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equality-" by the rule of equality"[ALFORD): lit.,"out (v. 20) as to their appropriation of any of the money. of equality" now at this time-Greek, "at the present 20. Avoiding-taking precautions against this, in this juncture" or season, that their abundance also-The abundance in the case of this abundance. 21. LXX. Greek being distinct from the previous that," translate. Proverbs, 3. 4; Romans, 12, 17). The oldest MSS. "in order that," viz., at another season, when your read, "For we provide." honest things - "things relative circumstances may be reversed. The reference | honourable." 22. This second brother, BIRKs supposes is solely to temporal wants and supplies. Those, as to be Trophimus; for & Macedonian is not meant (ch. BENGEL, who quote Romans, 15. 27, for interpreting it 9. 4): probably the same as was sent before with Titus of spiritual supplies from the Jews to the Gentiles, (ch, 12, 18); and therefore sent from Ephesus, and forget that Romans, 15. 27 refers to the past benefit probably an Ephesian: all this is true of Trophimus. spiritually, which the Jews have conferred on the oftentimes...in many things - Join and translate as in Gentiles, as a motive to gratitude on the part of the the Greek," many times in many things." upon the great latter, not to & prospective benefit to be looked for from confidence which I have in you-"through the great conthe former, which the text refers to. 15. Exodus, fidence WHICH HE HAS towards you." (ALFORD.) 16. 18; LXX. As God gave an equal portion of manna BENGEL better supports English Version, "We have to all the Israelites, whether they could gather much sent, &c., through the confidence WHICH WE FEEL in or little: 80 Christians should promote by liberality an regard to your liberality." 23. fellow-helper concerning equality, so that none should need the necessaries of you--Greek, " fellow-worker towards you." our brethren life, whilst others have superfluities. "Our luxuries --the two mentioned, v. 18 and 22. messengers-rather, should yield to our neighbour's comforts; and our as the Greek, "apostles:" in the less strict sense (Acts, comforts to his necessities." (J. HOWARD.) 16. 17. 14. 14). of the churches-sent by the churches, as we Returning to the subject of v. 6. for you-translate. are by the Lord (Philippians, 2. 25). There was in the " Which put the same earnest care for you into the heart synagogue an ecclesiastical officer, called "the angel of Titus, as was in myself. My care for you led me to of the church," whence the title seems derived (cf. ** desire" him (v. 6, and 17, "echortation, the same Revelation, 2. 1). 24. The oldest MSS. read "conGreek; but Titus had of himself the same care, whence tinue) manifesting to them in the face of the churches he "accepted gladly) my exhortation" (v. 17) to go to the manifestation of your love, and of our boasting on yon (v. 6). being more forward-more earnest than to your behalf." need such exhortation, he went-Greek, "went forth."

CHAPTER JX. We should say, he is going forth; but the ancients put Ver. 1-15. REASONS FOR HIS SENDING TITUS. THE the past tense in letter writing, as the things will have GREATER THEIR BOUNTIFULNESS, THE MORE SHALL been past by the time that the correspondent receives | BE HE RETURN OF BLESSING TO THEM, AND THANKSthe letter. "Of his own accord," i.e., it is true he has QIVING TO GOD. 1. For - connected with ch. 8. 16: been exhorted by me to go, but he shows that he has. "Show love to the messengers of the churches ; for as anticipated my desires, and already, "of his own ac- concerns the ministration for the saints, it is supercord," has desired to go. 18. the brother, whose praise fluous for me to write to you who are so forward is in the gospel-whose praise is known in connexion already," write - emphatical: It is superfluous to with the gospel : Luke may be meant; not that "therorite, for you will have witnesses present. (BENCEL.) gospel" here refers to his written gospel ; but the 2. ready a year ago-to send off the money, owing to larguage implies some one well known throughout the apostle's former exhortation (1 Corinthians, 16. 1, 2). the churches, and at that time with Paul, as Luke then your zeal - Greek, "the zeal from you," i.e., on your was (Acts, 20. 6). Not a Macedonian, as appears from | part: propagated from you to others. provoked-i.e., ch. 9. 4. Of all Paul's "companions in travel" (v. 19: stimulated. very many--Greek, "the greater number," Acts. 19. 29), St. Luke was the most prominent, having viz., of the Macedonians. 3. have I seut- we should been his companion in preaching the gospel at his first I say, "I send :" whereas the ancients put it in the past, entrance into Europe (Acts. 16. 10). The fact that the the time which it would be by the time that the letter person here referred to was" chosen of the churches" arrived. the brethren - (ch, 8, 18, 22) — Titus and the as their trustee to travel with Paul in conveying the two others. should be in vain in this behall-"should contribution to Jerusalem, implies that he had resided be proved futile in this particular," however true in anaong them some time before : this is true of St. general (ch. 7. 4). A tacit compliment, softening the Lake, who, after parting from St. Paul at Philippi (as sharp monition. as I said-as I was saying (v. 2). 4. if he marks by the change from "we" to "they," Acts, they of Macedonia-rather as Greek, "if Macedonians." 16.) six years before, is now again found in his company unprepared-with your collection; see v. 2, "ready." in Macedonia. In the interinn he probably had be- Greek, "prepared," we, not to say ye-Ye would natucome so well known, that "his praise was throughont rally feel more ashamed for yourselves, than we (who all the churches." Cr. ch. 12. 18; Philemon, 24. He boasted of yon) would for you. confident boasting-The who is faithful in the gospel, will be faithful also in | oldest MSS. read simply "confidence." viz., in your matters of inferior importance. (BENGEL.) 19. not liberality. 5. that they would go before-translate, "that that only-not only praised in all the churches. chosen they should," &c. whereof ye had notice before-rather.

by vote: so the Greek. of the churches-therefore these " promised before "long announced by me to the companions of Paul are called "messengers of the Macedonians" (v. 2). (BENGEL.] “Your promised churcher" (v. 23). to travel to Jerusalem. with this bounty." (ELLICOTT, &c.] not as of covetousness

race-Greek. * in the case of this grace," or "gift." to I translate, "not as matter of covetousness," which it the glory of the same Lord-The oldest MSS. omit would be, if you gave niggardly. 6. I say-ELLICOTT, ** same." declaration of your ready mind - The oldest I &c.. supply the ellipsis thus: “But remember this." MSS. read “our." not your. This and the previous bountifully-lit., "with," or "in blessings." The word clause, "to the glory of the same Lord" do not follow itself implies a beneficent spirit in the giver cf. v. 7, * administered by us." but "chosen of the churches to end), and the plural implies the abundance and libertravel.* &c. The union of the brother with St. Paul in ality of the gifts. "The reaping shall correspond to this affair of the collection, was done to guard against the proportions and spirit of the sowing." (BENGEL) suspicions injurious "to the glory" of the Lord. It Cf. Ezekiel, 34. 26. Showers of blessing." 7. according was also done in order to produce a "readiness" on as he purposeth in his heart-Let the full consent of the the part of Panl and the brother to undertake the free will go with the gift. (ALFORD.] Opposed to “of ottice which, each by himself, would bave been less necessity," as "grudgingly" is opposed to "a cheerful ready to undertake, for fear of suspicions arising giver" Proverbs, 22. 9: 11. 25: Isaiah, 32, 8). 8. all grace

Blessed Fruit of their Charity.


He will Vindicate His Authority. --even in external goods, and even while ye bestow on graces of Christ especially (Psalm 18. 35; Matthew, others. (BENGEL.) that." in order that." God's gifts / 11. 20). as on account of his imitation of are bestowed on us, not that we may have them to particular he was despised. (GROTIUS.) He entreats ourselves, but that we may the more "abound in good them by these, in order to show that though he must works" to others. sufficiency - 80 As not to need the have recourse to more severe measures, he is naturally help of others, having yourselves from God "bread for inclined to gentle ones after Christ's example. [ME. your food" (v. 10. in all things - Greek, "in every NOCHIUS.] "Meekness" is more in the mind internally; thing." every good work-of charity to others, which "gentleness" in the external behaviour, and in relawill be " your seed sown" (v. 10). 9. As it is written- tion to others; for instance, the condescending yieldingrealizing the highly blessed character pourtrayed in ness of a superior to an inferior, the former not insistPsalm 112. 9. He the "good man" (Psalm 112, 6). / ing on his strict rights. (TRENCH.) BENGEL explains dispersed-as seed sown with full and open hand, with-lit. "By the meekness and gentleness derired by me out anxious thought in what direction each grain may from Christ." not from my own nature: he objects to fall. It is implied also that he has always what he understanding it of Christ's meekness and gentleness, may disperse. (BENGEL.) So in Psalm 112.9. the poor since no where else is a gentleness" attributed to Him.

-The Greele word is here only found in New Testa | But though the exact Greek word is not applied to ment, "one in straitened circumstances, who earns his Him, the idea expressed by it is (cf. Isaiah, 40. 11: Matbread by labour." The word usually employed means | thew, 12. 19, 20). in presence in personal appearance "one so poor as to live by begging." his righteousness when present with you. base-Greek, "lowly;" timid,

Here "beneficence:" the evidence of his being right-hambly diffdent: opposed to "bold." "Am" stands eons before God and man. Cf. Deuteronomy, 24. 13; here by ironical concession for "am reputed to be" Matthew, 6. 1, "alms" Greek, "righteousness." re- (cf. v. 10). 2. I beseech you-Intimating that, as he can maineth-nnexhausted and unfailing. 10. Translate beseech in letters, so he can be severe in their presence. as in Isaiah, 56. 10, “He that ministereth (supplieth) | that I may not be-that I may not have to be bold, &c. seed to the sower and bread for food" (lit.. "bread for with that confidence that authoritative sternness. I eating"). minister-rather future, as the oldest MSS. think I am minded to be. as if we walked according * Shall minister (supply) and multiply." your seed to the flesh-His Corinthian detractors judged of him -your means for liberality, the fruits of your righteous-by themselves, as if he were influenced by fleshly ness--the heavenly rewards for your Christian charity motives, the desire of favour, or fear of giving offence, (Matthew, 10. 42). Righteousness shall be itself the so as not to exercise his authority when present. 3. reward, even as it is the thing rewarded (Hosea, 10, 12; | For-Reason why they should regard him “beseechMatthew, 5. 6; 6. 33). 11. C1. v. 8. bountifulness-Greek, ing" them (v. 2) not to oblige him to have reconrse "singleminded liberality." Translated "simplicity." to "bold" and stern exercise of authority. “We walk Romans, 12. 8. causeth through us- lit.. "worketh In the flesh," and so in weakness: but not "ACCORDthrough us ; i.e., through our instrumentality as the ING TO the flesh" (v. 2). Moreover, though we WALK distributors. thanksgiving on the part of the re- in it, we do not war according to it. A double concipients. 12. Greek," The ministration of this public trast or antithesis. "They who accuse us of walking service (on your part) is not only still further supply after the flesh, sball find [to their cost) that we do not ing the wants of the saints (besides the supplies from war after the flesh; therefore compel us not to use our other quarters), but is abounding also (viz., in respect weapons." (ALFORD.) 4. A confutation of those who to relieving the necessities of others in poverty) through try to propagate their creed by force and persecution many thanksgivings to God." 13. by-through occasion (cf. Luke, 9. 54-66). carnal-translate, "fleshly" to preof experiment-translate, "the experience." (ELLI- serve the allusion to v. 2, 3. weapons-for punishing COTT, &c.) Or, "the experimental proof” of your offending members (v. 6: 1 Corinthians, 4. 21; 6, 6, 13): Christian character, afforded by "this ministration." boldness of speech, ecclesiastical discipline (v. 8; ch. they-the recipients, for your professed subjection-Greek, 13. 10), the power of the word, and of the sacraments, ** for the subjection of your profession;" i.e.. your the various extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, mighty subjection in accordance with your profession, in re- through Gd-Greek, "mighty to God," je, mighty lation to the gospel. Ye yield yourselves in willing before God: not humanly, but divinely powerful. The subjection to the gospel precepts, evinced in acts, as power is not ours, but God's. Ct. "fair to God." well as in profession. Your liberal distribution-Greeks, i.e., divinely fair (Margin, Acts, 7. 20). Also above "the liberality of your contribution in relation to (ch. 2. 18), "unto God & them," &c. 14, Translate. “Themselves also with of the Christian religion proves its truth." BENGEL. prayer for you, longing after you on account of the ex. pulling down-As the Greek is the same as in ». 5. ceeding grace of God (resting) upon you." English translate, “casting down." C. Jeremiah, 1, 10: the inVersion is, however, good sense : They glorify God spired servants of God inherit the commission of the (v. 13) by the experimental proof, &c., "apd by their Old Testament prophets. strongholds-(Proverbs, 21.29) prayer for you." But the Greek favours the former. 15.-vis., in which sinners entrench themselves against his unspeakable gift-the gift of his own son, which in- reproof: all that opposes itself to Christ; the learning. cludes all other inferior gifts (ch. 8.0; Romans, 8. 32). and eloquence, and philosophical subtleties on which If we have received from God "His unspeakable gift," the Corinthians prided themselves So Joshua's what great thing is it, if we give a few perishing gifts trumpet blast was "mighty under God to overthrow for His sake?

the walls of Jericho. 5. imaginationis rather," reasonCHAPTER X.

ings." Whereas "thought" expresses men's own pur Ver. 1-18. HE VINDICATES HIS APOSTOLIC pose, and determination of living after their own AUTHORITY AGAINST THOSE WHO DEPRECIATED AIM pleasure, (TITTM.) bigh thing - So it ought to be FOR HIS PERSONAL APPEARANCE. HE WILL MAKE translated Romans, 8. 39. A distinct Greek word from HIS POWER FELT WAEN HE COMES. HE BOASTS NOT, that in Ephesians, 3. 18, "height," and Revelation, LIKE THEM, BEYOND HIS MEASURE. 1. I Paul mysel! 21. 16, which belongs to God and heaven, from whence -no longer "we," "us," "our" (ch. 0. 11): I who am we receive nothing hurtful. But "high thing" is not represented by depreciators as "base," &c., I, the same so much "height" as something made high, and belongs Paul, of my own accord "beseech you;" or rather "en- to those regions of air where the powers of darkness treat." "exhort" you for your sake. As "I beseech "exalt themselves" against Christ and us (Ephesians, you" (a distinct Greek verb, v. 2) for my sake. by the 2. 2; 6. 12; 2 Thessalonians, 9. 4 exalteth itselfmeekuess and gentleness of Christ-He mentions these 2 Thessalonians, 2. 4, supports English Version rather the "approve

themselvese roll, (WAT

Paul's Glorying Just.

and in the Lord. than the translation of ELICOTT, &c., "is lifted up." bore himself tremblingly among them whereas the false Such were the high towers of Judaic self-righteousness, teachers spoke with authoritative bearing and language. philosophic speculations, and rhetorical sophistries, the 11. think this—"consider this," such will we bemor "knowledge" so much prized by many opposed to "the "are" in general, pot merely shall we be at our next knowledge of God"), wbich endangered a section of the visit. 12. "We do not presume (irony) to judge our Corinthian church, against the knowledge of God-True selves among, or in comparison with, some of them knowledge makes men humble. Where there is exalta- that commend themselves." The charge falsely brought tion of self, there knowledge of God is wanting. against him of commending himself (ch. 3. 1; 5. 12), (BENGEL) Arrange the words following thus: “ Bring. really holds good of the false teachers. The phrase, ing every thougbt (i e., intent of the mind or roill) into "judge ourselves of the number," is drawn from the captivity to the obedience of Christ," i.e., to obey Christ. | testing of athletes and senators, the" approved being The three steps of the apostle's spiritual warfare are: set down on the rol), WAHL.) measuring tbemselves by (1) It demolishes what is opposed to Christ; (2.) it themselves," among themselves:" to correspond to the leads captive; (3.) it brings into obedience to Christ previous verb. "judge ourselves among them." InRomans, 1. 5; 16. 26). The “reasonings" (English stead of measuring themselves by the public standard, Version, "imaginations") are utterly "cast down." they measure themselves by one made by themselves : The "mental intents" (English Version, “thoughts") they do not compare themselves with others who excel are taken willing captives, and tender the voluntary them, but with those like themselves: hence their high obedience of iaith to Christ the conqueror. 6.Translate, self esteem. The one-eyed is easily king among the "Having ourselves (i.e., being) in readiness to exact blind. are not rise-with all their boasted "wisdom" punishment for all disobedience," &c. We have this (1 Corinthians, 1. 19-26), they are any thing but "wise." in store for the disobedient: it will be brought into 13. pot boast without measure-Greek, "to unmeasured action in due time, when your obedience, &c --He bounds." There is no limit to a man's high opinion of charitably assumes that most of the Corinthian church himself, so long as he measures himself by bimselt will act obediently; therefore he says "YOUR obedi. (v. 13) and his fellows, and does not compare himsell edce. But perhaps some will act otherwise; in order with his superiors. It marks the personal character of therefore, to give all an opportunity of joining the this epistle that the word "boast" occurs twenty-nine obedient, he will not prematurely exact punishment.times in it, and only twenty-six times in all the other but wait until the full number of those gathered out to epistles put together. Undeterred by the charge ot Christ has been "completed," and the remainder bave vanity, he felt he must vindicate his apostolic authority been proved incorrigible. He had acted already so at by facts. (CONYBEARE & Howson.] It would be to Corinth (Acts, 18. 6-11; cf. Exodus, 32, 34; Matthew, 13. * boast of things witbout our measure," were we to 99-30). 7. Do ye regard mere ontward appearance (mere boast of conversions made by "other men's labours external recommendations, personal appearance, voice, (0.16). distributed-apportioned. (ALFORD.) a measure manner, oratory of teachers present face to face, such -as a measure. (ALFORD.) to reach-"that we should is they admired in the false teachers to the disparage reach as far as even to you " not that he meant to go ment of Pani, v. 10; Note, ch, 5, 12). Even in outward no further (v. 16; Romans, 15. 20-24). St. Paul's bearing when I shall be present with you in contrast "measure" is the apportionment of his sphere of gospel to "by letters," v.9 I will show that I am more really labours ruled for him by God. A "rule" among the armed with the authority of Christ, than those who ar- so-called "apostolic canons" subsequently was, that rogate to themselves the title of being peculiarly no bishop should appoint ministers beyond his own "Christ's" (1 Corinthians, 1. 12). A Jewish emissary limits. At Corinth no minister ought to have been reseems to have led this party. let him of himself think ceived without St. Paul's sanction, as Corinth was apthis again-He may " of himself," without needing to portioned to him by God as his apostolic sphere. The be taught it in a more severe manner, by "thinking epistle here incidentally, and therefore undesignedly, again,' arrive at this conclusion, "that even as, &c. confirms the independent history, the Acts, which reSt. Paul modestly demands for himself only an equal presents Corinth as the extreme limit as yet of his place with those whom he had begotten in the gospel. preaching, at schich he had stopped, after he had from (BEXGE .) 8. "For even if I were to boast somewhat | Philippi passed southward successively through more exceedingly than I do. v. 3-0) of our fapostolic) Amphipolis, Apollonia, Thessalonica, Berea, and authority (e. 6: ch. 13. 10)...I should not be put to Athens. (PALEY's Hora Paulince.) 14.“ We are not shame" by the fact; as I should be if my authority stretching ourselves beyond our measure, as (we should tiroved to be without foundation : my threats of be) if we did not reach unto you: (but we do.) for as far punishment not being carried into effect for edifica- as even to you have we come in preaching the gospel." tion...not for...destruction-Greele." for building up...not | 15. Not boasting to unmeasured bounds (i.e., not ex LOT...CASTING DOWN" (the same Greek as in v. 6: the l ceeding our own bounds by boasting) of (lit.. "in") anage of a building as in v. 4. 5. Though we "cast other men's labours." when-"As your faith goes on down reasonings," this is not in order to destroy, but increasing." The cause of his not yet reaching with really to build up (edify"), by removing those things the gospel the regions beyond Corinth, was the weakwhich are binderances to edification, and testing what ness as yet of their faith. He desired not to leave the is unsound, and putting together all that is true in the Corinthians before the proper time, and yet not to put building. (CHRYSOSTOM.] 9. I say this lest I sbould off preaching to others too long. enlarged by you seem to be terrifying you, as children, with einpty Greek, "in your case." Our success in your case will threats. BENGEL) ESTIUs explains, "I might boast give us an important step towards further progress more of my authority, but I forbear to do so, that I beyond you (v. 16). according to our rule- according to may not seem as if," &c. But this ellipsis is harsh: our divinely-assigned apportionment of the area or and v. 10, 11, confirm BENGEL's view. 20. letters-Im-sphere of our work; for "we stretch not ourselves beplying that there had been already more letters of St. yond our measure" (v. 14). abundantly-Greek, "unto Paul received by the Corinthians than the one we have, exceeding abundance :" so as to exceed the limits we piz., 1 Corinthians; and that they contained strong have yet reached (v. 16. 16. To-.e., so as to preach... reproofs, say they-Greek, "says one." "such a one" beyond you (and) not to boast. &c. in another mau's (v. 11) seems to point to some definite individual. C. line of things made ready to our hand-Do not connect Galatians, 6. 10; a similar slanderer was in the Galatian "line of things." &c.: but “boast of things,* &c. To church). weak-ch. 12. 7: 1 Corinthians. 2. 3.) Thero make this clearer, arrange the words thus, Not to Was nothing of majesty or authority in his manner; he l boast as to things (already made by the preaching of Panil's Glorying Just.


and in the Lord,

others) ready to our hand in another man's line (i.e., But there can be no nero gospel : there is but the one within the line, or sphere of labour, apportioned by which I first preached; therefore it ought not to be God to another). 17. glorieth-translate, to accord "borne" by you, that the false teachers should with v. 16, "boasteth." In contrast to his opponents' attempt to supersede me he that cometh-the highpractice of boasting in another's line or sphere, St. Paul sounding title assumed by the false teachers, who ardeclares the only true boasting is in the Lord (1 Corin- rogated Christ's own peculiar title {Greck, Matthew, thians, 1. 31: 15. 10). 18. (Proverbs, 27. 2.) whom the 11. 3, and Hebrews, 10. 37), " He that is coming." PerLord commendeth-to whom the Lord has given as his haps he was leader of the party which assumed "epistle of commendation," the believers whom he has peculiarly to be "Christ's" (ch, 10.7; 1 Corinthians, been the instrument of converting : ag was St. Paul's 1. 12): hence his assumption of the title. preacbeth... case (ch, 3, 1-3). is approved-can stand the test of the receive - is preaching..ye are receiving. Jesus-the final trial. A metaphor from testing metals (Romans, "Jesus" of gospel history. He therefore does not say 10. 10: 1 Corinthians, 11. 19). So on the other hand "Christ," which refers to the office. another...anotherthose finally rejected by the Lord are termed "repro Greek, "another Jesus... a different Spirit...a different bate silver" (Jer. 6. 30).

gospel." Another implies a distinct individual of the CHAPTER XI.

same kind; different implies one quite distinct in kind. Ver. 1-33. THROUGH JEALOUSY OVER THE CORIN. which ye have not received from us. spirit...received... THIANS WHO MADE MORE ACCOUNT OF THE FALSE gospel...accepted-The will of man is passive in RECEIVAPOSTLES THAN OF HIM, HE IS OBLIGED TO COMMENDING the "Spirit;" but it is actively concurrent with the HIMSELF AS IN MANY RESPECTS SUPERIOR, 1. Would will of God (which goes before to give the good will) in to God-translate as Greek, "I would that." bear with ACCEPTING the "gospel." ye might well bear with him me-I may ask not unreasonably to be borne with: not-There would be an excuse for your conduct, though so the false apostles (v. 4, 20). my-Not in the oldest a bad one (for ye ought to give heed to do gospel other MSS. folly-The Greeks is a milder term than that for than what ye have already heard from me, Galatians, "foolishness" in 1 Corinthians, 3. 19: Matthew, 5. 22: 1. 6, 7); but the false teachers do not even pretend they 25. 2. The Greek for "folly " here implies imprudence; have "another Jesus" and & " different gospel” to the Greek for "foolishness" includes the idea of perver- bring before you, they merely try to supplant me, your sity and wickedness, and indeed bear-A request (80 accredited Teacher. Yet ye not only "bear with them,

. 16). But the Greek and the sense favour the transla- but prefer them. 5. For-my claim is superior to that of tion, "But indeed (I need not wish it, for) ye do bear the false teachers, “For," &c. I suppose-[ reckon. with me:" still I wish yon to bear with me further, (ALFORD.) I was not-Greek, "That I have not been, whilst I enter at large into self-commendations. 2. and am not." the very chiefest apostles-James, Peter, Por I am jealous-The justification of his self-commenda- and John, the witnesses of Christ's transfiguration and tions lies in his zealous care lest they should fall from agony in Gethsemane. Rather, "those overmuch Christ, to whom he, as "the friend of the bridegroom" apostles," those surpassers of the apostles in their own (John, 3, 29), has espoused them: in order to lead them esteem. This sense is proved by the fact that the con. back from the false apostles to Christ, he is obliged to text contains no comparison between him and the boast as an apostle of Christ, in a way which, but for apostles, but only between him and the false teachers: the motive, would be "folly." godly jealousy-lit., 10. 6 also alludes to these, and not to the apostles : cf. "jealousy of God" (cf. ch. 1. 12, "godly sincerity," lit., I also the parallel pbrase, "false apostles" (Note, D. 13, "sincerity of God"). "If I am immoderate, I am and ch, 12. 11). (ALFORD.) 6. rude--Greck," a common immoderate to God." (BENGKL) A jealousy which man:" & "laic;" not rhetorically trained: unskilled in has God's honour at heart (1 Kings, 19. 10). I...espoused finish of diction. 1 Corinthians, 2. 1-4, 13; ch. 10. 10.11, yon-St. Paul uses & Greek term applied properly to shows his words were not without weight, though his the bridegroom, just as he ascribes to himself "jeal. "speech" was deficient in oratorical artifice. "Yet I ousy." & feeling properly belonging to the husband: so am not so in my knowledge" (ch. 12. 1-5; Ephesians, entirely does he identify himself with Christ, present 3. 1-5). have been...made manifest-Read with the oldest you as a chaste virgin to Christ-at His coming, when MSS. " We have made things (gospel truths) manisest: the heavenly marriage shall take place (Matthew, 25, 6; thus showing our" knowledge." English Version would Revelation, 19. 7, 9). What St. Paul here says he mean, I leave it to yourselves to decide whether I be desires to do, viz., "present" the church as "a chaste rude in speech, &c.: for we have been thoroughly (lit., virgin" to Christ, Christ Himself is said to do in the "in every thing") made manifest among you (lit., "in fuller sense. Whatever ministers do effectively, is respect to you :" "in relation to yon"). He had not really done by Christ (Ephesians, 5. 27-32). The by reserve kept back his "knowledge" in divine espousals are going on now. He does not say "chaste mysteries from them (ch. 2. 17; 4. 2; Acts, 20. 20, 27). virgins" for not individual members, but the whole in all things--The Greek rather favours the translation body of believers conjointly constitute the Bride. 3. "among all men;" the sense then is, we have manifested I fear-(ch, 12. 20)- not inconsistent with love. His the whole truth among all men with a view to your source of fear was their yielding character. subtilty benefit. (ALFORD.) But the Grerkin Philippians, 4. 12, the utter foe of the "simplicity" which is intent on * In each thing and in all things," sanctions English ONE object, Jesus, and seeks none "other," and no Version, which gives a clearer sense, 7. Have I-lit. "other" and different Spirit (v. 4): but loves him with " Or have Ir' Connected with last verse, "Or will any tender SINGLENESS OF AFFECTIOx. Where Eve first of you make it an objection that I have preached to you gave way, was in mentally harbouring for a moment gratuitously? He leaves their good feeling to give the the possibility insinuated by the serpent, of GOD not answer, that this, so far from being an objection, was a having her truest interests at heart, and of this decided superiority in him above the false apostles * other" professing friend being more concerned for (1 Corinthians, 9. 6-16). abasing myself-in my mode of her than GOD. corrupted-so as to lose their virgin living, waiving my right of maintenance, and earning it purity through seducers (v, 4). The same Greek stands by manual labour; perhaps with slaves as his fellowfor "minds" as for “ thoughts" (ch. 10. 5, where see labourers (Acts, 18. 3; Philippiads, 4. 12). ye...esalted ruote): intents of the will, or mind. The oldest MSS., after -spiritually, by your admission to gospel privileges. "simplicity," add, "and the purity" or "chastity." in because-"in that." gospel of God" of God" implies Christ-rather. "that is towards Christ." 4. if, &c.- its divine glory to which they were admitted. freelywhich in fact is impossible. However, if it were pos-"without charge." 8. I robbedie., took from them in sible, ye might then bear with them (see Note, t. 11. order to spare you) more than what was tucir fair share

His Claim abore

the False Apostles. of contribution to my maintenance, e.g., the Philippian again - again taking up from 1.1 the anticipatory church (Philippians, 4, 15, 16). wages-" subsidy." to apology for his boasting, if otherwise-but if ye will do you service-Greek, "with a view to ministration to not grant this; if ye will think me a fool. yet as a fool you" ef. "supplied" (Greek, "in addition"), v. 9, im- -"yet even as a fool receive me:" grant me the inrlying, he brought with him from the Macedonians, dulgent hearing conceded even to one suspected of supplies towards his maintenance at Corinth; and (v.9) folly. The Greek denotes one who does not rightly use when those resources failed (“when I wanted ") he re- his mental powers; not having the idea of blame necesceived a new supply, whilst there, from the same sarily attached to it: one deceived by foolish vanities, source. 9. wanted—"was in want." chargeable-Greek, yet boasting himself [TITTM.] (v. 17, 19). that I--The * burdensome," lit., "to torpify. and so to oppress. oldest MSS. read, "that I, too," viz., as well as they, JEROME says it is a Cilician word (ch. 12, 14, 16). the may boast myself. 17. not after the Lord-by inspired brethren which came-rather, as Greek, "the brethren guidance he excepts this "glorying" or "boasting" from tchen they came." Perhaps Timotheus and Silas (Acts, the inspired authoritativeness which belongs to all else .1, 5). Cf. Philippians, 4, 15, 16, which refers to dond- that he wrote: even this boasting, though undesirable tions received from the Philippians (who were in Mace- in itself, was permitted by the Spirit, taking into acdonia) at two distinct periods (once and again") one count its aim, vis., to draw off the Corinthians from at Thessalonica, the other after his departure from their false teachers to the apostle. Therefore this Macedonia, that is, when he came into Achais tol passage gives no proof that any portion of Scripture Corinth (from the church in which city he would receive | is uninspired. It merely guards against his boasting no help); and this "in the beginning of the gopel," i.e., being made a justification of boasting in general, which at its first preaching in these parts. Thus all three, the is not ordinarily "after the Lord," i.e., consistent with two epistles and history, mutually, and no doubt un Christian humility. foolishly-Greek, "in foolishness." designedly. coincide: a sure test of genuineness. gup- confidence of boasting-(ch. 9. 4.) 18. many-including plied-Greek, "supplied in addition," riz., in addition the "false teachers." after the tech-as fleshly men are to their former contributions: or as BENGEL, in addi. wont to boast, viz., of external advantages, as their tion to the supply obtained by my own manual labour.! birth, doings, &c. cf. 7. 22). I will glory also-i.e., I 10. Greek. "There is (the) truth of Christ in me that." | also will boast of such fleshly advantages, to show you &c. Romans, 2. 1). no man shall stop me of-The oldest that even in these I am not their inferiors, and there. MSS. read, “This boasting shall not be shut lie., fore ought not to be supplanted by them in your esteem: stopped) as regards me." "Boasting is as it were per though these are not what I desire to glory in (ch, 10. 17). sonified.. shall not have its mouth stopped as regards 19. gladly-willingly. Irony. A plea why they should me." (ALFORD.) 11. Love is often offended at its bear with" (v. 1) him in his folly, ie, boasting : ye favours being not accepted, as though the party to are, in sooth, so "wise" (1 Corinthians, 4, 8, 10; St. whom they are offered wished to be under no obliga- | Paul's real view of their wisdom was very different, tion to the offerer. 12. I will do I will continue to li Corinthians. 3. 1-4) yourselves that ye can "bear decline help. occasion-Greek, "the occasion," viz., of with" the folly of others more complacently. Not misrepresenting my motives, which would be afforded only can ye do so, but ye are actually doing this and to my detractors, if I accepted help. that wherein they more. 20. For_Ye may well "bear with" fools: for glory they may be found even as we-BENGEL joins this ye even "bear with'oppressors. Translate, “ Ye bear clause with "the occasion," viz., of glorying or boasting: with them." a man-as the false apostles do. bring the occasion "that they may be found a point wherein you into bondage-to himself. Translate "brings," not they glory) even as we, * i.e., quite as disinterested, or "bring:" for the case is not merely a supposed case, virtually, quite as gain-seeking and self-seeking. It but a case actually then occurring. Also "devours" cannot mean that the false teachers taught gratuitously (viz., by exactions, Matthew, 23, 14; Psalm 63. 4),"takes." even as Paul (cf. v. 20; 1 Corinthians, 9. 12). ALFORD "exalts," "smites." take of you --So the Greek for lens clearly explains by reference to v. 18, &c., where "take" is used for "take away írom" (Revelation, 6. 4). the glorying here is taken up and described as "glory- | ALFORD translates, as in ch. 12, 16,"catches you." ing after the flesh" thus it means, that in the matters exalt himself-under the pretext of apostolic dignity. of which they boast they may be found even as we, i.e., I smite you on the face-under the pretext of divine zeal. we may be on a fair and equal footing; that there may The height of insolence on their part, and of servile enbe po adrentitious comparisons made between us, aris-durance on yours (1 Kings, 22. 24; Nehemiah, 13. 25; ing out of misrepresentations of my course of procedure, Luke, 22. 64; Acts, 23. 2; 1 Timothy, 3. 3). 21, as con. but that in every matter of boasting we may be fairly cerning reproach-rather, "by way of dishonour (i.e.. compared and judged by facts; FOR (V. 13) realities they self-disparagement) I say it." as though we...weak-in bave done, no weapons but misrepresentation, being not similarly (v. 20) showing our power over you. "An false apostles. 13. For-Reason why he is unwilling they iropical reminiscence of his own abstinence when should be thought like him. (BENGEL.) such-they | among them from all these acts of self-exaltation at and those like them. false apostles-those "overmuch their expense" (as if such abstinence was weakness). apostles** Note, v. 5) are no apostles at all. deceitful (ALFORD.) The "we" is emphatically contrasted with workers-pretending to be "workmen" for the Lord, the false teachers who so oppressively displayed their and really seeking their own gain. 14. is transformed power. I speak so as though we had been weak when -rather." transforms himself" (cf. Job, 1. 6): babitually: with you, because we did not show our power this way. the first occasion of his doing so was in tempting Eve. Howbeit we are not really weak; for), whereinsoever * Himself" is emphatical: If their master himsel, who I apy is bold, &c., I am bold also. 22. Hebrews... Israelis tbe prince of darkness," the most alien to light, ites...the seed of Abraham-A climax. Hebrews," redoes so, it is less marvellous in the case of them who are ferring to the language and nationality: "Israelites," his servants (Luke, 22. 64; Ephesians, 6. 12). 15. no great to the theocrauy and descent from Israel, the "prince thing--no difficult matter. if his ministers also-as well who prevailed with God" (Romans, 9. 4); "the seed as himsell. righteousness--answering to "light" (v. 14): 1 of Abraham," to the claim to a share in the Messiah the manifestation wherewith God reveals Himself in (Romans, 11, 1; 9. 7). CI. Philippians, 3. 5."An Hebrew Christ Matthew. 6. 33; Romans, 1. 17). end-the test of l of the Hebrews:" not an Hellenist or Greek-speaking things is the end which strips off every specious form Jew, but Into wbich Satan's agents may now "transform them- Hebrews. 23. I speak as a fool-rather, as Greek, "I selves (cf. Philippians, 3. 19, 21). according to their speak as if beside myself :" stronger than “as a fool." Wu -pot according to their pretensions. 16. I say I am more-viz.. in respect to the credentials and

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