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Christ's Atonement.

Atonement by Christ. henceforth-since our knowing Christ's constraining | Hithpahel conjugation, appease, obtain the farour of love in His death for us. know we no man after the Matthew, 6. 24, "Be reconciled to thy brother," i.e.. flesh- e, according to his mere worldly and external take measures that he be reconciled to thee, as well as relations (ch. 11. 18: John 8. 15; Philippians, 3. 4), as thou to him, as the context proves. Diallagethi, howdistinguished from what he is according to the Spirit. ever (Matthew, 5. 24), implying mutual reconciliation, as a "new creatnre" (v. 17). For instance, the outward is distinct from Katallagethi bere, the latter referring distinctions of Jew or Gentile, rich or poor, slave or to the change of status wrought in one of the two free, learned or unlearned, are lost sight of in the parties. The manner of God reconciling the world to higher life of those who are deal in Christ's death, and Himself is implied (v. 19), viz., by His "not imputing alive with Him in the new life of Bis resurrection their trespasses to them." God not merely, as subseMalatians, 2. 6; 3. 28). yea, though-The oldest MSS quently, reconciles the world by inducing them to lay rend, if even." known Christ after the flesh-Paul aside their enmity, but in the first instance, does so by when a Jew had looked for a temporal reigning, not a satisfying His own justice and righteous enmity against spiritual, Messiah. He says " Christ," not Jesus: for sin (Psalm 7. 11). C. 1 Samuel, 29.4,"Reconcile himself he had not known personally Jesus in the days of His unto his master;" not remove his own anger against his flesh, but he had looked for Christ or the Messiah.) master, but his master's against him. [ARCHBISHOP When once he was converted he no longer" conferred | MAGEE. Atonement 1 The reconciling of men to with flesh and blood" (Galatians, 1. 16). He had this by their laying aside their enmity is the consequence advantage over the Twelve, that as one born out of due of God laying aside His just enmity against their sin, time he had never known Christ save in His heavenly and follows at v. 20. to us-ministers (. 19, 20). 19. life. To the Twelve it was "expedient that Christ God was in Christ, reconciling-i.e., God was by Christ should go away" that the Comforter should come, and in virtue of Christ's interrention) reconciling. &c. so they might know Christ in the higher spiritual aspect," Was reconciling" implies the time when the act of and in His new life-giving power, and not merely " after reconciliation was being carried into effect c. 21), riz, the flesb," in the carnal aspect of Him Romans, 6. 9-11; when "God made Jesus, who knew no sin, to be sin 1 Corinthians, 15. 45; 1 Peter, 3. 18: 4.1, 2). Doubtless, for us." The compound of “was" and the participle Judaizing Christians at Corinth prided themselves on "reconciling," instead of the imperfect (Greek, may the mere fleshly (ch. 11. 18) advantage of their belong. also imply the continuous purpose of God, from before ing to Israel, the nation of Christ, or on their having the foundation of the world, to reconcile man to Him. seen Him in the flesh, and thence claimed superiority self, whose fall was foreseen. The expression “IN over others as having a nearer connexion with Him Christ" for "by Christ” may be used to imply addi (v. 12; ch. 10. 7. St. Paul here shows the true aim tionally that God was in Christ John, 10. 38: 14. 10, should be to know Him spiritually as new creatures and so by Christ (the God-map) was reconciling. &c. (v. 16, 17), and that outward relations towards Him | The Greek for "by" or through Christ (the best MSS profit nothing (Luke. 18. 19-21; John, 16. 7, 22; Philip-omit "Jesus"), v. 18, is different. "In" must mean plans, 3. 3-10). This is at variance with both Romish here in the person of Christ. The Greek Katallasson Mariolatry and transubstantiation. Two distinct implies "changing" or altering the judicial status from Greek verbs are used here for "know." the first("know one of condemnation to one of justification. The we noman") means "to be personally acquainted with;" atonement (at one-ment), or reconciliation, is the rethe latter (known Christ...know...Do more") is to moval of the bar to peace and acceptance with a holy recognise, or estimate. St. Paul's estimate of Christ, God, which His righteousness interposed against our or the expected Messiah, was carnal, but is so now no sin. The first step towards restoring peace between us more. 17. Therefore - Connected with the words in and God was on God's side (John, 3. 16). The change v. 16. " We know Christ no more after the flesh." As therefore now to be effected must be on the part of of. Christ has entered on His new heavenly life by His fending man, God the offended One being already reresurrection and ascension, so all who are “in Christ" conciled. It is man, not God, who now needs to be (i.e., united to Him by faith as the branch is in the reconciled, and to lay aside his enmity against God vine) are new creatures (Romans, 6. 9-11). "New" in (Romans, 6. 10, 11). " We have received the atonethe Greec implies a new nature quite different from any ment" (Grerk, "reconciliation"). cannot mean " We thing previously existing, not merely recent, which is have received the laying aside of our own enmity.") expressed by a different Greek word (Galatians, 6. 15). Cf. Romans, 3. 24, 25. the world-all men (Colossians creature-lit.. " creation." and so the creature resulting 1. 20: 1 John, 2. 2). The manner of the reconciling is from the creation cf. John, 3. 3, 6; Ephesians, 2. 10: by His "not imputing to men their trespasses," but 4. 23; Colossians 3. 10. 11). As we are " in Christ," so imputing them to Christ the Sin-bearer. There is no "God was in Christ" (v. 19): hence He is mediator incongruity that a Father should be offended with that between God and us. old things-selfish, carnal views son whom He loveth, and at that time offended with (cf. v. 16) of ourselves, of other men, and of Christ. him when He loveth him. So, though God loved men passed away - spontaneously, like the snow of early whom He created, yet He was offended with them when spring (BENGEL) before the advancing sun. behold- they sinned, and gave His Son to suffer for them, that implying an allusion to Isaiah 43. 19, and 66. 17. 18. through that Son's obedience He might be reconciled to all (THE, Greek) things-all our privileges in this new them (reconcile them to Himself,i.e., restore them WITH creation (v. 14, 16). reconciled us--i.e., restored us ("the JUSTICE to His favour). (BISHOP PEARSON, Creed.) world." 1. 10) to His favour by satisfying the claims of hath committed unto us - Greek, "hath put into our justice against us. Our position judicially considered hands." "US." i.e., ministers. 20. for Christ...in in the eye of the law is altered, not as though the Christ's stead--The Greek of both is the same; translate mediation of Christ had made a change in God's cha. in both cases," on Christ's behalf." be ye reconciled racter, nor as if the love of God was produced by the to God - English Version here inserts "ye,which is not mediation of Christ: nay, the mediation and sacrifice in the original, and which gives the wrong impression, of Christ was the provision of God's love, not its mor- as if it were emphatic thus: God is reconciled to you, be ing cause (Romans, 8.32). Christ's blood was the price ve reconciled to God. The Greek expresses rather, God paid at the expense of God himself, and was required was the RECONCILER in Christ...let this reconciliation to reconcile the exercise of mercy with justice, not as then have its designed effect. Be reconciled to God. separate, but as the eternally-harmonious attributes i.e., let God reconcile you to Himself (v. 18, 19). beseech in tbe one and the same God (Romans, 3. 25, 26). Tbe...pray-rather, "entreat (plead with you)...beseech.' Greek "reconcile" is reciprocally used as in the Hebrew Such "beseeching" is uncommon in the clse of Atonement by Christ.


Believers' Trials and Graces. * embassadors," who generally stand on their dignity | 10. 33). "approving ourselves," and all the other Icf. ch. 10. 2: 1 Thessalonians, 2. 6. 7). 21. For participles down t Omitted in the oldest NSS. The grand reason why entreat you" (v. 1), to show the pains be took to enforce they should be reconciled to God, vix., the great atone his exhortation by example, as well as precept. ment in Christ provided by God, is stated without the (ALFORD.) “Offence" would be given, if we were with* for" as being part of the message of reconciliation out "patience" and the other qualifications which he Iv. 19). he-God. sin-not a sin-offering, which would | therefore subjoins (cf. Romans, 14. 13). 4. Translate, destroy the antithesis to "righteousness," and would to mark the true order of the Greek words, "In every make ** sin" be used in different senses in the same thing, as God's ministers recommending ourselves." sentence; not a sinful person, which would be untrue, I i.e., that our hearers may give our message a favourable and would require in the antithesis "righteous men." hearing, through our consistency in every respect, not not "righteousness;" but "sin," i.e., the representa-that they may glorify us. Alluding to ch. 3. 1, he imtive sin-bearer (vicariously) of the aggregate sin of all plies, We commend ourselves, not like them by word. men past, present, and future. The sin of the world is but by deed. patience-(ch. 12. 12.) Put first. “Pure. one, therefore the singular, not the plural, is used ; ness" follows (t. 6). Three triplets of trials exercising thongh its manifestations are manifold (John, 1. 29). I the patience" (patient endurance) follow: Afflictions "Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the SIN (or "tribulations"), necessities, distresses (or "straits"); of the world." Cl. "made a curse for us," Galatians stripes, imprisonments, tumults; labours, watchings, 3. 13. for us-Greek, “in our behalf." CY. John, 3. 14, | fastings. The first triplet expresses afflictions geneChrist being represented by the brazen serpent, the rally: the second, those in particular, arising from the form, but not of the substance, of the old serpent. At violence of men; the third, those which he brought on his death on the cross the sin bearing for us was con- himself directly or indirectly. 5. stripes-(ch. 11. 23, 24 summated knew no sin - by personal experience | Acts, 16. 23.) imprisonments-(ch. 11. 23.) He had been, (Job. 8. 46). IALFORD.) Hebrews, 7. 28; 1 Peter, 2. 22; I doubtless, elsewhere imprisoned besides at Philippi, 1 John, 3. 6. might be made-Not the same Greek as when he wrote this epistle. tumults-(Acts, 13. 50; 14. tbe previous "made." Rather, "might become." the 5, 19; 16. 22; and recently 19, 23-41.) labours-in the righteousness of God -Not merely righteous, but right cause of Christ (ch. 11. 23; Romans, 16. 12). watchings erusress itself: pot merely righteousness, but the -(ch. 11. 27.) Sleepless nights. fastings-The context righteousness of God, because Christ is God, and what bere refers to his trials, rather than derotional exercises He is we are (1 John, 4. 17), and He is "made of God (cf. ch. 11. 27). Thus, * foodlessness" would seem to uoto us righteousness." As our sin is made over to be the sense (cf. 1 Corinthians, 4.11: Philippians, 4. 12). Him, so His righteousness to us in His having fulfilled But the usual sense of the Greek is fasts, in the strict all the righteousness of the law for us all, as our re sense ; and in ch. 11. 27, it is spoken of independently presentative) (Jeremiah, 23.0;1 Corinthians, 1. 30). The of “hunger and thirst." (Cf. Luke, 2. 37; Acts, 10. 30; innocent was punished voluntarily as if guilty, that the 14. 23.) However, Matthew, 16. 32, Mark. 8. 3, justify guilty unight be gratuitously rewarded as if innocent the sepse, more favoured by the context, foodlessness, (1 Peter, 2. 24). "Such are we in the sight of God the though a rare use of the word, GAUSSEN remarks, Father, as is the very Son of God himself." (HOOKER.) / "The apostles combine the highest offices with the in bim-by virtue of our standing in Him, and in union humblest exterior: as every thing in the church was to with Him. (ALFORD.)

be cast in the mould of death and resurrection, the CHAPTER VI.

cardinal principle throughout Christianity." 6. By... Ver. 1-18. HIS APOSTOLIO MINISTRY IS APPROVED by, &c.-rather, as Greek, "In...in," &c., implying not BY FAITHFULNESS IN EXHORTATION, IN SUFFERINGS, | the instrument, but the sphere or element in which IN EXHIBITION OF THE FRUITS OF THE HOLY GHOST: his ministry moved. knowledge-spiritual: in gospel His LARGENESS OF HEART TO THEM CALLS FOR EN mysteries, unattainable by mere reason (1 Corinthians, LARGEMENT OF THEIR HEART TO HIM. EXHORTA- 2. 6-16; 2 Corinthians, 3. 6, 17, 18). long-suffering...kindTIONS TO SEPARATION FROM POLLUTION. 1. workers ness - associated with “charity" or "love" (1 Corin. together-with God (Acts, 15. 4; 1 Corinthians, 3. 9).thians, 13. 4), as here, by the Holy Ghost-in virtue of Not only as "embassadors." beseech-entreat (ch. 6. 20). His influences which produce these graces, and other He is describing his ministry, not exhortiog directly. gifts, "love unfeigned" being the foremost of them. 7 you also-rather, "WE ALSO (as well as God, ch. 6. 20) | By the word of truth, by the power of God-rather "In... beseech" or "entreat you :" v, 14, 16, on to ch. 7. 1, is in." &c. As to "the word of truth" (cf. ch. 4. 2; Colos. part of this entreaty or exhortation, in vain--by mak sians, 1. 5). and "the miraculous) power of God" ing the grace of God a ground for continuance in sin (ch. 4. 7); 1 Corinthians, 2. 4, "in demonstration of the (e. 3). By a life of sin, showing that the word of recon- Spirit and of power." by the armour-Greek, "through' ciliation has been in vain, so far as you are concerned or by means of the armour," &c. "Righteousness," (Hebrews, 12. 15; Jude, 4). "The grace of God" here, which is the breastplate alone in Ephesians, 6. 13-17. is the reconciliation provided by God's love (ch. 6. here is made the whole Christian panoply (cf. ch, 10. 4). 18. 19: cf. Galatians, 2. 2). 2. For-God's own promise on...right...and...left-i.e., guarding on every side. 8. is the ground of our exhortation. he saith-God the Translate, Through glory and dishonour' (disgrace, Father saith to God the Son, and so to all believers viz., from those in authority, and accruing to us present. who are regarded as one with Him. heard thee-In * By." or " through evil report and good report," from the eternal purposes of my love I have hearkened to the multitude, and affecting us absent. (BENGEL.] Re. thy prayer for the salvation of thy people (cf. John, garded "as deceivers" by those who, not knowing iv. 9). 17. 9. 15. 20. 24). accepted...accepted-The Greek of the dishonour and give us an evil report: as true," by latter is more emphatic, "well-accepted." What was those who knowo (v. 9) us in the real "glory" of our "an accepted time" in the prophecy (Isaiah. 49, 8, ministry. In proportion as one has more or less of Hebrew. "in the season of grace"), becomes "the well-glory and good report, in that degree has he more or accepted time" in the fulfilment (cf. Psalun 69. 13). As less of dishonour and evil report. 9. unknown...yet It is God's time of receiving sinners, receive ye His grace; I well knowI-"unknown" in our true character to those accept (v. 1) the word of reconciliation in His accepted who "evil report of us. "Well known to those who time in the day of salvation-"in a day of salvation" | hold us in “good report" (v. 8). CONYBEARE explains, (Luke. 4. 18, 19, 21; 19. 42; Hebrews, 3. 7). 3. Resum- / "Unknown by men. yet acknowledged by God" ing the connexion with v. 1, interrupted by the paren. 1 (1 Corinthians, 13. 12). Perhaps both God and men chetical "Civins no offence" (cf. 1 Corinthians, I believers) are intended as knowing him (ch. 6. 11. Beliorer's Trials and Graces

3 CORINTHIANS. VIL The Good Fiffect of his Former Letter. and 11. 6.) oyiug... live- (ch. 1. 9; 4. 10, 11; 11. 23.), Quoted from Isaiah, 32, 11, with the freedom of one Cf. GACSSEN's remark, Note, v. 5. "Behold" calls at inspired, who gives variations sanctioned by the Holy tention to the fact as something beyond all expecta- Spirit. be ye separate-"be separated" (Hosea, 4. 17). tion. chastened...not killed-realising Psalm 118. 18. 10. touch not the unclean thing-rather, "any thing unThe "as" no longer is used to express the opinion of his clean" ch.7.1: Micah, 2. 10). Touching is more pollutadversaries, but the real state of him and his fellow. ing. as implying participation, than seeing. receive you labourers. making many rich-Spiritually (1 Corin--The Greek implies, " to myself" as persons heretothians, 1. 5). after the example of our Lord, who "by fore out of doors, but now admitted within eh. 5. 1-10). his poverty made many rich ich. 8.9). having nothing. With this accords the clanse, "Come out from among - Whatever of earthly goods we have, and these are them," cis., so as to be received to me. So Ezekiel, few, we have as though we had not: as tenants re- 20. 41." I will accept you," and Zephaniah, 3. 19.* gather moveable at will, not owners 1 Corinthians, 7. 30). her that was driven out." "The intercourse of bepossessing all things-The Greek implies firm possession, lievers with the world should resemble that of angels, holding fast in possession (cl. 1 Corinthians. 3. 21, 22). / who, when they have been sent a message from heaven, The things both of the present and of the future are, in discharge their ottice with the utmost promptness, and the truest sense, the believer's in possession, for he' joyfully fly back home to the presence of God" possesses them all in Christ, his lasting possession, (1 Corinthians, 7. 31; 6, 9, 10). 18. Translate, “I will though the full fruition of them is reserved for the be to you in the relation of & Father, and ye shall be future eternity. 11. mouth...open unto you-I use no to me in the relation of sons." &c. This is a still more concealment, such as some at Corinth have insinuated endearing relation than (v. 16), "I will be their God, (ch. 4. 2). I use all freedom and openness of speech to and they...iny people." Cl. the promise to Solomon you as to beloved friends. Hence he introduces here, il Chronicles, 28. 6; Isaiah, 43. 6; Revelation, 21. 3, 7: "O Corintbians" (cf. Philippians, 4. 15). The enlarge- Jeremiah, 31. 1, 9). Lord Almighty-The Lord the ment of his heart towards them ich. 7. 3) produced his Unirersal Ruler: nowhere else found butin Revelation. Openness of month, i.e., his unreserved expression of his The greatness of the Promiser enhances the greatness inmost feelings. As an unloving man is narrow in of the promises. heart, so the apostle's heart is enlarged by love, so as

CHAPTER VII. to take in his converts at Corinth, not only with their Ver. 1-16. SELF - PURIFICATION THEIR DUTY graces, but with their many short comings (cf. 1 Kings, RESULTING FROM THE FOREGOING. His LOVE TO 4. 29; Psalm 119. 32; Isaiah, 60. 5). 12. Any constraint THEM, AND JOY AT THE Goop EYFEOTS ON THEM OF ye feel towards me, or narrowness of heart, is not from HLS FORMER EPISTLE, AS REPORTED BY TITUS. 1. want of largeness of heart on my part towards you, I cleanse ourselves-This is the conclusion of the exhortsbut from want of it on your part towards me: tion (ch. 6. 1, 14; 1 John, 3. 3; Revelation, 22.11). filtas"bowels," i.e., affections (cf. ch. 12. 15). not straitened Dess-"the unclean thing" ch. 6. 17). of the flesh-for in usei.e., for want of room in our bearts to take you instance, fornication, prevalent at Corinth (1 Corinin. 13. Translate, “As a recompence in the same kind thians, 6. 16-18). and spirit--for instance, idolatry. .....be enlarged also yourselves." (ELLICOTT, &c.] "In direct or indirect (1 Corinthians, 6.9; 8.1, 7: 10.7. 21. 22). the same way" as my heart is enlarged towards you | The spirit (Psalm 32. 2) receives pollution through the (v. 11), and "as a recompence" for it (Galatians, 4. 12). flesh, the instrument of uncleanness. perfecting holiI speak as unto my children-as children would naturally | ness-The cleansing away impurity is a positive step be expected to recom penuce their parents' love with towards holiness ch. 6. 17). It is not enough to begin: similar love. 14. Be not-Greek, "Become not." un- the end crowns the work (Galatians, 3. 3; 5.7; Philip equally soked-"yoked with one alien in spirit." The pians, 1. 6). fear of God-often conjoined with the conimage is from the symbolical precept of the law sideration of the most glorious promises (ch. 5. 11: (Leviticus, 19. 19)," Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender | Hebrews, 4. 1). Privilege and promise go band in with a diverse kind;" or the precept (Deuteronomy, hand. 2. Receive us—with enlarged hearts ch. G. 13). 22. 10), “Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass we bave wronged...corrupted...defranded no man-(cf. e. 9.) together." Cl. Deuteronomy, 7. 3. forbidding mar- This is the ground on which he asks their reception riages with the heathen; also 1 Corinthians, 7. 39. of making room for) him in their hearts. We wronged The believer and unbeliever are utterly heterogeneous. Done by an undue exercise of apostolic authority: v. 13 Too close intercourse with unbelievers in other rela gives an instance in point. We have corrupted none. tions also is included (v. 16; 1 Corinthians, 8. 10; 10, 14). | viz., by beguilements and flatteries, whilst preaching fellowship-lit., share, or participation, righteousness "another gospel," as the false teachers did (ch. 11. 3,0). -the state of the believer, justified by faith, uunght. We have defrauded none by “making a gain" of you eousness - ratber, as always translated elsewhere, I (ch. 12, 17). Modestly he leaves them to supply the "iniquity:" the state of the unbeliever, the fruit of un positive good which he had done: suffering all things beliel. light-of which believers are the children himself that they might be benefited (v.9. 12: ch. 12. 13). (1 Thessalonians, 5, 5). 15. Belial-Hebrew," worthless- 3. In excusing myself. I do not accuse you, as though TU8s, unprofitableness, wickedness. As Satan is opposed you suspected me of such things (MENOCUIUs) or as to God, and Antichrist to Christ; Belial being here though you were guilty of such things; for I speak only opposed to Christ, must denote all manner of Anti- of the false apostles. (ESTIUS, and Greek commentators.) christian uncleanness. (BENOEL.) he that believeth Rather, “ as though you were ungrateful and treacherwith an ipfdel-translate, "a believer with an unbe ous." (BEZA.) I...said before-inch. 6. 11, 12; cf. Philiplever." 16. agreement-accordance of sentiments (cf. I pians, 1. 7. die aua live with you-the height of friend1 Kings, 18. 21: Ephesians, 5, 7, 11). the temple of God- ship. I am ready to die and live with you and for you i.e., you believers (1 Corinthians, 3. 16; 6. 19). with Philippians, l. 7, 20, 21; 2. 17, 18). Cl, as to Christ, idols-C. Dason before the ark (1 Samuel, 6. 20). aS- John, 10. 11. 4. boldness of speech-cf. ch. 6. 11.) glory * even as God said." Quotation from Leviticus, 26. 12; 1 ing of you-Not only do I speak with unreserved open Jeremiah, 31. 33; 32. 38; Ezekiel, 37, 26, 27; cf. Matthew, ness to you, but I glory (boasti greatly to others in wout 28. 20; John, 14. 23. walk in them-rather, "among behalf, in speaking of you. filled with comfort-at the them." As "dwell" implies the Divine presence, so report of Titus (v. 6, 7, 9, 13; ch. 1. 4). exceeding joy* walk," the Divine operation. God's dwelling in the | ful-Greek, I overabound with joy (v. 7, 9, 16). our body and soul of saints may be illustrated by its op- | tribulation-described in v. 6; also in ch. 4. 7. 8; 6. 4, . posite, demoniacal possession of body and soul. my 5. Creck. "For also" (for "even"). This verse is thus people - Tatber. " they shall be to me & peole." 17. I counecud with ch. 2. 12. 13. "When I came to Troas, I h parental tenderness:

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The Good Effect of his Former Letter. 2 CORINTHIANS, VII.

Their True Repentance. had no rest in my spirit:" so "also" now, when I came 1 11. Confirmation of v. 10 from the Corinthians' own to Macedonia, my "flesh" had no rest (he, by the term experience. carefulness-solicitude, lit., diligence:"" "flesh," excepts his spiritual consolations) from "tight opposed to their past negligence in the matter. in you ingg" with adversaries" without" (1 Corintbians, 6. 12). Greek, "for you." gea-not only "carefulness" or and from fears for the Corinthian believers "within" diligence, but also "clearing of yourselves," riz., to me the church, owing to "false brethren" (ch. 11. 26). Cf. | by Titus: anxiety to show you disapproved of the deed. ch. 4. 8; Deuteronomy. 32. 25, to which he seems to | indignation-against the offender. fear-of the wrath of allude. 6. Translate in the order required by the God, and of sinning any more (SCLATER and CALVIN): Greek." But he that comforteth those that are cast I fear of Paul (GROTIUS] (1 Corinthians, 4.2, 19-21). vehe. down, even God." Those that are of an high spirit are ment desire-longing for restoration to Paul's approval. not susceptible of such comfort. 7. when he told us [CONYBEARE & Howson.) "Fear" is in spite of one's Greek, "telling ns." We shared in the comfort which self. "Longing desire" is spontaneous, and implies Titus felt in recording your desire (v. 13). He rejoiced strong love and an aspiration for correction. (CALVIN.] in telling the news ; we in hearing them. (ALFORD.) / "Desire" for the presence of Paul, as he had given them earnest desire-Greek, "longing desire," viz., to see me the hope of it (1 Corinthians, 4. 19; 16. 6). [GROTIUS (GXOTTUS); or, in general, tovoards me, to please me. 1 & ESTIU8.1 zeal-for right and for God's honour mourning-over your own remissness in not having im- against what is wrong. Or," for the good of the soul of mediately punished the sin (1 Corinthians, 6. 1, &c.) | the offender." [BENGEL.) revenge-translate,"Exactwhich called forth my rebuke. fervent mind-Greek, ing of punishment” (1 Corinthians, 5. 2, 3). Their ** zeal" (cf. v, 11: Jobn, 2. 17). toward me--Greek. "for "carefulness" was exhibited in the six points just me: for my sake. They in Paul's behalf showed the specified:"clearing of themselves," and " indignation" zeal against the sin which Paul would have shown had in relation to themselves; "fear" and "vehement he been present rejoiced the more more than before, desire" in respect to the apostle ; "zeal" and "re at the mere coming of Titus. 8. with a letter-Greek, | venge" in respect to the offender [BENGEL] (cf. v. 7). * in the letter," viz., the first epistle to the Corinthians. In all the respects just stated. clear-Greek," pure," I do not repent, though I did repent-translate," I do not viz., from complicity in the guilty deed. “Approved regret it, though I did regret it." The Greek words for yourselves," Greek, "commended yourselves." Wbatregret and repent are distinct. St. Paul was almost ever suspicion of complicity rested on you (1 Corinregretting, through parental tenderness, his having thians, 5. 2, 6), through your former remissness, you used rebukes calculated to grieve the Corinthians; but have cleared off by your present strenuousness in renow that he has learned from Titus the salutary effect probating the deed, 12, though I wrote unto youproduced on them, he no longer regrets it, for I per | making you sorry with my letter" (v. 8). his cause ceive, &c.--This is explanatory of "I did repent" or that suffered wrong-the father of the incestuous person

regret it," and is parenthetical (“for I perceive that who had his father's wife (1 Corinthians, 6. 1). The that epistle did make you sorry, though it was but father, thus it seems, was alive. that our care for yon, for & season"). 9. Now I rejoice-Whereas. I did re-1 &c.-Some of the oldest MSS, read thus, "That YOUR pent” or regret having made you sorry by my letter, care for us might be made manifest unto you," &c. I rejoice sow, not that ye were caused sorrow, but But the words, "unto you," thus, would be rather that your sorrow resulted in your repentance. ye obscure; still the obscurity of the genuine reading may sarowed-rather as before," ye were made sorry." after have been the very reason for the change being made a godly manner-lit., "according to God," i.e., your | by correctors into the reading of English Version. sorrow having regard to God, and rendering your mind | ALFORD explains the reading : “He wrote in order conformable to God (Romans, 14. 22; 1 Peter, 4. 6). to bring out their zeal on his behalf (i.e., to obey his that-translate in Greek order, " to the end that (cf. command), and make it manifest to themselves in God's ch. 11, 9) ye might in nothing receive damage from us," sight, i.e., to bring out among them their zeal to regard which ye would have received, had your sorrow been and obey him." But some of the oldest MSS. and verother than that “after a godly manner" (v. 10). 10. sions (including the Vulgate and old Italiano) support worketh...worketh-In the best Greek reading the | English Version. And the words. "to you," sut it translation is, “worketh (simply) ... worketh out." better than the other reading. Ch. 2. 4, "I wrote... ** Sorrow" is not repentance, but, where it is "godly," that ye might know the love which I have more abun* worketh" it; i.e., contributes or tends to it (the same dantly unto you," plainly accords with it, and disproves Greek word is in Romans, 13, 10). The "sorrow of the | ALFORD's assertion that English Version is inconsistent world" (he., such as is felt by the worldly)"worketh with the fact as to the purpose of his letter. His writout, as its result at last, (eternal) death (the same Greek ing, he says, was not so much for the sake of the inverb is in ch. 4. 17, where, see the Note). repentance... dividual offender, or the individual offended, but from not to be repented of-There is not in the Greek this play his earnest care" or concern for the welfare of the on words, so that the word qualified is not "repent church. 13. The oldest MSS. read thus, "Therefore ance merely, but" repentance unto salvation;" this, he (Greek," for this cause," viz., because our aim bas been says, none will ever regret, however attended with "sor attained) we have been (English Version "were," is not row at the time. "Repentance" implies a coming to so accurate) comforted; yea (Greek," but"), in OUR coma right mind: "regret" implies merely uneasiness of fort we exceedingly the more joyed for the joy of Titus." feeling at the past or present, and is applied even to 1 &c. (cf. v.7). 14. any thing-i.e., at all. I am not ashamed tbe remurse of Judas Matthew, 27, 3; Greek, "stricken -"I am not put to shame," viz., by learning from Titus with remorse," not as English Version, "repented that you did not realize the high character I gave him himself"); so that, though always accompanying re of you, as...all things...in truth, even $0 our boasting... pentance, it is not always accompanied by repentance. is found a truth-As our speaking in general to you was * Repentance" removes the impediments in the way true (ch. 1. 18), so our particular boasting before Titus of salvation" (to which “death," viz., of the soul, is concerning you is now, by his report, proved to be opposed). The sorrow of the world" is not at the sin I truth (cf. ch. 9. 2). Some oldest MSS, read expressly. itself, but at its penal consequences: so that the tears "concerning you :" this in either reading is the sense. of pain are no sooner dried up, than the pleasures of | 15. his inward affection - lit., bowels (cf. ch. 6. 12; unyodliness are renewed. So Pharaoh, Exodus, 0. 27, Philippians, 1. 8; 2, 1; Colossians, 3. 12). obedience28-20; and Saul, 1 Samuel, 15. 23-30. C1. Isaiah, 9. 13; 1 (ch. 2.9.) fear and trembling-with trembling anxiety Revelation, 16. 10. 11. Contrast David's "godly sor- 1 to obey my wishes, and fearful lest there should be row.** 2 Samuel, 12, 13, and St. Peter's, Matthew, 26, 75. I ought in yourselves to offend him and me (v. 11; c.

Christ's Grace

a Spur to Liberality. 1 Corinthians, 2.3). 16. therefore-Omitted in the oldest "love from you (.e., on your part) in us" (i.6., which MSS. The conclusion is more emphatical without it. has us for its object which is felt in the case of us). 8. that I bave confidence in you in all things-rather, as not by commandment-"not by way of commandment." Greek, “that in every thing I am of good courage con- by the occasion of the forwardness of others, and, &c.cerning (lit.. in the case of) you," as contrasted with rather," But by (mention of the forwardness of others my former doubts concerning you.

(as an inducement to you), and to prove (lit., proving) CHAPTER VIII.

the sincerity of your love." The Greek is "by means Ver. 1-24. TRE COLLECTION FOR THE SAINTS: THE of," not“ on account of the forwardness," &c. BEXCEL, READINESS OF THE MACEDONIANS A PATTERN TO ELLICOTT, &C., translate, By means of the forwardTHE CORINTHIANS: CHRIST THE HIGHEST PATTERN: ness of others, proving the sincerity of your love ALSO." EACH IS TO GIVE WILLINOLY AFTER BIS ABILITY: The former is the simpler construction in the Greek. TITUS AND TWO OTHERS ARE TAK AGENTS Ac | 9. ye know the grace-the act of gratuitous love whereby CREDITED TO COMPLETE THE COLLECTION. 1. we do the Lord emptied Himself of His previous heavenly you to wit-we make known to you, the grace of God glory (Philippians, 2. 6, 7 for your sakes. became poor bestowed on the churches of Macedonia-Their liberality -Yet this is not demanded of you (. 14); but merely was not of themselves naturally, but of God's grace that, without impoverishing yourselves, you should bestowed on them, and enabling them to be the instru- relieve others with your abundance. If the Lord did ment of God's "grace" to others (v. 6, 19). The im so much more, and at so much heavier a cost, for your portance given in this epistle to the collection, arose sakes; much more may you do an act of love to your as well from St. Paul's engagement (Galatians, 2. 10), brethren at so little a sacrifice of self, might be richas also chiefly from bis hope to conciliate the Judaizing in the heavenly glory which constitutes His riches, and Christians at Jerusalem to himself and the Gentile all other things, so far as is really good for us (cf. believers, by such an act of love on the part of the 1 Corinthians, 3. 21, 22). 10. advice-Herein he does latter towards their Jewish brethren. 2. trial of aflic- not (as some misinterpret the passage disclaim inspiration-The Greek expresses, "in affliction (or "tribulation for the advice he gives; but under the Spirit, states tion") which tested them;" lit., "in & great testing of that it is his "opinion” (ALFORD) or "judgment affliction." abundance of their joy-The greater was (ELLICOTT, &c.), not a command, that so their offerthe depth of their poverty, the greater was the abun ing might be free and spontaneons, this--my giving dance of their joy. A delightful contrast in terms, and you an advice, not a command. who have begun before triumph, in fact, of spirit over flesh. their deep poverty -"seeing that ye have begun before the Macedonian -Greek, "their poverty down to the depth of it." churches: "a year ago" should be connected with this abounded unto the riches, &c.-Another beautiful con- clause. not only to do, but also to be forward - There trast in terms: Their poverty had the effect, not of pro-were three steps: (1.) the forwardness, more lit.. "the ducing stinted gifts, but of "abounding in the riches wil :" (2.) the setting about it, lit., "doing it;" 3.) the of liberality (not as Margin, simplicity;" though the completion of it. (ALFORD.) In the two former, not idea of singleness of motive to God's glory and man's only the act, but the intention, the Corinthians preceded good, probably enters into the idea (cf. Romans, 12. 8, the Macedonians. BENGEL explains,“ Not only to do and Margin; ch. 9. 11, Note, 13; James, 1. 6). 3-5. they FOR THE PAST YEAR, "but also to be forward" or willwere willing-rather, supply from v. 6. the ellipsis thus, ing FOR THIS YEAR. ELLICOTT translates, "already." * According to their power...yea, and beyond their instead of "before:" "Ye began already, a year ago, power. THEY GAVE." of themselves--not only not being not only to do, but also to be forward." It appears besought, but themselves beseeching us. 4. that we hence, that something had been done in the matter a would receive-Omitted in the oldest MSS. Translate year before : other texts, however, show the collection therefore," Beseeching of us...the grace and fellowship was not yet paid (cf. u. 11, and ch. 9. 6, 7). This agrees of (ie, to grant them the favour of sharing in) the with one, and only one, supposition, viz., that every ministering unto the saints." The Macedonian contri. man had laid by in store the fund from which he was butions must have been from Philippi, because Philippi afterwards to contribute, the very case which is sbown was the only church that contributed to St. Paul's sup- by 1 Corinthians, 16, 2, to have existed. [PALEY'S port (Philippians. 4. 10. 15. 16). 5. And this they did, Horce Paulino.] 11. perform "complete the doing not as we hoped-translate, “And not as we hoped fi.e., also" (Note, v. 10). a readiness to will-Greek, "the far beyond our hopes), but their own selves gave they readiness of will:" referring to t. 10, where the Greck first to the Lord." "First," not indicating priority of for "to be forward." ought to be translated as here, time, but first of all, above all in importance. The "to will." performance - "completion." (ALFORD.] giving of themselves takes precedency of their other | The godly should show the same zeal to finish, as well gifts, as being the motive which led them to the latter as to begin well, which the worldly exhibit in their (Romans. 16. 16). by the will of God-not "according to undertakings (Jeremiah, 44. 25). 12. For-Following up the will of God," but "moved by the will of God, who | the rule "out of that which ye have" (v. 11). and no

Philippians, 2, 13). It is therefore more, a willing mind-rather, as Greek, "the readicalled (u. 1), "the grace of God." 6. Insomuch that ness," viz., to will, referring to v. 11. accepted-Griek, As we saw the Macedonians'alacrity in giving, we could "favourably accepted." according to that a mau hath not but exhort Titus, that as we collected in Mace- --The oldest MSS. omit"a man." Translate."Accorddonia, so he in Corinth should complete the work of ing to whatsoever it have:" the willing mind, or collecting which he had already begun there, lest ye, "readiness" to will, is personified. [ALFORD.) Or the wealthy people of Corinth, should be outdone in better, as BENGEL, “He is accepted according to whatliberality by the poor Macedonians. as he had begun- soever he have :" so ch, 9.7, "The Lord loveth a cheerGreek, "previously begun," viz., the collection at ful giver." Ct, as to David, 1 Kings, 8. 18. God ascepts Corinth, before the Macedonians began to contribute, the will for the deed. He judges not according to during the visit to Corinth from which he had just re- what a man has the opportunity to do, but according to turned. finish in you the same grace-complete among what he would do if he had the opportunity (cf. Mark. you this act of grace or beneficence on your part. also 14. 8; and the widow's mite, Luke, 21, 3, 4). 13. Fot-as well as other things which he had to do among Supply from v. 8," I speak." My aim is not that others them. (ALFORD.) 7. in faith-(ch. 1. 24.) atterance (viz., the saints at Jerusalem) may be relieved at the (Note, 1 Corinthians, 1.6.) Not as ALFORD, "doctrine cost of your being "distressed" (so tbe Greek for or" word." kuowledge-(1 Corinthians, 6. 1.) diligence "burdened"). The golden rule is, “Love thy neighin every thing that is good your love to us-lit.. I bour as thysel." not more than thyself. 14. bs an

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