for Him in patient faith, has set raised up (Greek aorist) together with Christ" (viz., up a visible mock-head, a false anticipation of the at your conversion and baptism, Romans, 6. 4). seek millennial kingdom. The papacy took to itself by robthose things...above- Matthew, 6. 33; Philippians, 3. 20.) bery that giory which is an object of hope, and can sitteth-rather as Greek. * Where Christ is, sitting on only be reached by bearing the cross now. When the the right hand of God" (Ephesians, 1, 20). The Head Church became a harlot, she ceased to be a bride wbo being quickened, the members are also quickened with goes to meet her Bridegroom. Hence tbe millennial Him. Where the Head is, there the members must kingdom ceased to be looked for. (AUBERLEN.) 5. be. The contrast is between the behever's former Mortify-Greek," Make a corpse of;" "make dead," "put state, alive to the world but dead to God, and his to death." therefore - Note. . 3.) Follow out to its present state, dead to the world but alive to God: and necessary consequence the fact of your haring once for between the earthy abode of the unbeliever and the al died with Christ spiritually at your regeneration, heavenly abode of the believer (1 Corinthians, 16. 47, 48). by daily "deadening your members, of which united We are already seated there in Him as our Head; and the body of the sins of the flesh" consists ch. 2. 1). hereafter sball be seated by Him, as the Bestower of "The members to be mortified are the fleshly instruour bliss. As Elisha 2 Kings, 2. 2) said to Elijah when ments of sust, in so far as the members of the body are about to ascend, "As the Lord liveth...I will not leave abused to such purposes. Habitually repress and do thee: so we must follow the ascended Saviour with violence to corrupt desires of which the members are the wings of our meditations and the chariots of our the instruments (cf. Romans, 6. 19; 8. 13; Galatians, affections. We sbould trample upon and subdue our 24, 25. opon the earth-wbere they find their support lusts, that our conversation nay correspond to our (BENGEL) (cf. v. 2, "things on earth"). See Ephesians, Saviour's condition; that where the eyes of apostles 6. 3, 4. inordinate affection - "lustful passion." eril were forced to leave Him, thither our thoughts may concupiscence-more general than the last (ALFORD), the follow Him Matthew. 6. 21: John, 12. 32). (PEARSON.) | disorder of the external senses; lustful passion.** Of ourselves we can no more ascend than a bar of iron lust cithin. (BENGEL) covetousness-marked off by lift itself up from the earth. But the love of Christ the Greek article as forming a whole genus by itself, disis a powerful magnet to draw us up (Ephesians, 2. 6,6). tinct from the genus containing the various species just The design of the gospel is not merely to give rules, enumerated. It implies a self-idolizing.grasping spirit: but mainly to supply motires to holiness. 2. Trans far worse than another Greek term translated the love late, "Set your mind on the things above, not on the of money" (1 Timothy. 6. 10). wbica is-ie.. inasmuch things." &e. Ich. 2. 20). Contrast " who mind earthly as it is " idolatry." 1. Note, Ephesians, 4. 19. on its things" (Philippians, 3. 19). Whatever we make an connexion with sins of impurity. Self and mammor idol of, will either be a cross to us if we be believers, are deified in the heart instead of God Matthew, or a curse to us if unbelievers. 3. The Greek aorist 6. 24: Note, Ephesians, 5. 5. 6. Note, Ephesians, & implies, ** For ye bave died once for all" (ch. 2. 12: 7. sometime- once.* walked...when ye lived in the Romans, 6. 4-7). It is not said, Ye must die practically -These sins were the very element in which ye ** lired* to the world in order to become dead with Christ; but before ye became once for all dead with Christ to the latter is assumed as once for all having taken place them); no wonder, then, that ye "talked in them. in the regenerauon: what believers are tola is, Develope (1. on the opposite side, "laring in the Spirit," haring this spiritual life in practice. "No one longs for as its legitimate consequence," tulking in the Spinto eternal, incorruptible, and immortal life, unless he be (Galatians, 5. 25). The living comes first in both cases wearied of this temporal, corruptible, and mortal hfe." the walking follows. 8. But now that ye are no (AUGUSTINE) your life...hid--Psalm 83.3-like a seed longer licing in them. se also like other believers: buried in the earth; cf. **planted" Romans, 6. 6. C1. 1 answering to "ye also c. 7) like other unbeliever Matthew, 13, 31 and 33, "like...leaven...hud." As the formerly. put off-"Do ye also put away all these." glory of Christ now is hid from the world, so also the rig.. those just enumerated, and those which follow glory of believers' inner life, proceeding from commun- (ALFORD.) anger, wrath - Note, Ephesians, 4. .) son with Him, is still hidden with Christ in God; but blasphemy-rather "reviling." "evil-speaking, as it is (v.4) when Christ, the Source of this life, shall manifest translated Ephesians, 4. 31. filthy communication-The Himself in glory, then shall their hidden glory be mani context favours the translation, "abusive language sest, and correspond in appearance to its original rather than impure conversation. "Foul language best INBANDER.) The Christian's secret communion with retains the ambiguity of the original. 9. Ephesians. God will now at times make itself seen without his 4. 22, 25.) put off - Greek, "wholly put off :utterly intending it (Matthew, 6. 14, 16); but his full mani- renounced. [TIITXANX. the old map - the unre festation is at Christ's manifestation Matthew, 13. 43; generate nature which ye had before conversion. he Romans, 8. 19-23). "It doth not yet appear (Greek, is deeds-habits of acting. 10. the new mal-Note, Epbe not yet manifested') what we shall be” (1 Jobn, 3. 2; sians, 4. 23.) Here (neon) the Greek, means "the 1 Peter, 1, 7). As yet Christians do not always recog- recently puron nature:" that lately received at regener nise the "life" of one another, so hidden is it, and even tion (see Note, Ephesians, 4. 23, 24. which is renewes at times doubt as to their own life so weak is it, and -Greek," which is being renewed* (anakainoumenoni: so harassed with temptations (Psalm 51.: Romans. 7.). viz., its development into a perfectly renewed Dature is

Rencial of the Mind,


Charity: Peace of God. continually progressing to completion. in knowledge it. (BENGEL.) bowels of mercies-Some of the oldest rather as the Greek," unto perfect knowledge' (Notes, MSS. read singular, "mercy. Bowels express the ch. 1. 6, 9, 10). Perfect knowledge of God excludes all yearning compassion, which has its seat in the heart, and sin (John, 17. 3). after the image of him that created in which we feel to act on our inward parts (Genesis, -pis.. of God that created the new man (Ephesians, | 43. 30 : Jeremiah, 31. 20: Luke, 1. 78, Margin). hum2. 10: 4. 94). The new creation is analogous to the first bleness of mind-True "lowliness of mind." not the creation (2 Corinthians, 4.6). As man was then made mock "bumility" of the false teachers (ch. 2. 23; in the image of God naturally, so now spiritually. But Ephesians, 4, 2, 32). 13. Forbearing--as to present the image of God formed in us by the Spirit of God, offences. forgiving--as to past offences. quarrelis as much more glorious than that borne by Adam, rather as Greek, “cause of blame." "cause of comas the Second Man, the Lord from heaven, is more plaint." Christ-who had so infinitely greater cause of glorious than the first man. Genesis, 1. 26, “Let us complaint against us. The oldest MSS. and Vulgate make man in our image, after our likeness." The read "tbe Lord." English Version is supported by "image" is claimed for man, 1 Corinthians, 11. 7; the one very old MS, and old versions. It seems to have "likeness, James, 3. 9. ORIOKN (Principia 3.6) taught, crept in from Ephesians, 4. 32. 14. above-rather "over," the image was something in which all were created, us in Ephesians. 6. 16. Charity, which is the crowning and which continued to man after the fall (Genesis, grace, covering the multitude of others' sins (1 Peter, 9. 6). The likeness was something torcards which man | 4. 8), must overlie all the other graces enumerated. was created, that he might strive after it and attain it. which is-.e., for it is: lit., which thing is." bond of TExch thinks God in the double statement (Genesis, Jerfectness.-An upper garment which completes and 1. 26). contemplates both man's first creation and his keeps together the rest, which, without it, would be being "renewed in knowledge after the image of Himloose and disconnected. Seeming graces, where love that created Him." 11. Where-translate, "Wherein," is wanting, are mere hypocrisy. Justification by faith. riz, in the sphere of the renewed man. Deither...nor...is assumed as already having taken place in those nor...nor-translate as Greek, “There is no such thing whom Paul addresses, v. 12, “elect of God, holy...beas Greek and Jew the difference of privilege between loved," and ch. 2. 12; so that there is no plea here for those born of the natural seed of Abraham, and those | Rome's view of justification by works. Love and its not, is abolished), circumcision and uncircumcision works "perfect," i.e., manifest the full maturity of (the difference of legal standing between the circum faith developed (Matthew, 6. 44. 48). love...be ye cised and uncircumcised is done away, Galatians, 6. 16) perfect, &c. (James, 2. 21, 92; 1 John, 2. 5). "If we

-bondman, freeman." The present Church is one called love one another, God's love is perfected in us" (Roout of the flesh, and the present world-course (Ephesians, mans, 13. 8; 1 Corinthians, 13.; 1 Timothy, 1.6; 1 John, 2. 2), wherein such distinctions exist, to life in the 4. 12). As to “Bond," cf. ch. 2. 2, " knit together in Spirit, and to the future first resurrection: and this belove" (Ephesians, 4. 3),"keep the unity of the Spirit in canse Satan has such power now over tbe flesh and the bond of peace." 15. peace of God-The oldest MSS. the world. At Christ's coming, when Satan shall no and versions read, "The peace of CHRIST" (cf. Philiplooger rule the flesh and the world, the nations in the pians, 4. 7). "The peace of God." Therefore Christ flesh, and the world in millennial felicity, shall be the | is God. Peace was His legacy to His disciples before willing subjects of Christ and His glorified saints | He left them (John, 14. 27), “My peace I give unto you." (Daniel, 7, 14, 22, 27; Luke, 19, 17, 19; Revelation, 20. 1-6; Peace is peculiarly His to give. Peace follows love 3. 21). Israel in Canaan was a type of that future state (v. 14; Ephesians, 4. 2, 3). rule-lit., "sit as umpire :" when the Jews. 80 miraculously preserved distinct the same Greek verb simple, as appears compounded now in their dispersion, shall be the central Church of ich. 2. 18). The false teacher, es & self-constituted the Christianized world. As expressly as Scripture umpire, defrauds you of your prize; but if the peace abolishes the distinction of Jew and Greek now as to of Christ be your uinpire ruling in your hearts, your religious privileges, so does it expressly foretell that reward is sure. "Let the peace of Christ act as umpire in the coming new order of things, Israel shall be first when anger, envy, and such passions arise, and restrain of the Christian nations, not for her own selfish ag them." Let not those passions give the award, so that krandizement but for their good, as the medium of you should be swayed by them, but let Christ's peace blessing to them. Finally, after the millennium, the | be the decider of every thing in your hearts-Many life that is in Christ becomes the power which trans- wear a peaceful countenance and speak peace with the figures nature, in the time of the new heaven and the mouth, whilst war is in their hearts (Psalm 28. 3; 66. 21). new earth; as, before, it first transfigured the spiritual, to the which i.e., with a view to which state of Christian then the political and social world. Scythian-hereto- | peace (Isaiah, 26. 3); 1 Corinthians, 7. 15, "God hath fore regarded as more barbarian than the barbarians. called us to peace." ye are called-Greck,"ye were also Though the relation of bond and free actually existed, I called." The “also" implies that besides Paul's exyet in relation to Christ, all alike were free in one | hortation, they have also as a motive to "peace," their aspect, and servants of Christ in another (1 Coriuthians, having been once for all called in one body-(Ephe7. 22: Galatians, 3. 28). Corist is all--Christ absorbs | sians, 4. 4)-The unity of the body is a strong argument in Himself all distinctions, being to all alike, every for "peace" among the members. be ye thanktul-for think that they need for justification, sanctification, your "calling." Not to have "peace ruling in your and glorification (1 Corinthians, 1. 30; 3. 21-23; Gala- hearts" would be inconsistent with the “calling in one tians, 2. 20). in all-who believe and are renewed, with body," and would be practical unthankfulness to God out distinction of person; the sole distinction now is, who called us (Ephesians, 5. 4, 19, 20). 16. The form how much each draws from Christ. The unity of the which "thankfulness" (v. 16) ought to take. Let the divine life shared in by all believers, counterbalances word of Christ-The gospel woord by which ye have been all differences. even as great as that between the called, richly-ch. 2. 2; Romans, 15. 14)-in all wisdom polished *Greek" and the rude "Scythian." Chris -ALFORD joins this clause with "teaching." &c., not tianity imparts to the most uncivilized the only spring with "dwell in you," as English Version, for so we of sound, social, and moral culture. 12, the elect of God | find in ch. 1. 28, “teaching in all wisdom," and the

There is no "the" in the Greek, "God's elect" (cf. two clauses will thus correspond, "In all wisdom Romans, 8. 3: 1 Thessalonians, 1. 4). The order of the teaching." and " in grace singing in your hearts" (80

* elect, holy, beloved." answers to the order of the Greek order). and...and-The oldest MSS. read the tbings. Election from eternity precedes sanctifica- "psalms, byuns, spiritual songs" (Note, Ephesians, tion in time: the sanctified, feeling God's lore, imitate 5. 19). At the Agapæ or Love feasts, and in their

Paalmody: Heartiness.


Edhortation to Prayer. family circles. they were to be so fall of the Word of ing the precept. He addresses the slaves : Serve ye the Christ in the heart, that the mouth should give it utter-Lord Christ, and leave your wrongs in flis hands to ance in hymng of instruction, admonition, and praise put to rights: translate) "For he that doeth wrong shall (cf. Deuteronomy. 6. 7). TERTULLIAN, Apology 39. re-receive back the wrong which he hath done by jnst cords that at the Love-feasts, after the water had been retribution in kind), and there is no respect of persons" furnished for the hands and the lights had been lit, with the Great Judge in the day of the Lord. He according as any had the power, whether by his re- favours the master no more than the slave (Revels. membrance of Scripture, or by bis powers of com- tion, 6. 15). position, he used to be invited to sing praises to God

CHAPTER IV. for the common good. Paul contrasts (as in Ephesians, Ver. 1-18. EXHORTATIONS CONTINUED. TO PRAYER: 5. 18, 19, the songs of Christians at their social meetings, WISDOM IN RELATION TO THE UNCONVERTED: As with the bacchanalian and licentious songs of heathen TO THE BEARERS OF THE EPISTLE TYCRICUS AND feasts. Singing usually formed part of the entertain- ONESIMUS: CLOSING SALUTATIONS. 1. give-Greek, ment at Greek banquets (cf. James, 5. 13, with grace- "render" lit., "afford.” equal-.e., as the slaves owe Greek, * IX grace," the element in which your singing their duties to you, so you equally owe to them your is to be : "the grace of the indwelling holy spirit, duties as masters. CY." ye masters do the same things This clause expresses the seat and source of true Note, Ephesians, 6.9), ALFORD translates," fairness," psalmody, whether in private or public, viz., the heart "equity," which gives a large and liberal interpretaAs well as the voice; singing (cf. v. 15. "peace...rule in tion of justice in common matters Philemon, 16). your hearts") the psalm of love and praise being in knowing-ch. 3. 24.) ye also-as well as they. 2. Conthe beart before it finds vent by the lips, and even tinne-Greek, "Continue perseveringly," " persevere" when it is not actually expressed by the voice, as in (Ephesians, 6. 18, "watching thereunto;" here,"watch closet-worship. The Greek order forbids English Ver in the same." or "in it," i.e., in prayer: watching sion, with grace in your hearts," rather, "singing in against the indolence as to prayer, and in prayer, of your hearts." to the Lord-The oldest MSS, read, "to our corrupt wills. with thanksgiving-for every thing. God." 17. Lit.. “And every thing whatsoever ye do... whether joyful, or sorrowful, mercies temporal and do all." &c. : this includes words as well as deeds. in spiritual, national, family, and individual (1 Corinthe name of the Lord Jesns-as disciples called by His thians, 14. 17; Philippians, 4. 6; 1 Thessalonians, 5. 18). name as His, seeking His guidance and help, and desir- 3. for us-myself and Timothy ich. 1. 1). a door of Ottering to act so as to gain His approval (Romans, 14. 8; ance-translate, "a door for the word." Not as in 1 Corinthians, 10. 31; 2 Corinthians, 6. 15; 1 Peter, 4. 11). Ephesians, 6. 19, where power of "utterance is his CI. " in the Lord" v. 18. and v. 11." Christ is all. God petition. Here it is an opportunity for preaching the and the Father-The oldest MSS. omit "and," which word, which would be best afforded by his release from seems to have crept in from Ephesians, 6. 20. by him prison (1 Corinthians, 16. 9; 2 Corinthians, 2. 12; Phile--Greek, through Him" as the channel of His grace mon, 22; Revelation, 3. 8). to speak-60 that we may to us, and of our thanksgiving to Him (John, 14. 6. speak. the mystery of Christ-ch. 1. 27.) for which also end). 18. to your own husbands-The oldest MSS. omit -on account of which I am not only "an ambassador. "own," which crept in from Ephesians, 6. 29. as it is Ephesians, 6.20, but) Also in bonds. 4. ALFORD thinks fit in the Lord-Greek, "sas fit," implying that there that Paul asks their prayers for his release as if it were was at Colosse some degree of failure in fulfilling this the only way by which he could "make it (the gospel duty, "as it was your duty to have done as disciples of manifest" as he ought. But whilst this is included in the Lord." 19. (Ephesians, 6. 22-33.) be not bitter-ill their subject of prayer, Philippians, 1. 12, 13, written tempered, and provoking. Many who are polite somewhat later in bis imprisonment, clearly shows abroad, are rude and bitter at home because they are that "& door for the word" could be opened, and was not afraid to be so there. 20. (Ephesians, 6. 1.) unto opened, for its manifestation even whüst he remained the Lord-The oldest MSS. read, " IN the Lord," i.e., imprisoned (cf. 2 Timothy, 2. 9). 5. (Notes, Ephesians, this is acceptable to God when it is done in the Lord, 5. 16, 16.) in wisdom-Practical Christian prudence. via., from the principle of faith, and as disciples in them...without-Those not in the Christian brotherhood union with the Lord. 21. (Ephesians, 6. 4.) It is a dif la Corintnians, 6. 12: 1 Thessalonians, 4. 12). The ferent Greek verb, therefore translate here, “Irritate brethren, through love, will make allowances for an not." By perpetual fault-finding children" are "dis-indiscreet act or word of a brother; the world will couraged" or "disheartened." A broken down spirit make none. Therefore be the more on your guard in is fatal to youth. (BENGEL) 22. (Ephesians, 6. 6, 6.) your intercourse with the latter, lest you be & stumThis is to fear God, when, though nope sees us, we do blingblock to their conversion, redeeming the time no evil: but if we do evil, it is not God, but men whom The Greek expresses. buying up for yourselves, and we fear. singlenese-"simplicity of heart." fearing God buying off from worldly vanities the opportunity. -The oldest MSS. read." the Lord," 23. And-Omitted whenever it is afforded you, of good to yourselves and in the oldest MSS. (cf. Ephesians, 6. 7. 8). Cf. the same others. "Forestall the opportunity, 6.6., to buy up an principle in the case of all men, Hezekiah (2 Chro article out of the market, so as to make the largest picles, 31. 21; Romans, 12. 11). do, do it-Two distinct profit from it." (CONYBEARE & Howson.) 6. with grace Greek verbs, "Whatsoever ye do, work at it" (or labour -(ireek, “In grace" as its element (ch. 3. 16: Ephesians at it). heartily-not from servile constraint, but with 4. 29). Contrast the case of those of the world” who hearty good will. 24, the reward of the inheritance * therefore speak of the world" (1 John, 4. 5). Even the " Knowing that it is from the Lord (the ultimate source smallest leaf of the believer should be full of the sap of of reward) ye shall receive the compensation (or re- the Holy Spirit (Jeremiah, 17. 7. 8). His conversation compense, which will make ample amends for your should be cheerful without levity, serious without having no earthly possession, as slaves now) consisting gloom. Cf. Luke, 4. 22; John, 7. 46, as to Jesus' speech. of the inheritance," (a term excluding the notion of seasoned with sait-i.e., the savour of fresh and lively meriting it by works: it is all of grace, Romans, 4. 14; / spiritual wisdom and earnestness, excluding all cor Galatians, 3. 18). for ye serve-The oldest MSS. omit rupt communication, and also tasteless insipidity * for," then translate as Vulgate, "Serve ye the Lord (Matthew, 5. 13; Mark, 9. 50; Epbesians, 4. 29). Cl. all Christ;" cf. v. 23, "To the Lord and not unto men" the sacrifices seasoned with salt (Leviticus, 2. 13). Not (1 Corinthians. 7. 22, 23). 25. But-The oldest MSS. far from Colosse, in Phrygia, there was & salt lake, read," for," which accords with "serve ye." &c. (v. 24), which gives to the image here the more appropriate the oldest reading: the for here gives a motive for obey. ness. how ye ought to answer every man-1 l'eter, 3. 15)

Salutations of Aristarchus,


Mark, Justus, Epaphras, de. 7. Tychicus-(Note, Ephesians, 6. 2.) who is a beloved | who had regarded Mark in consequence of that past brother - rather, “the beloved brother;" the article error with suspicion, should now "receive" him with * the marks him as well-known to them. 8. for the kindness. Colosse is only about 110 miles from Perga, same purpose-Greek, "for this very purpose." that he and less than 20 from the confines of Pisidia, through might know your estate-translate, "that he may know which province Paul and Barnabas preached on their your state:" answering to v. 7. So one very old MS. return during the same journey. Hence, though Paul and Vulgate read. But the oldest MSS. and the old I had not personally visited the Colossian church, they Latin versions," that ye may know OUR state." How knew of the past unfaithfulness of Mark; and needed ever, the latter reading seems likely to have crept in this recommendation of him, after the temporary cloud from Ephesians, 6. 22. Paul was the more anxious toon him, so as to receive him, now that he was about know the state of the Colossians, on account of the to visit them as an Evangelist. Again, in Paul's last seductions to which they were exposed from false imprisonment, he, for the last time, speaks of Mark teacbers; owing to which he had “great conflict for (2 Timotby, 4. 11). 11. Justus-i.e., righteous ; a comthem (ch, 2. 1). comfort your hearts-distressed as ye mon name among the Jews: Hebrew, tzadik (Acts, 1. 23). are by my imprisonment, as well as by your own trials. of the circumcision-This implies that Epaphras, Luke, 9. Onesimus - the slave mentioned in the epistle to and Demas (v. 12, 14), were not of the circumcision. Philemon, 10, 16, "a brother beloved." a faithful... This agrees with Luke's Gentile name (the same as brother-rather," the faithful brother," he being known Lucanus), and the Gentile aspect of his gospel. These to the Colossians as the slave of Philemon, their fellow only, &c.-viz., of the Jews. For the Jewish teacherg townsmap and fellow-Christian, one of you-belonging were generally o

were generally opposed to the apostle of the Gentiles to your city. they shall make known unto you all things (Philippians, 1. 16). Epaphras, &c., were also fellow-Greek," all the things bere." This substantial repeti | labourers, but Gentiles. unto-i.e., in promoting the tion of all my state shall Tychicus declare unto you." gospel kingdom. which have been-Greek, which have strongly favours the reading of English Version in 0.8. been made," or "have become," i.e., inasmuch as they * that he might (may) know your state," as it is unlikely I have become a comfort to me. The Greek implies comthe same thing should be stated thrice. 10. Aris- fort in forensic dangers; a different Greek word extarchus-A Macedonian of Thessalonica (Acts, 27. 2). I presses comfort in domestic affliction. (BENGEL.) who was dragged into the theatre at Ephesus, during 12. Carist-The oldest MSS. add "Jesus." Labouring the tumult,with Gaius, they being “ Paul's companions fervently-As the Greek is the same, translate, "strivin travel." He accompanied Paul to Asia (Acts, 20. 4) ing earnestly" (Note, c. 1. 29; 2, 1), lit., striving as in and subsequently (Acts, 27. 2) to Rome. He was now at the agony of a contest. in prayers-translate as Greek, Rome with Paul (cf. Philemon, 23, 24). As he is here "in his prayers." complete-The oldest MSS. read "fully spoken of as Paul's " fellow-prisoner," but in Philemon, assured.” It is translated" fully persuaded," Romans, 24. as Paul's "fellow-labourer;" and vice versa, Epaphras | 4. 21; 14. 6. In the expression “perfect," he refers to in Philemon, 23, as his "fellow-prisoner," but here what he has already said, ch, 1, 28; 2. 2; 3. 14. "Per. (ch, 1. 7) "fellow-servant," MEYER in ALFORD, con- fect" implies the attainment of the full maturity of jectures that Paul's friends voluntarily shared his im- a Christian. BENGEL joins "in all the will of God" prisonment by turns, Aristarchus being his fellow with stand." 13. a great zeal-The oldest MSS. and prisoner when he wrote to the Colossians, Epaphras | Vulgate have "much labour." for you-lest you should when he wrote to Philemon. The Greek for "fellow. I be seduced (ch. 2. 4) : & motive why prisoner" is lit., fellow-captive, an image from prisoners anxious for yourselves. them that are in Laodicea... taken in warfare, Christians being "fellow-soldiers" Hierapolis-churches probably founded by Epaphras, as (Philippians, 2. 26; Philemon, 2) whose warfare is "the the church in Colosse was. Laodicea, called from sood fight of faith." Mark-John Mark (Acts, 12, 12, 26): | Laodice, queen of Antiochus II., on the river Lycus, the Evangelist according to tradition. sister's son-, was, according to the subscription to 1 Timothy, "the rather," cousin," or kinsman to Barnabas: the latter chiefest city of Phrygia Pacatiana." All the three cities being the better known is introduced to designate were destroyed by an earthquake in A.D. 62. (TaciMark. The relationship naturally accounts for Barna- TCS, Annals, 14. 27.) Hierapolis was six Roman miles bas' selection of Mark as his companion when other-North of Laodicea. 14. It is conjectured that Luke, wise qualified; and also for Mark's mother's house at | “the beloved physician" (the same as the Evangelist), Jerusalem being the place of resort of Christians there may have first become connected with Paul in pro(Acts, 12. 12). The family belonged to Cyprus (Acts, fessionally attending on him in the sickness under 4. 36); this accounts for Barnabas' choice of Cyprus as which he laboured in Phrygia and Galatia (in which the first station on their journey (Acts, 13. 4), and for latter place he was detained by sickness), in the early Mark's accompanying them readily so far, it being the part of that journey wherein Luke first is found in his country of his family, and for Paul's rejecting him at company (Acts, 16, 10; cf. Note, Galatians, 4. 13). Thus the second journey for not having gone further than the allusion to his medical profession is appropriate Perga, in Pamphylia, but having gone thence home to l in writing to men of Phrygia. Luke ministered to Paul his mother at Jerusalem Matthew. 10. 37) on the first in his last imprisonment (2 Timothy, 4. 11). Demas-injourney (Acts, 13. 13). touching whom-viz., Mark. ye | cluded among his "fellow-labourers" (Philemon, 24), received commandinents-possibly before the writing of but afterwards a deserter from him through love of this epistle; or the "commandments" were verbal by I this world (2 Timothy, 4, 10). He alone has here no Tychicus, and accompanying this letter, since the past honourable or descriptive epithet attached to his tepse was used by the ancients (where we use the name. Perhaps, already, his real character was betrayIresent) in relation to the time which it would be when ing itself. 15. Nymphas-of Laodicea. church...in his the letter was read by the Colossians. Thus (Philemon, hoase-So old MSS. and Vulgate read. The oldest read, 197, "I have written," for "I write.” The substance of "THEIR house;" and one MS., "HER house," which them was. "If he come unto you, receive him," St. | makes Nymphas a woman. 16. the epistle from Paul's rejection of him on his second missionary Laodicea-viz., the epistle which I wrote to the Laojourney, because he had turned back at Perga on the diceans, and which you will get from them on apply. first journey (Acts, 13. 13; 16. 37-39), had caused an ing to them. Not the epistle to the Ephesians. See alienation between bim self and Barnabas. Christian INTRODUCTIONs to the epistles to Ephesians and love soon bealed the breach: for here he implies his Colossians. The epistles from the apostles were restored confidence in Mark, makes honourable allu- publicly read in the church assemblies. IGNATIUS ad sion to Baruabas, and desires that those at Colosse E hesum 12; POLYCARP ad Philippenses 3. 11, 12;

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