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Defileth a Man. asping disposition which, under the mask of piety. | the Old Testament sense of “folly” ie, criminal was manifested by the ecclesiastics of that day. 10. senselessness, the folly of the heart. How appalling And he called the multitude, and said unto them. The I is this black catalogue ! 20. These are the things which forecoing dialogue, though in the people's hearing. | defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth

s between Jesus and the pharisaic cavillers, whose I not a man. Thus does our Lord sum up this whole abgect was to disparage Him with the people. But searching Discourse. Jesus, having put them down, turns to the multitude, 21-28. THE WOMAN OF CANAAN AND HER DAUGHwboat this time were prepared to drink in everything TER. For the exposition, see on Mark, 7. 21-30. He said, and with admirable plainness, strength, and 29-39. MIRACLES OF HEALINO-FOUR THOUSAND brevity, lays down the great principle of real pollu- MIRACULOUSLY FED. For the exposition, see on fon, by which a world of bondage and uneasiness of Mark, 7. 31-8. 10. conscience would be dissipated in a moment, and the

CHAPTER XVI. sense of sin be reserved for deviations from the holy | Ver. 1-12 A SIGN FROM HEAVEN SOUGHT AND und eternal law of God. Hear and understand: 11. Not REFUSED-CAUTION AGAINST THE LEAVEN OF THE that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but | PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES. For the exposition, that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. see on Mark, 8. 11-21. This is expressed even more emphatically in Mark 13-28. PETER'S NOBLE CONFESSION OF CHRIST, 2. 15. 16), and it is there added, “If any man have AND THE BENEDICTION PRONOUNCED UPON HIM eurs to hear, let him hear.” As in ch. 13. 9, this so CHRIST'S FIRST EXPLICIT ANNOUNCEMENT OF HIS of repeated saying seems designed to call attention APPROACHING SUFFERINGS, DEATH, AND RESURto the fundamental and unitersal character of the RECTION-HIS REBUKE OF PETER AND WARNING truth it refers to. 12. Then came his disciples, and said TO ALL THE TWELVE. =Mark, 8. 27; 9. 1; Luke, 9.

n. Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, 18-27.) The time of this Section-which is beyond after they heard this saying! They had given vent to doubt, and will presently be mentioned-is of im. their irritation, and perhaps threats, not to our Lord mense importance, and throws a touching interest Himself, from whom they seem to have slunk away, around the incidents which it records. Peter's Conbrat to some of the disciples, who report it to their fession and the Benediction pronounced upon him Master. 13. But be angwered and said, Every plant. I (v. 13-20). 13. When Jesus came into the coasts-'the which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be | parts; i.e., the territory or region: In Mark (8.27)

oted TID. They are offended, are they? Heed it it is the towns" or villages.' of Cesarea Philippi. It aat: their corrupt teaching is already doomed; the lay at the foot of mount Lebanon, near the sources of Garden of the Lord upon earth, too long cumbered the Jordan, in the territory of Dan, and at the north. with their presence, shall yet be purged of them and east extremity of Palestine. It was originally called their accused system, yea, and whatsoever is not of Panium (from a cavern in its neighbourhood dedithe planting of My heavenly Father, the great Hus-cated to the god Pan) and Paneas. Philip, the tepdman (John, 16. 1), shall share the same fate.' 14. tetrarch, the only good son of Herod the Great, in Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And whose dominions Paneas lay, having beautified and

the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. enlarged it, changed its name to Cesarea, in honour ktnking expression of the ruinous effects of erroneous of the Roman emperor, and added Philippi after his teaching ! 15. Then answered Peter and said unto him own name. to distinguish it from the other Cesarea when He was entered into the house from the (Acts, 10. 1) on the north-east coast of the Mediter

ople," says Mark-Declare unto us this parable. 16. ranean sea. (JOSEPHUS Antiquities, 15. 10, 3; 18. 2. 1.) And Jeses said, Are ye also yet without understanding? This quiet and distant retreat Jesus appears to have Slowness of spiritual apprehension in His genuine sought, with the view of talking over with the Twelve isciples rieves the Saviour: from others He expects | the fruit of His past labours, and breaking to them a better (ch. 13. u). 17, 18. Do not ye yet understand, for the first time the sad intelligence of His approachat whatsoever entereth in at the mouth, &c. Familiar ing death. he asked his disciples-"by the way," says though these sayings have now become, what free Mark (8. 27), and "as He was alone praying," says dos from bondage to outward things do they pro Luke (9. 18)-saying. Whom-or more grammatically, daim, on the one hand, and on the other, how search " Who" do men say that I the Son of man am? (or, int is the truth which they express-that nothing 'that the Son of man is'-recent editors omitting which enters from without can really defile us; and here the me of Mark and Luke: though the evidence that only the evil that is in the heart, that is allowed seems pretty nearly balanced .d., 'What are the to stir there, to rise up in thought and affection, and views generally entertained of Me, the Son of man. to los forth in voluntary action, really defiles a man! after going up and down among them so long?* He 19. fer out of the heart proceed evil thoughts-evil had now closed the first great stage of His ministry. anaing referring here more immediately to and was just entering on the last dark one. His spirit, the corrupt reasonings which had stealthily intro- burdened, sought relief in retirement, not only from dood and gradually reared up that hideous fabric of the multitude, but even for a season from the Twelve. trstition which at length practically nullified the He retreated into "the secret place of the Most unebar sable principles of the moral law. But the High," pouring out His soul "in supplications and statement is far broader than this, riz., that the first prayers, with strong crying and tears" (Hebrews, 6. 7). skape which the evil that is in the heart takes, when On rejoining His disciples, and as they were pursuing it begins actively to stir, is that of 'considerations' their quiet journey, He asked them this question. anoning on certain suggested actions. murders, 14. And they said, Some say that thou art John the BapBriteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies tist-risen from the dead. So that Herod Antipas

detractions, whether directed against God or was not singular in his surmise (ch. 14. 1, 2). some, an: here the reference seems to be to the latter. Elias-(cf. Mark, 6. 16.) and others, Jeremias. Was Mark addı, "covetousnesses"-or desires after more; this theory suggested by a supposed resemblance be * rickednesses-here meaning, perhaps, 'maligni. tween the "Man of Sorrows" and the weeping proDie of various form; "deceit, lasciviousness" phet?' or one of the prophets-or, as Luke (9. 8) exBeaning. * excess' or 'enormity of any kind, though presses it, "that one of the old prophets is risen by later writers restricted to lewdness; "an evil eye" again." In another report of the popular opinions

ning, all looks or glances of envy, jealousy, or which Mark (6. 16) gives us, it is thus expressed. il-will towards a neighbour; "pride, foolishness"-in 1 "That it is a prophet, (or) as one of the prophets"

Peter's Confession

of Christ. in other words. That he was a prophetical person, French, as WEBSTER & WILKINSON remark, it is resembling those of old. 15. He saith unto them, But perfect, Pierre--pierre. I will build my church-not whom-rather, “Who" say ye that I am! He had on the man Simon Bar-jona; but on him as the heavennever put this question before, but the crisis He was I taught Confessor of such a faith. "My Church," reaching made it fitting that He should now have it says our Lord, calling the Church His owx; a mag. from them. We may suppose this to be one of those nificent expression, remarks BENGEL, regarding Himmoments of which the prophet says, in His name, self--nowhere else occurring in the Gospels, and the "Then I said, I have laboured in vain; I have spent gates of hell of Hades,' or, the unseen world: meanmy strength for nought, and in vain” (Isaiah, 49. 4: ing, the gates of Death: in other words, It shall never Lo, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig perish.' Some explain it of the assaults of the tree; and what is it? As the result of all, I am taken powers of darkness;' but though that expresses & for John the Baptist, for Elias, for Jeremias, for one glorious truth, probably the former is the sense here. of the prophets. Yet some there are that have be-19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of held My glory, the glory as of the Only begotten of heaven- the kingdom of God about to be set up on the Father, and I shall hear their voice, for it is earth-and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be sweet. 16. And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on art the Christ, the Son of the living God. He does not earth shall be loosed in heaven. Whatever this mean, say, 'Scribes and Pharisees, rulers and people, are it was soon expressly extended to all the apostles (ch. all perplexed ; and shall we, unlettered fishermen, 18. 18); so that the claim of supreme authority in the presume to decide?' But feeling the light of his Church, made for Peter by the Church of Rome, and Master's glory shining in his soul, he breaks forth- then arrogated to themselves by the Popes as the not in a tame, prosaic acknowledgement, I believe legitimate successors of St. Peter, is baseless and that thou art,' dc.-but in the language of adoration impudent. As first in confessing Christ, Peter got

such as one uses in worship, "THOU ART THE this commission before the rest; and with these CHRIST, THE SON OF THE LIVING GOD!" He first "keys," on the day of Pentecost, he first “opened owns Him the promised Messiah (see on ch. 1. 16); the door of faith" to the Jews, and then, in the person then he rises higher, echoing the voice from heaven of Cornelius, he was honoured to do the same to -" This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well the Gentiles. Hence, in the lists of the apostles, pleased," and in the important addition--"Son of the Peter is always first named. See on ch. 18. 18. One LIVING God."-he recognises the essential and eter thing is clear, that not in all the New Testament is nal life of God as in this His Son-though doubtless there the vestige of any authority either claimed or without that distinct perception afterwards vouch- exercised by Peter, or conceded to him, above the safed. 17. And Jesus answered and said unto him, rest of the apostles-& thing conclusive against the Blessed art thou. Though it is not to be doubted that | Romish claims in behalf of that apostle. 20. Then Peter, in this noble testimony to Christ, only ex-charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that pressed the conviction of all the Twelve, yet since he he was Jesus the Christ. Now that He had been so alone seems to have had clear enough apprehensions explicit, they might naturally think the time come to put that conviction in proper and suitable words, I for giving it out openly: but here they are told it had and courage enough to speak them out, and readi- I not. ness enough to do this at the right time--s0 he only, Announcement of His approaching Death, and Rof all the Twelve, seems to have met the present buke of Peter (v. 21-28). The occasion here is evi. want, and communicated to the saddened soul of dently the same. 21. From that time forth began Jesus the Redeemer at the critical moment that balm to show unto his disciples-1.e., with an explicitness and

s needed to cheer and refresh it Nor is frequency He had never observed before, how that he Jesus above giving indication of the deep satisfaction must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things (" and which this speech yielded flim, and hastening to be rejected,” Matthew and Mark) of the elders and respond to it by a signal acknowledgment of Peter in chief priests and scribes-not as before, merely by not return. Simon Bar-jona-or, 'son of Jona' (John, 1. 42) | receiving Him, but by formal deeds-and be killed. or Jonas (John, 21. 15). This name, denoting his and be raised again the third day. Mark (8.32) adds, humble fleshly extraction, seems to have been pur that "He spake that saying openly"-'explicitly,' posely here mentioned, to contrast the more vividly I or without disguise.' 22. Then Peter took him asidel, with the spiritual elevation to which divine illumi-l apart from the rest : presuming on the distinction nation had raised him. for flesh and blood hath not re- | just conferred on him; showing how unexpected and vealed it unto thee- This is not the fruit of human | distasteful to them all was the announcement and teaching, but my Father which is in heaven. In began to rebuke him-affectionately, yet with a certain speaking of God, Jesus, it is to be observed, never generous indignation, to chide him. saying. Be it far calls Him, “Our Father" (see on John, 20.17), but from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee-i.e., If I can either “your Father"-when He would encourage | help it: the same spirit that prompted him in the His timid believing ones with the assurance that He garden to draw the sword in His behalf (John, 18. 10). was theirs, and teach themselves to call Him so-or, | 23. But he turned, and said--in the hearing of the rest; as here, "My Father," to signify some peculiar action

ther," to signify some peculiar action for Mark (8.33) expressly says, "When He had turned or aspect of Him as "the God and Father of our l about and looked on His disciples, He rebuked Peter, Lord Jesus Christ." 18. And I say also unto thee:- perceiving that he had but boldly uttered what gd.. 'As thou hast borne such testimony to Me, even others felt, and that the check was needed by them so in return do I to thee: That thou art Peter. At his l also. Get thee behind me, Satan-the same words as he first calling, this new name was announced to him I had addressed to the Tempter (Luke, 4. 8); for he as an honour afterwards to be conferred on him (John. I felt in it a Satanic lure, & whisper from hell, to move 1. 43). Now he gets it, with an explanation of what | Him from His purpose to suffer. So He shook off the it was meant to convey. and upon this rock. As Serpent, then coiling around Him, and "felt no " Peter" and "Rock" are one word in the dialect I harm" (Acts, 28. 6). How quickly has the rock familiarly spoken by our Lord-the Aramaic or Syro- turned to a devil! The fruit of divine teaching the Chaldaic, which was the mother tongue of the I Lord delighted to honour in Peter: but the mouthcountry--this exalted play upon the word can be fully I piece of hell, which he had in a moment of forget seen only in languages which have one word for both. | fulness become, the Lord shook off with horror. Even in the Greek it is imperfectly represented. In thou art an offence - 'a stumbling-block' unto me:


to Bear His Croes. • Tton playest the Tempter, casting & stumbling. His pleasure, and then he shall reward, &c. 28. Verily Hoek in my way to the Cross. Could it succeed, | I say unto yon. There be some standing here--some of where wert thou ? and how should the Serpent's head | those standing here,' which shall not taste of death, till be bruised for thou savourest not-'thou thinkest they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom-or, as in

-the things that be of God, but those that be of men. | Mark (9.1), "till they see the kingdom of God come Tod art carried away, by buman views of the way with power;" or, as in Luke (9. 27), more simply still,

ketting up Messiah's kingdom, quite contrary to "till they see the kingdom of God." The reference. those of God. This was kindly said, not to take off beyond doubt, is to the firm establishment and victhe sharp edge of the rebuke, but to explain and | torious progress, in the lifetime of some then present, ustify it, as it was evident Peter knew not what was of that new Kingdom of Christ, which was destined ia the bošom of his rash speech. 24. Then said Jesus to work the greatest of all changes on this earth, and uzta his disciples. Mark (8.34) says, "When He had | be the grand pledge of His final coming in glory. alled the people unto Him, with His disciples also,

CHAPTER XVII. Ile said unto them" -turning the rebuke of one into Ver. 1-13. JESUS IS TRANSFIGURED-CONVERSAa surning to all. If any man will come after me, let | TION ABOUT ELIAS. (=Mark. 9. 2-13: Luke, 9. 28-36.)

a deny hinsell, and take up his cross, and follow me. For the exposition, see on Luke, 9. 28-36. 3. Fer whosoever will save-' is minded to save,' or | 14-23. HEALING OF A DEMONIAC Boy-SECOND best on saving. his life shall lose it. and whosoever will EXPLICIT ANNOUNCEMENT BY OUR LORD OF HIS ise his life for ny sake shall find it. See on ch. 10. 38, 39. APPROACHING DEATH AND RESURRECTION. (=Mark.

A mffering and dying Messiah liketh you ill; but 9. 14-32; Luke, 9. 37-46.) The time of this Section is chat if His servants shall meet the same fate! They sufficiently denoted by the events which all the nar. may pot: but who follows Me must be prepared for ratives show to have immediately preceded it-the the worst.' 26. For what is a man profited, if he shall first explicit announcement of His death, and the Den the whole world, and lose-or 'forfeit' his own soul! transfiguration-both being between His third and

wat sball a man give in exchange for his soul! In His fourth and last Passover. stead of these weighty words, which we find in Mark Healing of the Demoniac and Lunatic Boy (r. 14-21). ska, it is thus expressed in Luke: "If he gain the For the exposition of this portion, see on Mark, 9. whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away." | 14-32. of better. If he gain the whole world, and destroy | Second Announcement of His Death (r. 22. 23). 22.

forfeit himself.' How awful is the stake as here And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them. met forth! If a man makes the present world-in its / Mark (9. 30), as usual, is very precise here: "And they Various forms of riches, honours, pleasures, and such departed thence"-ie., from the scene of the last Ike-the object of supreme pursuit, be it that he miracle-"and passed through Galilee; and He would

aims the world: yet along with it be forfeits his own not that any man should know it." So this was not soul Not that any ever did, or ever will gain the a preaching, but a private, journey through Galilee.

bole world-a very small portion of it, indeed, falls Indeed, His public ministry in Galilee was now all to the lot of the most successful of the world's votaries but concluded. Though He sent out the Seventy -but to make the extravagant concession, that by | after this to preach and heal, Himself was little more eving himself entirely up to it, a man gains the ) in public there, and He was soon to bid it a final wbole world: yet, setting over against this gain the | adieu. Till this hour arrived He was chiefly occupied forfeiture of his soul-necessarily following the sur- with the Twelve, preparing them for the coming fubder of his whole heart to the world-what is he events. The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands propted! But, if not the whole world, yet possibly of men... And they were exceeding sorry. Though the daething else may be conceived as an equivalent for shock would not be so great as at the first announcethe soul Well, what is it?" Or what shall a man ment (ch. 16. 21, 22), their "sorrow" would not be the pive in exchange for his soul '' Thus, in language the less, but probably the greater, the deeper the intelliweightiest, because the simplest, does our Lord shut gence went down into their hearts, and a new wave up His bearers, and all who shall read these words to dashing upon them by this repetition of the heavy the end of the world, to the priceless value to every tidings. Accordingly, Luke (9. 43, 44), connecting it saa of his own soul. In Mark and Luke the fol with the scene of the miracle just recorded, and the lowing words are added: "Whosoever therefore shall teaching which arose out of it-or possibly with all be ashamed of Me and of My words" -'shall be His recent teaching-says our Lord forewarned the ashamed of belonging to Me, and ashamed of My Twelve that they would soon stand in need of all that Gompel in this adulterous and sinful generation" teaching: “But while they wondered every one at all free an ch 12 39), "of him shall the Son of man be things which Jesus did, He said unto His disciples,

baded when He cometh in the glory of His Father, Let these sayings sink down into your ears; for the oth the holy angels" (Mark, 8. 38; Luke, 9. 20). He Son of Man shall be delivered," &c.: Be not carried

er back to that man his own treatment, off your feet by the grandeur you have lately seen in disoming him before the most august of all assem- Me, but remember what I have told you, and now ble and putting him to "shame and everlasting con- tell you again, that that Sun in whose beams ye now Lemplo Daniel, 12. 2). 'O shame,' exclaims BENGEL, rejoice is soon to set in midnight gloom.' Remark. "to be put to sharne before God, Christ, and angels!'able is the antithesis in those words of our Lord, preThe mose of shame is founded on our love of reputa- served in all the three Narratives--"The Son of man tion, raich causes instinctive aversion to what is shall be betrayed into the hands of men." He adds Atted to lower it, and was given us as a preservative (v. 45) that "they understood not this saying, and it from all that is properly shameful. To be lost to shame, was hid from them, that they perceived it not”-for is to be nearly past hope. (Zephaniah, 3. 6; Jeremiah, the plainest statements, when they encounter long& 15. 2 201 But when Christ and "His words" are continued and obstinate prejudices, are seen through te popular, the same instinctive desire to stand well a distorting and dulling medium-"and were afraid watch ther: begets that temptation to be ashamed of to ask Him;" deterred partly by the air of lofty sadHim whieh only the 'expulsive power of a higher ness with which donbtless these sayings were uttered, aðection can effectually counteract. 27. For the son and on which they would be reluctant to break in,

was shall come in the glory of his father with his | and partly by the fear of laying themselves open to angtis-in the splendour of His Father's authority rebuke for their shallowness and timidity. How artund with all His angelic ininisters, ready to execute less is all this!

The Tribute Money.

MATTHEW, XVIII. Christ Teacheth to Avoid Offences. 24-27. THE TRIBUTE MONEY. The time of this the coin was an Attic silver coin equal to two of the Section is evidently in immediate succession to that fore-mentioned "didrachms" of half-a-shekel's value. of the preceding one. The brief but most pregnant and so, was the exact sum required for both. Acincident which it records is given by our Evangelist cordingly, the Lord adds, that take, and give unto them alone-for whom, no doubt, it would have a peculiar for me and thee-lit., 'instead of Meand thee; perhaps interest, from its relation to his own town and his because the payment was a redemption of the person own familiar lake. 24. And when they were come to paid for (Exodus, 30. 12)-in which view Jesus cerCapernaum, they that received tribute money - 'the | tainly was "free." If the house was Peter's, this double drachma' a sum equal to two Attic drach- will account for payment being provided on this mas, and corresponding to the Jewish “hall-shekel," occasion, not for all the Twelve, but only for him payable, towards the maintenance of the Temple and and His Lord. Observe, our Lord does not say " for its services, by every male Jew of twenty years old us," but "for Me and thee;" thus distinguishing the and upwards. For the origin of this annual tax, see Exempted One and His non-exempted disciple. Exodus, 30. 13, 14; 2 Chronicles, 24. 6. 9. Thus, it will

CHAPTER XVIII. be observed, it was not a civil, but an ecclesiastical Ver. 1-9. STRIFE AMONG THE TWELVE W10 tax. The tax mentioned in the next verse was a civil SHOULD BE GREATEST IN THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN, one. The whole teaching of this very remarkable WITH RELATIVE TEACHING. =Mark, 9. 33-50; Luke, scene depends upon this distinction. came to Peter 9. 46-50.) For the exposition, see on Mark, 9, 33-50. -at whose house Jesus probably resided while at 10-35. FURTHER TEACHING ON THE SAME SUBCapernaum. This explains several things in the JECT, INCLUDING THE PARABLE OF THE UNMERCInarrative. and said, Doth not your master pay tribute ! FUL DEBTOR. The question seems to imply that the payment of | Same Subject (v. 10-201. 10. Take heed that ye despise this tax was voluntary, but expected; or what, in - stumble'-not one of these little ones; for I say unto modern phrase, would be called a voluntary assess you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face ment.' 25. He saith, Yes-.d., 'To be sure He does; of my Father which is in heaven. A difficult verse; but as if eager to remove even the suspicion of the con- perhaps the following may be more than an illustratrary. If Peter knew-as surely he did-that there tion:-Among men, those who nurse and rear the was at this time no money in the bag, this reply must royal children, however humble in themselves, are be regarded as a great act of faith in his Master. And | allowed free entrance with their charge, and a degree when he was come into the house-Peter's, Jesus pre- of familiarity which even the highest state ministers vented him-anticipated him; according to the old dare not assume. Probably our Lord means that, sense of the word "prevent," saying. What thinkest in virtue of their charge over His disciples (Hebrews, thou, Simon ?-using his family name for familiarity, 1. 13; John, 1. 51), the angels have errands to the of whom do the kings of the earth take custom-meaning throne, & welcome there, and a dear familiarity in custom on goods exported or imported--or tribute I dealing with "His Father which is in Heaven," which meaning the poll-tax, payable to the Romans by on their own matters they could not assume. 11. For every one whose name was in the census.' This, the Son of man is come to save that which was-or 'is'therefore, it will be observed, was strictly a civil taz. lost. A golden saying, once and again repeated in of their own children, or of strangers. This cannot different forms. Here the connection seems to be. mean 'foreigners,' from whom sovereigns certainly do Since the whole object and errand of the Son of not raise taxes, but 'those who are not of their own Man into the world is to save the lost, take heed family.' i.e., their subjects. 26. Peter saith unto him, lest, by causing 'offences, ye lose the saved.' That Of strangers-or, 'of those not their children.' Jesus this is the idea intended we may gather from t. 14 salth unto him, Then are the children free. By “the 12, 13. How think ye? If a man have an hundred sheep. children" our Lord cannot here mean Himself and and one of them be gone astray. &c. This is another of the Twelve together, in some loose sense of their those pregnant sayings which our Lord uttered more near relationship to God as their common Father than once. See on the delightful parable of the lost For besides that our Lord never once mixes Himself sheep in Luke, 16. 4-7. Only the object there is to up with His disciples in speaking of their relation to show what the good Shepherd will do, when even God, but ever studiously keeps His relation and theirs I one of His sheep is lost, to find it; here the object is apart (see, for example, on the last words of this chap- to show, when found, how reluctant He is to lose it. ter)-this would be to teach the right of believers to Accordingly, it is added, v. 14. Even so it is not the exemption from the dues required for sacred ser- will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these vices, in the teeth of all that Paul teaches and that little ones should perish. How, then, can He but visit He Himself indicates throughout. He can refer here, for those "offences" which endanger the souls of then, only to Himself; using the word "children these little ones! 15. Moreover, if thy brother shall evidently in order to express the general principle trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between observed by sovereigns, who do not draw taxes from thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained their own children, and thus convey the truth re- thy brother, &c. Probably our Lord has reference specting His own exemption the more strikingly:- still to the late dispute, Who should be the greatest ! g.d., 'If the sovereign's own family be exempt, you After the rebuke-so gentle and captivating, yet so know the inference in My case:' or to express it more dignified and divine-under which they would doubtnakedly than Jesus thought needful and fitting: This less be smarting, perhaps each would be saying, It is a tax for upholding My Father's House: As His was not I that began it, it was not I that threw ont Son, then, that tax is not due by Me-I AM FREE.' unworthy and irritating insinuations against my 27. Notwithstanding, lest we should offend-or 'stumble' brethren. Be it so, says our Lord; but as such things -them-all ignorant as they are of My relation to will often arise, I will direct you how to proceed. the Lord of the Temple, and should misconstrue aFirst, Neither harbour a grudge against your offend. claim to exemption into indifference to His bonouring brother, nor break forth upon him in presence of who dwells in it, go thou to the sea-Capernaum, it the unbelieving, but take him aside, show him his will be remembered, lay on the sea of Galilee, and fault, and if he own and make reparation for it, you cast an hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up: lave done more service to him than even justice to and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a yourself. Next, If this fail, take two or three to wit. piece of money-a stater.' So it should have been ness how just your complaint is, and how brotherly rendered, and not indefinitely, as in our version; for your spirit in dealing with him. Again, If this fail.

Parable of the

Unmerciful Debtor. bring him before the church or congregation to which one on earth by the tie of His assumed flesh, and to both belong. Lastly. Il even this fail, regard him a3 | the other in heaven by the tie of His eternal Spirit no longer a brother Christian, but as one "without" | -their symphonious prayers on earth would thrill - the Jews did Gentiles and Publicans. 18. Verily upwards through Him to heaven, be carried by Him I way to you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall into the holiest of all, and so reach the Throne. be bound in heaven; and whatsover ye shall loose on earth | Thus will He be the living Conductor of the prayer shall be laosed in neaven. Here, what had been granted upward and the answer downward. Det stort time betore to Peter only (see on ch. 16. Parable of the Unmerciful Debtor (v. 21-35). 21. Then X is pirinly extended to all the Twelve; so that came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my whatever it means, it means nothing peculiar to brother sin against me, and I forgive him! In the rePeter. far less to his pretended successors at Rome. cent dispute, Peter had probably been an object of It has to do with admission to and rejection from special envy, and his forwardness in continually te mernbership of the Church. But see on John, I answering for all the rest would likely be cast up to

19. Aran I say unto you. That if two of you shall him-and 11 so, probably by Judas-notwithstanding cee on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, his Master's commendations. And as such insinua

shall be done for them of my fatner which is in tions were perhaps made once and again, he wished benen 20. For where two or three are gathered to to know how often and how long he was to stand it. Kether in-or unto my name there am I in the midst of | till seven times? This being the sacred and complete

On this passage-80 full of sublime encourage- | number, perhaps his meaning was, Is there to be a ment to Christian union in action and prayer--ob limit at which the needful forbearance will be full ? serve, srst, the connection in which it stands. Our 22. Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven Lord had been speaking of church-meetings, before times: but. Until seventy times seven-i.e., so long as it which the obstinate perversity of a brother was, in shall be needed and sought: you are never to come the last resort to be brought, and whose decision to the point of refusing forgiveness sincerely asked.

be final-such honour does the Lord of the (See on Luke, 17. 3. 4.) 23. Therefore-- with reference Charcb put upon its lawful assemblies. But not to this matter,' is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a the assemblies only does He deign to countenance certain king, which would take account of his servants

ad honour For even two uniting to bring any or, would scrutinise the accounts of his revenue-colmatter before Him shall find that they are not alone, lectors. 24. And when he had began to reckon, one was for My Father is with them, says Jesus, Next, ob brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents. serve the premium nere put upon union in prayer. If Attic talents are here meant, 10.000 of them would Astuts cannot exist with fewer than two, so by letting amount to above a million and a haự sterling : if it down so low as that number, He gives the utmost Jewish talents, to a much larger sum. 25. But forasconceivable encouragement to union in this exercise. much as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be But what kind of union! Not an agreement merely sold, and his wife and children, and all that he had, and to pray in concert, but to pray for some definite thing. I payment to be made. (See 2 Kings, 4.1; Nehemiah,

As Lonching any thing which they shall ask," says 6. 8; Leviticus, 26. 39.) 26. The servant therefore fell our Lord-any thing they shall agree to ask in con down, and worshipped him-or did humble obeisance to cert At the same time, it is plain He had certain him, saying. Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay chines at that moment in His eye, as most fitting and thee all. This was just an acknowledgment of the Deedial subjects for such concerted prayer. The justice of the claim made against him, and a piteous Tvelve had been "falling out by the way" about the imploration of mercy 27. Then the lord of that serErserable question of precedence in their Master's vant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and for

dom, and this, as it stirred their corruptions, I gave him the debt. Payment being hopeless, the bed piven nase-or at least was in danger of giving I Master is, first, moved with compassion; next, liber

-to - offences" perilous to their souls. The Lord lates his debtor from prison; and then cancels the Bimself had been directing them how to deal with debt freely. 28. But the same servant went out, and ope another about such matters. "But now shows found one of his fellow-servants. Mark the difference Ble unto them & more excellent way." Let them here. The first case is that of master and servant: Prinz all such matters-yea, and everything whatso in this case, both are on a footing of equality. See aer by which either their own loving relationship to , 33, below.) which owed him an hundred pence. Il eh other, or the good of His kingdom at large, | Jewish money is intended, this debt was to the other

i t be affected to their Father in heaven; and if I less than one to a million, and he laid hands on him, thes be but agreed in petitioning Him about that and took him by the throat-'ne seized and throttled

se it shall be done for them of His Father which him,' saying, Pay me that thou owest. Mark the ini beaven. But further, it is not merely union in mercilessness even of the tone. 29. And his fellowPrayer for the same thing-for that might be with servant fell down at his feet, and besonight him, saying. very farring ideas of the thing to be desired-but it is Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. The to wrapbonious prayer, to prayer by kindred spirits. I same attitude, and the same words which drew members of one family, servants of one Lord, con passion from his master are here employed towards strained by the same love, fighting under one banner, himself by his fellow-servant. 30. And he would not: cheered by assurances of the same victory: a living I but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the aad loving union, whose voice in the Divine ear is as debt, &c. Je

debt, &c. Jesus here vividly conveys the intolerable the sound of many waters. Accordingly, what they injustice and impudence which even the servants aske on earth” is done for them, says Jesus, "of my I saw in this act, on the part of one so recently laid Father which is in heaven," Not for nothing does He under the heaviest obligations to their common ay of my FATHER"-not "YOUR FATHER;" as is erideat from what follows: "For where two or three him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, &c. Before are eathered together unto my name"-the "My" is bringing down his vengeance upon him, he calmly en platie, "there am I in the midst of them." As points out to him how shamefully unreasonable and His me would prove a spell to draw together many heartless his conduct was: which would give the casters of His dear disciples, so if there should be punishment inflicted on him & double sting. 34. bat two or three, that will attract Himself down into And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the torthe midst of tbem; and related as He is to both the mentors-more than jailers: denoting the severity

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