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the Judaizing of many of his Galatian converts, in an admouitory and controversial tone, to maintain the great principles of Christian liberty and justification by faith only; that to the Romans is a more deliberate aud systematic exposition of the same central truths of theology, subsequently drawn up in writing to a church with which he was personally auacquainted. See Note, ch. 1. 6, for Birks' view. Paley (Horu Pauling) well remarks low perfectly adapted the conduct of the argument is to the historical circumstances under which the epistle was written. Thus, that to the Galatians, a church which Paul bad founded, he puts mainly upon authority; that to the Romans, to whom he was not personally known, entirely upon argument.


brethren." accords with a date when he had many Ver. 1-24. SUPERSCRIPTION. GREETINGS. THE travelling companions, he and they having to bear CAUSE OF HIS WRITING IS THEIR SPEEDY FALLING jointly the collection to Jerusalem. 1CONYBEARE & AWAY FROM THE GOSPEL HE TAUGIT, DEFENCE OF Howson.] the churches-Pessinus and Ancyra were

9 TEACHING: His APOSTOLIO CALL INDEPENDENT the principal cities; but doubtless there were many OF MAN. Judaizing teachers bad persuaded the other churches in Galatia (Acts, 18. 23; 1 Corinthians, Galatians that St. Paul had taught them the new re- 16. 1). He does not attach any honourable title to the ligion imperfectly, and at second hand; that the founder churches here, as elsewhere, being displeased at their of their church himsell possessed only a deputed com- | Judaizing. See 1 Corinthians; 1 Thessalonians, &c. mission, the seal of truth and authority being in the The first epistle of Peter is addressed to Jewish Chris apostles at Jerusalem; moreover, that whatever he tians sojourning in Galatia (1 Peter, 1. 1), among other might profess among them, he had himself at other places mentioned. It is interesting thus to find the times, and in other places, given way to the doctrine apostle of the circumcision, as well as the apostle of oi circumcision. To refute this, he appeals to the the uncircumcision, once at issue (ch. 2. 7-16), cohistory of his conversion, and to the manner of his operating to build up the same churches. 3. from... conferring with the apostles when he met them at Jeru- |from-Omit the second "from." The Greek joins God salem: tbat so far was his doctrine from being derived the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ in closest union, from them, or they from exercising any superiority by there being but the one preposition. 4. gave himover him, that they had simply assented to what he self-cb. 2. 20) - unto death, as an offering. Found had already preached among the Gentiles, which preach only in this and the Pastoral Epistles. The Greek is ing was communicated, not by them to him, but by different in Ephesians, 6.25 (Note). for our sins-which himself to them. (PALEY.] Such an apologetic epistle enslaved us to the present evil world. deliver us from could not be a later forgery, the objections which it this - Greek, "out of the," &c. The Father and son meets only coming out incidentally, not being obtruded are each said to "deliver us," &c. (Colossians, 1. 13); as they would bu by a forger; and also being such as i but the Son, not the Father, "gave Himself for us in could only arise in the earliest age of the church, order to do so, and make us citizens of a better world when Jerusalem and Judaism still held a prominent (Philippians, 3. 20). The Galatians in desiring to replace. 1. apostle-In the earliest epistles, the two to turn to legal bondage are, he implies, renouncing the the Thessalonians, through humility, he uses no title | deliverance which Christ wrought for us. This he of authority ; but associates with him "Silvanus and | more fully repeats, ch, 3. 13. "Deliver" is the very Timotheus; yet here, though "brethren" (v. 2) are word used by the Lord as to His deliverance of Paul with him, he does not name them, but puts his own himself (Acts, 26. 17): an updesigned coincidence bename and apostleship prominent; evidently because tween St. Paul and Luke. world-Greek, "age:" system his apostolic commission needs now to be vindicated or course of the world, regarded from a religious point against deniers of it. of-Greek, "from," Expressing of view. The present age opposes the glory" (v. 5) the origin from which his mission came, “not from of God, and is under the authority of the Evil one. meu," but from Christ and the Father understood) as The "ages of ages" (Greek, 0.5) are opposed to "the the source. “By" expresses the immediate operating present evil age." according to the will of God and the agent in the call. Not only was the call from God as Father - Greek, or Him who is at once God (the its ultimate source, but by Christ and the Father as the sovereign Creator) and our Father” (John, 6. 38, 39; immediate agent in calling him (Acts, 22. 15, and 28. 10. 18. end). Without merit of ours. His sovereignty 16-18). The laying on of Ananias hands (Acts, 9. 17) is as "GOD," and our filial relation to Him as "OUR no objection to this; for that was but a sign of the fact. FATUER," ought to keep us from blending our own not an assisting cause. So the Holy Ghost calls him legal notions (as the Galatians were doing) with His specially (Acts, 13, 2, 3): he was an apostle before this will and plan. This paves the way for his argument. special mission. mau-singular: to mark the contrast / 5. be glory-rather, as Greek, "Be the glory:" the glory to " Jesus Christ." The opposition between "Christ" | which is peculiarly and exclusively His. Cf. Epheand "man," and His name being put in closest consians, 3. 21, Note. 6. Without the usual expressions nexion with God the Father. imply His Godhead. I of thanksgiving for their faith, &c., he vehemently raised him from the dead-Implying that, though he had plunges into his subject, zealous for "the glory" of not seen Him in His humiliation as the other apostles God (v. 6), which was being disparaged by the Gala(which was made an objection against him), he had tians falling away from the pure gospel of the “grace" seen and been constituted an apostle by Him in His of God. I marvel--Implying that he had hoped better Tesurrection power (Matthew, 28. 18; Romans, 1.4, 6). I things from them, whence his sorrowful surprise at Cr. also as to the ascension, the consequence of the l their turning out so different from his expectations. resurrection, and the cause of His giving "apostles," so soon-after my last visit; when I hoped and thought Ephesians. 4. 11. He rose again, too, for our justifica- you were untainted by the Judaizing teachers. If tion (Romans, 4.25); thus St. Paul prepares the way for this epistle was written from Corinth, the interval the prominent subject of the epistle, justification in would be a little more than three years, which would Christ, not by the law. 2. all the brethreu-I am not I be "soon" to have fallen away, if they were apparently alone in iny doctrine: all my colleagues in the gospel- | sound at the time of his visit. Ch. 4. 18, 20, may imply work, travelling with me (Acts, 19. 29, Gaius and that he saw no symptom of unsoundness then, such Aristarchus at Ephesus; Acts, 20. 4, Sopater, Secundus, I as he hears of in them now. But English Version is Timotheus, Tychicus, Trophimas, some, or all of probably not correct there. See Note, also see Introthesel, join with me. Not that these were joint authors I duction. If from Ephesus, the interval would be not with St. Paul of the epistle; but joined him in the more than one year. BIRKs holds the epistle to have sentiments and salutations. The phrase, "all the been written from Corinth after his FIRST visit to

Paul Wonders

at their Declension. Galatia: for this agrees best with the "So soon" here: sible. (CHRYSOSTOM.) preach--ie., "should preach. with ch. 4. 18. "It is good to be zealously affected any other gospel...than-The Greek expresses not so always in a good thing, and not only when I am much "any other gospel different from what we have present with you." If they had persevered in the faith preached," as, "any gospel BESIDE that which we during three years of his first absence, and only turned preached." This distinctly opposes the traditions of aside after his second visit, they could not be charged the church of Rome, which are at once besides and justly with adhering to the truth only when he was against (the Greek includes both ideas) the written present; for his first absence was longer than both his Word, our only attested rule. 9. said before when we visits, and they would have oleyed longer in his were visiting you (so "before" means, 2 Corinthians, "absence than in his "presence." But if their decline 13. 2). C. ch. 5. 2, 3, 21. Translate, "If any man prcade had begun immediately after he left them, and before eth unto you any gospel BESIDE that which," &c. his return to them, the reproof will be just. But see Observe, the indicative, not the subjunctive or conNote, ch. 4. 13. removed - translate, "are being re- ditional mood, is used, "preacheth," lit., "furnisheth moved, i.e.. ye are suffering yourselves so soon (whether | you with any gospel." The fact is assumed, not merely from the time of my last visit, or from the time of the supposed as a contingency, as in v. 8, "preach," or first temptation held out to you (PALÆUS) to be re- "should preach." This implies that he had already mored by Jewish seducers. Thus he softens the cen observed (viz., during his last visit) the machinations sure by iniplying that the Galatians were tempted by of the Judaizing teachers; but his surprise (2. 6) note seducers from without, with whom the chief guilt lay: at the Galatians being misled by them, implies that and the present, "ye are being removed," implies that they had not apparently been so then, As in 2. &, be their seduction was only in process of being effected, had said, "which we preached," so here, with an not that it was actually effected. WAHL, ALFORD, augmentation of the force, " which ye received;" acde.. take the Greck as middle voice. "Ye are remov. knowledging that they had truly accepted it. accareeding" or "passing over." "Shifting your ground." The opposite appears, ch. 6. 16. 10. For-Accounting [CoxYBEARE & Howsox.) But thus the point of St. for the strong language he has just used. do I nou Paul's oblique reference to their misleaders is lost; Resuming the "now" of v. 9. "Am I nowo persuading and in Hebrews. 7. 12, the Greck is used passively, men" (ALFORD), i.e., conciliating? Is what I have justifying its being taken so here. On the impulsive- just now said a sample of men-pleasing, of which I am ness and fickleness of the Gauls, whence the Galatians accused ? His adversaries accused bim of being an insprang (Another form of Kel-t-s, the progenitors of the terested flatterer of men." becoming all things to all Erse, Gauls, Cymri, and Belgians), sce Introduction | men," to make a party for himself, and so observing and Cæsar, B. G., 3. 19. from him that called you-God the law among the Jews (for instance, circumcising the Father (c. 16; ch. 6. 8; Romans, 8. 30; 1 Corin- Timothy), yet persuading the Gentiles to renounce it thians, 1. 9; 1 Thessalonians, 2. 12; 5. 24. into-rather, (ch. 6. 11) (in order to flatter those, really keeping them as Greek, "in the grace of Christ," as the element in in a subordinate state, not admitted to the full priviwhich, and the instrument by which, God calls us to leges which the circumcised alone enjoyed). NEAXDER salvation. Cf. Note, 1 Corinthians, 7. 16; Romans, 6. 16, explains the "now" thus: Once, when a Pharisee, I *the gift by iGreek, 'in') grace (Greek, 'the grace', of was actuated only by a regard to human authority (the) one man." "The grace of Christ," is Christ's (and to please men, Luke, 16. 16; John, 5. 44), but NOW I gratuitously purchased and bestowed justification, re-teach as responsible to God alone (1 Corinthians, 4.3. conciliation, and eternal life. another - rather, as or God - Regard is to be had to God alone. for if I yet Greck, "a second and diferent gospel," i.e., into a so pleased men--The oldest MSS. omit "for." "If I were called gospel, different altogether from the only true still pleasing men," &c. (Luke, 6. 26; John, 15, 19: Kospel. 7. another-A distinct Greek word from that i Thessalonians, 2. 4; James, 4. 4; 1 John, 4. 5). On in v. 6. Though I called it a gospel (v. 6), it is not "yet,' cf. ch. 6. 11. servant or Christ-and so pleasing really so. There is really but one gospel, and no other Him in all things (Titus, 2. 9; Colossians, 3. 92). 11. gospel, but-translate."Only that there are some that certify-I make known to you as to the gospel which trouble you,"&c. (ch, 6.10.12). All I meant by the "dif- was preached by me, that it is not after man, i.e., not ferent gospel" was nothing but a perversion by "some" of, by, or from man (v. 1, 12). It is not acrording to of the one gospel of Christ. Would pervert-Greek,"wish man; not influenced by mere human considerations, to pervert:" they could not really pervert the gospel, as it would be, if it were of human origin. brethrenthough they could pervert gospel professors (cf. ch. 4. 9. He not till now calls them so. 12. Translate, " For not 17, 21; G. 12, 13; Colossians, 2. 18). Though acknowledgeren did I myself any more than the other apostles) ing Christ, they insisted on circumcision and Jewisb receive it from man, nor was I taught it (by man). ordinances, and professed to rest on the authority of “ Received it," implies the absence of labour in acquir other apostles, viz. Peter and James. But Paul re-ing it. "Taught it," implies the labour of learning. cognises no gospel, save the pure gospel. 8. But by the revelation of Jesus Christ-translate, “By revela. However weighty they may seem " who trouble you." tion of (i.e., from) Jesus Christ." By His revealing it Translate as Greek, "Even though we," riz., I and the to me. Probably this took place during the three bretbren with me, weighty and many as we are (0.1, 2). years, in part of which be sojourned in Arabia (r. 17. The Greek implies a case supposed which never has 18), in the vicinity of the scene of the giving of the occurred. angel-in which light ye at first received law: a fit place for such a revelation of the gospel of me (cf. ch. 4. 14; 1 Corinthians, 13. 1), and whose grace, which supersedes the ceremonial law (ch. 4. 25. authority is the highest possible next to that of God He, like other Pharisees who embraced Christianity. and Christ. A new revelation, even though seemingly did not at tirst recognise its independence of the Mosaic accredited by miracles, is not to be received if it con-law, but combined both together. Ananias, his first tradict the already existing revelation. For God can instructor, was universally esteemed for his legal plety. not contradict Himself Deuteronomy, 13, 1-3; 1 Kings, and so was not likely to have taught him to sever Chris13. 18; Matthew, 24. 24; 2 Thessalonians, 2. 9). The tianity from the law. This severance was partially reJudaizing teachers sheltered themselves under the cognised after the martyrdom of Stepben. But St. Paul names of the great apostles, James, John, and Peter : | received it by special revelation (1 Corinthians, ul. 23. * Do not bring these names up to me, for even if an 15. 3; 1 Thessalonians, 4. 15). A vision of the Lord angel." &c. Not that he means, these apostles really | Jesus is mentioned (Acts, 22. 18), at his first visit to supported the Judaizers; but he wishes to show, when Jerusalem (v. 18); but this seems to have been subsethe truth is in question, resnect of persons is inadais quent to the revelation here meant (cf. e. 16-18), and to

Paul's Course

after Conversion. have been confined to giving a particular command. | tations and revelations which he had there, appear in The vision "fourteen years before" 12 Corinthians, 12. 1). I ch. 4. 24, 25: Hebrews. 19. 18. See Note, v. 12. The &c., was in A.D. 43, still later, six years after his con- Lord from heaven communed with him, as He on earth version. Thus Paul is an independent witness to the in the days of His flesh communed with the other gospel. Though he had received no instruction from apostles. returned again-Greek "returned back again." the apostles, but from the Holy Ghost, yet when he | 18, after three years-dating from my conversion, as met them his gospel exactly agreed with theirs. 13. | appears by the contrast to "immediately" (V. 16). beard-even before I came among you. conversation This is the same visit to Jerusalem as in Acts, 9. 26, ** my former way of life." Jews' religion--The term and at this visit occurred the vision (Acts, 22. 17, 18). * Hebrew," expresses the language. "Jew," the The incident which led to his leaving Damascus (Acts, nationality, as distinguished from the Gentiles. | 9. 25; 2 Corinthians, 11. 33) was not the main cause of “Israelite," the highest title, the religious privileges, his going to Jerusalem. So that there is no discreas a member of the theocracy. the church - Here | pancy in the statement here that he went to see Peter;" singular, marking its unity, though constituted of many or rather, as Greek," to make the acquaintance of;" " to particular churches, under the one Head, Christ. of become personally acquainted with." The two oldest God-added to mark the greatness of his sinful aliena. | MSS. read,“ Cephas," the name given Peter elsewhere tion from God (1 Corinthians, 15. 19). wasted-laid it in the epistle, the Hebrew name: as Peter is the Greek waste : the opposite of "building it up." 14. profited (John, 1. 42). Appropriate to the view of him here as

-Greek, "I was becoming a proficient;" "I made pro- | the apostle especially of the Hebrews. It is remarkgress.* above-beyond my equals-Greek, “Of mine able that Peter himself, in his epistles, uses the Greck own age, among my countrymen." traditions of my name Peter, perhaps to mark bis antagonism to the fathers-piz., those of the Pharisees, Paul being "a Judaizers who would cling to the Hebraic form. He Pharisee, and son of a Pharisee" (Acts, 23. 6; 26. 5). was prominent among the apostles, though James, as *My fathers," shows that it is not to be understood bishop of Jerusalem, had the chief authority there generally of the traditions of the nation. 15. separated (Matthew, 16. 18). fifteen days-only fifteen days; con

-"set me apart:" in the purposes of His electing love trasting with the long period of three years, during (ef. Acts, 9. 15; 22. 14), in order to show in me His which, previously, he bad exercised an independent ** pleasure." which is the farthest point that any can commission in preaching : a fact proving on the face reach in inquiring the causes of his salvation. The of it, how little he owed to Peter in regard to his aposactual "separating" or "setting apart" to the work tolical authority or instruction. The Greek for "to see." marked out for him, is mentioned Acts, 13. 2: Romans, at the same time implies, visiting a person important 1. 1. There is an allusion, perhaps, in the way of to know, such as Peter was. The plots of the Jews contrast, to the derivation of Pharisee from Hebrero, prevented him staying longer (Acts, 9. 29). Also, the pharash," separated." I was once a so-called Pharisee vision directing him to depart to the Gentiles, for that or Separatist, but God had separated me to something | the people of Jerusalem would not receive his testifar better. from...womb-Thus merit in me was out of mony (Acts, 22. 17, 18). abode--or "tarried." (ELLIthe question, in assigning causes for His call (Romans, I COTT, &c.] 19. Cf. Acts, 9. 27, 28, wherein Luke, as an 9. 11). Grace is the sole cause (Psalm 22. 9; 71. 6; Isaiah, historian, describes more generally what St. Paul, the 49. 1. 6: Jeremiah, 1. 6: Luke, 1. 15). called me on the subject of the history, himselfdetails more particularly. way to Damascus (Acts, 9.). 16. reveal his Son in me The history speaks of "apostles:" and St. Paul's men

within me, in my inmost soul, by the Holy Spirit I tion of a second apostle besides Peter, reconciles the Ich. 2. 20). Cf, 2 Corinthians, 4. 6. "Shined in our epistle and the history. At Stephen's martyrdom, and hearts." The revealing of His Son by me to the Gentiles the consequent persecution, the other ten apostles, 180 translate for "heathen") was impossible, unless agreeably to Christ's directions, seem to have soon He had first revealed His Son in me; at first on my (though not immediately, Acts, 8. 14), left Jerusalem to conversion, but especially at the subsequent revelation preach elsewhere. James remained in charge of the from Jesus Christ (v. 12), whereby I learnt the gospel's mother church, as its bishop. Peter, the apostle of the independence of the Mosaic law, that I might preach circumcision, was present during Paul's fifteen days - The present in the Greek, which includes the idea stay ; but he, too, presently after (Acts, 9. 32), went on ** that I may preach Him," implying an office still con

preach Him." implving an office still con- I a circuit through Judea. James, the Lord's brothertinuing. This was the main commission intrusted to This designation, to distinguish him from James the bim (ch. 2. 7, 9, immediately-connected chiefly with son of Zebedee, was appropriate whilst that apostle * I went into Arabia" (v. 17). It denotes the sudden was alive. But before St. Paul's second visit to Jerufitness of the apostle. So Acts, 9. 20. "Straightway he salem ch. 2. 1; Acts, 15.), he had been beheaded by preached Christ in the synagogue." I conferred not Herod (Acts, 12. 2). Accordingly, in the subsequent Greek, "I had not further (vis., in addition to revela- mention of James here (ch. 2. 9, 12), he is not designated tion) recourse to...for the purpose of consulting." The by this distinctive epithet: & minute, undesigned Divine revelation was sufficient for me. (BENGEL.] coincidence, and proof of genuineness. James was desh and blood-Matthew, 16. 17.) 17. went I up-Some the Lord's brother, not in our strict sense, but in the of the oldest MSS. read," went away." to Jerusalem sense, “consin," or " kinsman" (Matthew, 28. 10; John, the seat of the apostles. into Arabia --This journey 20. 17). His "brethren" are never called "sons of not recorded in Acts) was during the whole period of Joseph," which they would have been, had they been his stay at Damascus, called by St. Luke (Acts, 9. 23), the Lord's brothers strictly. However, cf. Psalm 69. 8. * many (Greck, a considerable number of days. It is "I am an alien to my mother's children." In John. curiously confirmatory of the legitimacy of taking 7. 3, 5, the “brethren" who believed not in Him, may ** many days" to stand for "three years," that the mean His near relations, not including the two of His same phrase exactly occurs in the same sense (1 Kings, brethren, i.e., relatives (James and Jude) who were 2. 38. 39). This was a country of the Gentiles; here I among the twelve apostles. Acts, 1. 14," His brethren," doubtless he preached, as he did before and after (Acts, refer to Simon and Joses, and others (Matthew, 13. 55) 9. 20, 29) at Damascus: thus he shows the independence of His kinsmen, who were not apostles. It is not of his apostolic commission. He also here had that likely there would be two pairs of brothers named comparative retirement needed, after the first fervour | alike, of such eminence as James and Jude; the likeliof his conversion, to prepare him for the great work hood is that the apostles, James and Jude, are also the before him, CI, Moses (Acts, 7. 29. 30). His familiarity writers of the epistles, and the brethren of Jesus. with the scene of the giving of the law, and the medi- James and Joses. were sons of Alpheus and Mary. His Co-ordinate Authority


with the other Apostles. sister of the Virgin Mary. 20. Solemn asseveration because they thought it necessary to be observed by that his statement is true that his visit was but for those who aspired to higher perfection (ch. 3. 3; 4. 21). fifteen days, and that he saw no apostle save Peter and The decree would not at all disprove their view, and James. Probably it had been reported by Judaizers therefore would have been useless to quote. St. Paul that he had received a long course of instructions | meets them by a far more direct confutation." Christ is from the apostles in Jerusalem from the first; hence of no effect unto you whosoever are justified by the his earnestness in asserting the contrary facts. 21. I law" (ch, 6. 4). (PALEY.) Titus...also-Specified on came into... Syria and Cilicia - "preaching the faith account of what follows as to him, in v. 3. Paul and (0.23), and so, no doubt, founding the churches in Syria Barnabas, and others, were deputed by the church of and Cilicia, which he subsequently confirmed in the Antioch (Acts, 16. 2) to consult the apostles and elders faith (Acts, 15. 23, 41). He probably went first to at Jerusalem on the question of circumcision of Cæsarea, the main seaport, and thence by sea to Tarsus Gentile Christians. 2. by revelation-Not from being of Cilicia, his native place (Acts, 9. 30), and thence to absolutely dependent on the apostles at Jerusalem, Syria; Cilicis having its geographical affinities with but by independent Divine "revelation." Quite conSyria, rather than with Asia Minor, as the Tarsussistent with his at the same time, being a deputy from mountains separate it from the latter. His placing the church of Antioch, as Acts, 15. 2, states. He by **Syria" in the order of words before "Cilicia," is due this revelation was led to suggest tbe sending of the to Antioch being a more important city than Tarsus, deputation. Cf. the case of Peter being led by vision, as also to his longer stay in the former city. Also and at the same time by Cornelius' messengers, to go

Syria and Cilicia." from their close geographical con to Caesarea, Acts, 10. I... communicated unto themnexion, became & generic geographical phrase, the vis., "to the apostles and elders" (Acts, 15, 9): to the more important district being placed first. (Cony- apostles in particular (v. 9). privately-that he and the BEARE & Howson.) This sea journey accounts for his apostles at Jerusalem might decide previously on the being "unknown by face to the churches of Judea" principles to be adopted and set forward before the (v. 22). He passes by in silence his second visit, with public council (Acts, 15.). It was necessary that the alms, to Judea and Jerusalem (Acts, 11. 30); doubt- Jerusalem apostles should know beforehand that the less because it was for a limited and special object, gospel Paul preached to the Gentiles was the same as and would occupy but a few days (Acts, 12, 25), as theirs, and had received Divine confirmation in the there raged at Jerusalem at the time a persecution in results it wrought on the Gentile converts. He and which James, the brother of John, was martyred, Barnabas related to the multitude, not the nature of and Peter was in prison, and James seems to have the doctrine they preached as Paul did privately to been the only apostle present (Acts, 12. 17); so it was the apostles), but only the miracles vouchsafed in proof needless to mention this visit, seeing that he could not of God's sanctioning their preaching to the Gentiles at such a time have received the instruction which the (Acts, 15. 12). to them...of reparation-James, Cepbas, Galatians alleged he had derived from the primary and John, and probably some of the "elders ;* . 6, fountains of authority, the apostles. 22. So far was I "those who seemed to be somewhat." lest, &c. -"lest from being a disciple of the apostles, that I was even I should be running, or have run, in vain." ..., that unknown in the churches of Judea (excepting Jerusalem, they might see that I am not running, and have not run, Acts, 9. 26-29), which were the chief scene of their in vain. Paul does not himself fear lest he be running, labours. 23. Translate as Greek, "They were hearing:" or had run, in vain; but lest he should, if he gave tidings were brought them from time to time. them no explanation, seem so to them. His race was (CONYBEARE & Howsox.] he which persecuted us in the swift-running proclamation of the gospel to the times past-"our former persecutor." (ALFORD.) The Gentiles (cf. "run," Margin, for “ Word...hare free designation by which he was known among Christians course." 2 Thessalonians, 3.1). Alis running would have still better than by his name "Saul." destroyed been in vain, had circumcision been necessary, since Greck, was destroying. 24. in me "in my case," he did not require it of his converts. 3. But-So far * Having understood the entire change, and that the were they from regarding me as running in vain, that former wolf is now acting the shepherd's part, they re | "not even Titus wao was with me, who was a Greek ceived occasion for joyful tbanksgiving to God in and therefore uncircumcised), was compelled to be respect to me." (THEODORET.) How different, le im circumcisedi." So the Greek should be translated. The plies to the Galatians, their spirit from yours.

"false brethren," v, 4 certain of the sect of the CHAPTER II.

Pharisees which believed," Acts, 16. 5), demanded his Ver. 1-21. His Co-ORDINATE AUTHORITY AS circumcision. The apostles, however, constrained by APOSTLE OF THE CIRCUMCISIOS RECOGNISED BY THE the firmness of Paul and Barnabas (v. 6), did not APOSTLES. PROVED BY HIS REBUKING PETER FOR compel or insist on his being circumcised. Thus they TEMPORIZING AT ANTIOCH: HIS REASONING AS TO virtually sanctioned Paul's course among the Gentiles. TILE INCONSISTENCY OF JUDAIZING WITH JUSTIFICA- and admitted his independence as an apostle: the TION BY FAITH. 1. Translate, “After fourteen years," point he desires to set forth to the Galatians. Timotlıy. viz., from Paul's conversion inclusive. (ALFORD.) In on the other hand, as being a proselyte of the gate, aud the fourteenth year from his conversion. (BIRKS.) son of a Jewess (Acts, 16. 1, he circumcised (Acts, 16. 3). The same visit to Jerusalem as in Acts, 16. (A.D. 60), Christianity did not interfere with Jewish usages, rewhen the council of the apostles and church decided garded merely as social ordinances, though no longer that Gentile Christians need not be circumcised. His having tbeir religious significance, in the case of Jews omitting allusion to that decree is, (1.) because his and proselytes, whilst the Jewish polity and temple design here is to show the Galatians his own indepen- still stood; after the overthrow of the latter, those dent apostolic authority, whence he was not likely to usages naturally ceased. To have insisted on Jewish support himself by their decision. Thus we see that usages for Gentile converts, would have been to make general councils are not above apostles, (2.) Because them essential parts of Christianity. To have rudely he argues the point upon principle, not authoritative violated them at first in the case of Jews, would have decisions. (3.) The decree did not go the length of the been inconsistent with that charity which in matters position maintained here: the council did not impose indifferent) is made all things to all men, that by all Mosaic ordinances; the apostle maintains, the Mosaic means it may win some (1 Corinthians, 9. 29; cf. institution itself is at an end. (4.) The Galatians were Romans, 14, 1-7, 13-23). Paul brought Titus about with Judaizing, not because the Jewish law was imposed by him as a living example of the power of the gospel authority of the church as necessary to Christianity, but upon the upcircumcised beatben. 4. And that-4.6.

Bis Stand against False Brethren.


The Gentiles his Sphere of Labour. What I did concerning Titus (viz., my not permitting | being bishop of Jerusalem, and so presiding at the him to be circumcised) was not from contempt of cir- l council (Acts, 15.). He was called "the Just," from bis cumcision, but " on account of the false brethren" strict adherence to the law, and so was especially (Acts, 15, 1, 24, who, had I yielded to the demand for popular among the Jewish party, though he did not his being circumcised, would have perverted the case fall into their extremnes; whereas Peter was somewhat into a proof that I deemed circumcision necessary. I estranged from them through his intercourse with the unawares - "in an underhand manner brought in." Gentile Christians. To each apostle was assigned the privily-stealthily. to spy out-as foes in the guise of sphere best suited to his temperament: to St. James, friends, wishing to destroy and rob us of, our liberty who was tenacious of the law, the Jerusalem Jews; to from the yoke of the ceremonial law. If they had found Peter, who had opened the door to the Gentiles, but that we circumcised Titus through fear of the apostles, who was Judaically disposed, the Jews of the disperthey would bave made that a ground for insisting on sion; to Paul, who, by the miraculous and overwhelmimposing the legal yoke on the Gentiles, bring us into | ing suddenness of his conversion, had the wbole curbondage--The Greek future implies the certainty and rent of his early Jewish prejudices turned into an continuance of the bondage as the result. 5. Greek, / utterly opposite direction, the Gentiles. Not separately ** To whom not even for an hour did we yield by sub- and individually, but collectively the apostles together jection." ALFORD renders the Greek article, "with represented Christ, the One Head, in the apostleship. TRE subjection required of us." The sense rather is, | The Twelve foundation stones of various colours are We would willingly have yielded for love (BENGEL) (ir joined together to the one great foundation-stone on Do principle was at issue), but not in the way of subjec which they rest (1 Corinthians, 3. 11; Revelation. 21. 14, tion, where the truth of the gospel" (v. 14; Colossians, 19, 20). John had got an intimation in Jesus' lifetime 1.5) was at stake (viz., the fundamental truth of justi. of the admission of the Gentiles (John, 12. 20-24). Geation by faith only, without the works of the law, I seemed-i.e., were reputed to be (Note, v. 2, 6) pillars, contrasted with another gospel, ch. l. 6). Truth i.e., weighty supporters of the church (cf. Proverbs, precise, unaccommodating, abandons nothing that be- 9. 1; Revelation, 3. 12). perceived the grace...given unto longs to itself, admits nothing that is inconsistent with me-2 Peter, 3. 15.) gave to me and Barnabas the right it. (BENGEL.] might continue with you-Gentiles. | hands of fellowship-recognising me as a colleague in We defended for your sakes your true faith and the apostleship, and that the gospel I preached by liberties, which you are now renouncing. 6. Greek, I special revelation to the Gentiles was the same as theirs. "From those who," &c. He meant to complete the Cf. the phrase, Lamentations, 5, 6; Ezekiel, 17. 18. sentence with, "I derived no special advantage;" but heathen-the Gentiles. 10. remember the poor-of the be alters it into "they...added nothing to me." seemned Jewish Christians in Judea, then distressed, Paul and to be somewhat-i.e., not that they seemed to be what | Barnabas had already done so (Acts, 11. 28-30). the they were not, but "were reputed as persons of some same--the very thing. I...was forward-or "zealous" consequence," not insinuating & doubt but that they | (Acts, 24. 17; Romans, 16. 25; 1 Corinthians, 16. 2; 2 Cowere justly so reputed accepteth-so as to show any rinthians, 8. and 9.). Paul was zealous for good works, partiality: "respecteth no man's person" (Ephesians, I whilst denying justification by them. 11. Pete. 6. 9), in conference added-or "imparted;" the same "Cephas" in the oldest MSS. Paul's withstanding Greek as in ch. 1. 16, "I conferred not with flesh and Peter is the strongest proof that the former gives of blood." As I did not by conference impart to them the independence of his apostleship in relation to the aught at my conversion, so they now did not impart other apostles, and upsets the Romish doctrine of St. aught additional to me, above what I already knew. Peter's supremacy. The apostles were not always inThis proves to the Galatians his independence as an spired; but were so always in writing the Scriptures. apostle. 7. contrariwise-on the contrary. So far from then the inspired men who wrote them were not inadding any new light to ME, THEY gave in THEIR variably at other times infallible much less were the adhesion to the new path on which Barnabas and I, uninspired men who kept them. The Christian fathers by independent revelation, had entered. So far from may be trusted generally as witnesses to facts, but not censuring, they gave a hearty approval to my indepen implicitly followed in matters of opinion, come to dent course, viz., the innovation of preaching the gospel Antioch--then the citadel of the Gentile church: where without circamcision to the Gentiles. when they saw first the gospel was preached to idolatrous Gent les, from the effects which I showed them, were "wrought" and where the nanie "Christians" was first given (Acts, (v. 8: Acts, 16. 12). was committed unto me-Greek, "I 11. 20, 26), and where Peter is said to have been subwas intrusted with, &c., as Peter was with," &c.gospel sequently bishop. The question at Antioch was not of the ancircumcision-i.e., of the Gentiles, who were to whether the Gentiles were admissible to the Christian be converted without circumcision being required. I covenant without becoming circumcised--that was the circumcision...unto Peter-Peter had originally opened question settled at the Jerusalem council just before tbe door to the Gentiles (Acts, 10., and ló. 7). But in but whether the Gentile Christians were to be admited the ultimate apportiopment of the spheres of labour, I to social intercourse with the Jewish Christians withthe Jews were assigned to him (cf. 1 Peter, 1. 1). So l out conforming to the Jewish institution. The Paul on the other hand wrote to the Hebrews (cf. also Judaizers, soon after the council had passed the resoluColossians, 4. 11), though his main work was among the tions recognising the equal rights of the Gentile ChrisGentiles. The non-mention of Peter in the list of tians, repaired to Antioch, the scene of the gathering in names, presciently through the Spirit, given in of the Gentiles (Acts, 11. 20-26), to witness, what to Romans, 16., sbows that Peter's residence at Rome. ! Jews would look so extraordinary, the receiving of men much more primacy, was then unknown. The same is to communion of the church without circumcision. palpable from the spbere bere assigned to him. 8. he Regarding the proceeding with prejudice, they ex.

God (1 Corinthians, 12. 6. wrought effectaally-i.e., plained away the force of the Jerusalem decision; and made the preached word efticacious to conversion, not probably also desired to watch whether the Jewish only by sensible miracles, but by the secret mighty Christians among the Gentiles violated the law, which power of the Holy Ghost. in Peter-ELLICOTT, &c., that decision did not verbally sanction them in doing. traruslates," For Peter." GROTIUS translates as English though giving the Gentiles latitude (Acts, 15, 19. t> Version, to-with a view to. was mights-translate be blamed-rather, " (self) condemned," bis act at one aus before, the Greek being the same, "wrought | time condemping his contrary acting at another time. effectually." in me-"for (or 'in ) me also." 9. James- 12. certain-meu: perhaps James' view (in which he Placed dret in the oldest MSS.. even before Peter, was not infallible, any more than l'eter) was that the

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