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Triumphant Summary of


the schole Argument. gospel. (So the best interpreters.) nor things present, hand-is employed in beball of His people here below nor things to come--no condition of the present life and tv. 34)! (10.) "The whole universe, with all that it none of the unknown possibilities of the life to come. contains, so far as it is good, is the friend and ally nor any other creature (rather,' created thing-any other of the Christian; and, so far as it is evil, is more than a thing in the whole created universe of God) sball be able conquered foe' (v. 36-39). (HODGE.] () Are we who to separate us, &c.-'All the terms here are to be taken "have tasted that the Lord is gracious," both “kept in their most general sense, and need no closer defini. by the power of God through faith unto salvation" (1 tion. The indefinite expressions are meant to denote Peter, 1, 5, and embraced in the arms of Invincible all that can be thought of, and are only a rhetorical Love! Then surely, while "building ourselves up on paraphrase of the conception of allness.' (OLSHAUSEN.) our most holy faith," and "praying in the Holy Ghost.** from tne love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord - only the more should we feel constrained to "keep Thus does this wonderful chapter, with which the ourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our argu.nent of the Epistle properly closes, leave us who Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life" (Jude, 20, 21). aro" justified by faith," in the arms of everlasting Love,

CHAPTER LX. whence no hostile power or conceivable event can Ver. 1-33. THE BEARING OF THE FOREGOING ever tear us. * Behold what manner of love is this?" | TRUTHS UPON THE CONDITION AND DESTINY OF THE And "what manner of persons ought we to be," who CHOSEN PEOPLE-ELECTION-THE CALLING OF THE are thus "blessed with all spiritual blessings in GENTILES. Too well aware that he was regarded as a Christ 1-Note (1.) There is a glorious consistency be- traitor to the dearest interests of his people (Acts, 21. tween the eternal purposes of God and the free agency 33; 22. 22; 25. 24), the apostle opens this division of his of men, though the link of connection is beyond subject by giving vent to his real feelings, with extrahuman, perhaps created, apprehension (v. 28). (2.) How ordinary vehemence of protestation. 1, 2. I say the ennobling is the thought that the complicated move-truth in Christ-as if steeped in the spirit of Him who ments of the divine government of the world are all ar wept over impenitent and doomed Jerusalem cf. ch. ranged in express furtherance of the "good" of God's 1. 9; 2 Corinthians, 12. 19; Philippians, 1. 8). my conchosen (0.28)! (3.) To whatever conformity to the Son science bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost--q.d., 'my of God in dignity and glory, believers are or shall here-conscience as quickened, illuminated, and even now after be raised, it will be the joy of every one of them, under the direct operation of the Holy Ghost.' That as it is most fitting, "that in all things He should have I have, &c.- That I have great grief or 'sorrow) and the pre-eminence" Colossians, 1. 18; 10. 29). (4.) 'Asunceasing anguish in my heart'--the bitter hostility of there is a beautiful harmony and necessary connection his nation to the glorious Gospel, and the awful conbetween the several doctrines of grace, so must there sequences of their unbelief, weighing heavily and inbe a like harmony in the character of the Christian. cessantly upon his spirit. 3. For I could wish that He cannot experience the joy and confidence flowing myself were accursed from Christ for ('in behalf of my from his election without the humility which the con- brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh-In proporsideration of its being gratuitous must produce; nor tion as he felt himself spiritually severed from his can be have the peace of one who is justified without nation, he seems to have realized all the more vividly the holiness of one who is saved' (v. 29, 30). (HODGE) their natural relationship. To explain away the wish 15.) However difficult it may be for finite minds to here expressed, as too strong for any Christian to utter comprehend the emotions of the Divine Mind, let us or conceive, some have rendered the opening words, never for a moment doubt that in "not sparing His | 'I did wish,' referring it to his former unenlightened own Son but delivering Him up for us all," God made state; a sense of the words too tame to be endured: a real sacrifice of all that was Dearest to his heart, and others unwarrantably soften the sense of the word that in so doing He meant for ever to assure His peo "accursed." But our version gives the true import ple that all other things which they need-inasmuch of the original, and if it be understood as the language as they are nothing to this stupendous gift, and indeed rather of 'strong and indistinct emotions than of debut the necessary sequel of it - will in due time be finite ideas' (HODGE), expressing passionately how he forthcoming (0, 32). (6.) In return for such a sacrifice felt his whole being swallowed up in the salvation of on God's part, what can be considered too great on his people, the difficulty will vanish, and we shall be ours? (7.) If there could be any doubt as to the mead- reminded of the similar idea so nobly expressed by ing of the all-important word "JUSTIFICATION" in this Moses, Exodus, 32. 32. 4. Who are Israelites--See ch. 11. Epistle-whether, as the Church of Rome teaches, and 1; Corinthians, 11. 22; Philippians, 3. 5. to whom permany others affirm, it means 'infusing righteousness taineth (whose is') the adoption-It is true that, cominto the unholy, so as to make them righteous,' or, pared with the new economy, the old was a state of according to Protestant teaching, 'absolving, acquit-minority and pupilage, and so far that of a bond-serting, or pronouncing righteous the guilty: v. 33 ought vant (Galatians, 4. 1-3): yet, compared with the state to set such doubt entirely at rest. For the apostle's of the surrounding heathen, the choice of Abraham and question in this verse is, “Who sball bring a charge his seed was a real separation of them to be a Family against God's electr" - in other words, Who shall of God (Exodus, 4. 22; Deuteronomy. 32. 6; Isaiah, 1. pronounce' or 'hold them guilty? seeing that "God 2; Jeremiah, 31, 9; Hosea, 11. 1; Malachi, 1. 6). and justifies" them: showing beyond all doubt, that to the glory-that "glory of the Lord," or 'visible token "justify" was intended to express precisely the op- of the divine presence in the midst of them, which posite of 'holding guilty; and consequently (as Calrin rested on the ark and filled the tabernacle during all triumphantly argues) that it means 'to absolve from their wanderings in the wilderness; which in Jeruthe charge of guilt. (8. If there could be any reason salem continued to be seen in the tabernacle and able doubt in what light the death of Christ is to be re-temple, and only disappeared when, at the Captivity. garded in this Epistle, v. 34 ought to set that doubt the temple was demolished and the sun of the ancient entirely at rest. For there the apostle's question is, economy began to go down. This was what the Jews Who shall "condemn" God's elect, since "Christ died" called the 'Shechinah,' and the covenants- "the for them; showing beyond all doubt as Philippi justly covenants of promise" to which the Gentiles before argues) that it was the crpiatory character of that Christ were "strangers" (Ephesians, 2. 12): meaning death which the apostle had in view. (9.) What an the one covenant with Abraham in its successive affecting view of the love of Christ does it give us to renerals (see Galatians, 3, 16, 17). and the giving of the learn, that His greatest nearness to God and most law-írom mount Sinai, and the possession of it therepowerful interest with Him - as "Beated on His right after, which the Jews justly deemed their peculiar

The Chosen People.

Election. bonour Deuteronomy, 28. 18, 19; Psalm 147, 19, 20; which the subject of Election opens, would be this: ch. 9. 17). and the service of Godor, of the sanctuary; / 'The choice of Abraham and his seed has not failed: meaning the whole divinely instituted religious ser because though Israel has been rejected, the Gentiles rice, in the celebration of which they were brought so have taken their place; and God has a right to choose nich unto God. and the promises--the great Abrabamic what nation He will to the privileges of His visible pronrises, successively unfolded, and which had their | kingdom. But so far from this, the Gentiles are not fulfillment only in Christ: see Hebrews, 7. 6; Galatians. so much as mentioned at all till towards the close of 3.16, 21; Acts, 28. 6, 7. 5. Whose are the fathers--here, the chapter, and the argument of this verse is, that all protrbly, the three great fathers of the covenant Israel is not rejected, but only a portion of it, the Abraham, Isaac, and Jacobby whom God con remainder being the “Israel" whom God has chosen descended to name Himself (Exodus, 3. 6, 13; Luke, in the exercise of His sovereign right. And that this 9.37). and (most exalted privilege of all, and as such, is a choice not to mere external privileges, but to reserved to the last) of whom as concerning the flesh (see eternal salvation, will abundantly appear from what on ch. 1. 3) Christ (came] (or,' is Christ'), who is over all, follows, 7-9. Neither, because they are the seed of AbraGod-rather. God over all.' blessed for ever. Amen ham, are they all children-q.d., 'Not in the line of mere To get rid of the bright testimony here borne to the fleshly descent from Abraham does the election run; supreme divinity of Christ, various expedients have else Ishmael, Hagar's child, and even Keturah's chilbeen adopted. (1.) To place a period, either after the dren, would be included, which they were mot.' but words "concerning the flesh Christ came," rendering (the true election are such of Abraham's seed as God the next clause as a doxology to the Father-"God who unconditionally chooses, as exemplified in that prois over all be blessed for ever;"' or after the word "all" mise), In Isaac shall thy seed be called-(Genesis, 21, 12). -thus, "Christ came, who is over all: God be blessed," 10-13. And not only so; but when Rebecca, &c.-It might &c. (ERASMUS, LOCKE, FRITZSCHE, MEYER, JOWETT, be thought that there was a natural reason for prefer&c.) But it is fatal to this view, as even Socinus ad ring the child of Sarah, as being Abraham's true and mits, that in other Scripture doxologies the word first wife, both to the child of Hagar, Sarah's maid, ** Blessed precedes the name of God on whom the bless and to the children of Keturah, his second wife. But ing is invoked thus : "Blessed be God," Psalm 68. 35; there could be no such reason in the case of Rebecca,

Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel," Psalm Isaac's only wife; for the choice of her son Jacob was 72. 18). Besides, any such doxology here would be the choice of one of two song by the same mother, and

meaning and frigid in the extreme;' the sad subject of the younger in preference to the elder, and before on which he was entering suggesting any thing but a either of them was born, and consequently before dorology, even in connection with Christ's Incarnation, either had done good or evil to be a ground of preTALFORD.) 12.) To transpose the words rendered 'who | ference: and all to show that the sole ground of distincis in which case the rendering would be, 'whose (i.e., tion lay in the unconditional choice of God-"not of the fathers) is Christ according to the flesh.' (CRELLIUS, works, but of Him that calleth." 14. What shall we say WHISTON, TAYLOR, WHITBY.) But this is a desperate then? Is there unrighteousness with God! God forbidexpedient, in the face of all MS. authority; as is also This is the first of two objections to the foregoing docthe conjecture of Grotius and others, that the word trine, that God chooses one and rejects another, not on "God" should be omitted from the text. It remains account of their works, but purely in the exercise of then, that we have here no doxology at all, but a naked His own good pleasure: 'This doctrine is inconsistent statement of fact, that while Christ is "of" the Israelit with the justice of God.' The answer to this objection ish nation "as concerning the flesh," He is in another extends to v. 19, where we have the second objection. Tepect "God over all, blessed for ever." In 2 Co 15. For he saith to Moses (Exodus, 33. 19), I will have rinthians, 11, 31, the very Greek phrase which is here mercy on whom I will have (* on whom I have') mercy, rendered "who is," is used in the same sense; and cf. and I will have compassion on whom I will have (* on ch. L. 25, Greek.) In this view of the passage, as a whom I have') compassion-q.d., There can be no testimony to the supreme divinity of Christ, besides unrighteousness in God's choosing whom He will, for all the orthodox fathers, some of the ablest modern to Moses He expressly claims the right to do so.' Yet crities concur. (BENGEL, THOLUCK, STUART, OL- it is worthy of notice that this is expressed in the SRAUKEX, PHILIPPI, ALFORD, &c.] 6. Not as though I positive rather than the negative form: not, I will the word of God had taken none effect-'bath fallen to the have mercy on none hnet whom I will; but, I will around,' i.e., failed: cf. Luke, 16. 17, Greek. for they are have mercy on whomsoever I will.' 16. So then it is not not all Israel which are of Israel-better, "for not all of him that willeth hath the inward desire), nor of him they which are of Israel are Israel.' Here the apostle that runneth (maketh active effort)-(cf. 1 Corinthians, enters upon the profound subject of ELECTION, the treat- | 9. 24, 26; Philippians, 2. 16; 3. 14). Both these are inment of which extends to the end of ch. 11.-9.d.. dispensable to salvation, yet salvation is owing to * Think not that I mourn over the total loss of Israel: neither, but is purely " of God that showeth mercy." for that would involve the failure of God's word to See on Philippians, 2. 12, 13, "Work out your own salAbraham; but not all that belong to the natural sced. | vation with fear and trembling: for it is God which, out and go under the name of "Israel," are the Israel of l of His own good pleasure, worketh in you both to will God's irrevocable choice. The difficulties which and to do." 17. For the Scriptures saith to Pharach encompass this subject lie not in the apostle's teaching. (observe here the light in which the Scripture is viewed which is plain enough, but in the truths themselves, by the apostle', Even for this same (* this very") purpose the evidence for which, taken by themselves, is over have I raised ('raised I') thee up, &c. -The apostle had whelming, but whose perfect harmony is beyond | shown that God claims tbe right to choose whom He human comprehension in the present state. The great will: here he shows by an example that God punishes source of error here lies in hastily inferring (as / whom He will. But 'God did not make Pharaoh TROLUCK and others), from the apostle's taking up, wicked: He only forbore to make him good, by the at the close of this chapter, the calling of the Gentiles exercise of special and altogether unmerited grace.' in connection with the rejection of Israel, and con- (HODGE.] that I might (may') show my power in theetinuing this subject through the two next chapters. It was not that Pharaoh was worse than others that that the Election treated of in the body of this chapter he was so dealt with, but in order that he might beis national, not personal Election, and consequently is come a monument of the penal justice of God, and it Election merely to religious advantages, not to eternal | was with a view to this that God provided that the evil antsution. In that case, the argument of v, 6, with which was in him should be manifested in this definite

octrine of Divine Sovereignty. tre but to the choice of ontsrael. Had Israel's rejes


Election form.' (OLSHAUSEN.) and that my name might (*may) serves, so far from proceeding with undue severity, the be declared ('proclaimed') in all the earth- This is the apostle would have it remarked that God "endures principle on which all punishment is inflicted, that the with much long-suffering" those objects of His righttrue character of the Divine Lawgiver should be known. eous displeasure.and that he might make kuown the This is of all objects, where God is concerned, the high-riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy-that 'glorious est and most important; in itself the most worthy, exuberance of divine mercy' which was manifested in and in its results the most beneficent.' [HODGE.) 18. choosing and eternally arranging for the salvation of Therefore hath he-So then he hath.' The result then I sinners. 24. even us, whom he hath called, &c.-rather, is that He hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and Whom he hath also called, even us.' &c., in not only whom he will he hardeneth-by judicially abandoning "afore preparing." but in due time effectually "calling them to the hardening influence of sin itself (Psalmus." not of the Jews, &c.-better, 'not from among 81, 11, 12; ch. 1. 24, 26, 28 : Hebrews, 3. 8, 13), and of the Jews only, but also from among Gentiles.' Here for surrounding incentives to it (Matthew, 24. 12: 1 Cor the first time in this chapter the calling of the Gentiles is rinthians, 16. 38: 2 Thessalonians, 2. 17). 19. Objection introduced, all before having respect, not to the subsecond to the doctrine of Divine Sovereignty : Thonstitution of the called Gentiles for the rejected Jews. shalt say then unto me, Why (* Why then' is the true but to the choice of one portion and the rejection of reading) doth he yet iud fault! for who hath resisted another of the same Israel. Had Israel's rejection (*Who resisteth') his willi-.d., This doctrine is in-been total, God's promise to Abraham would not have compatible with human responsibility:' If God chooses been fulfilled by the substitution of the Gentiles in and rejects, pardons and punishes, whom He pleases, their room ; but Israel's rejection being only partial. why are those blamed who, if rejected by Him, cannot the preservation of "a remnant," in which the promise help sinning and perishing ? This objection shows was made good, was but "according to the election of quite as conclusively as the former the real nature of grace." And now, for the first time, the apostle tells the doctrine objected to that it is Election and Non- us that along with this elect remnant of Israel it is election to eternal Salvation prior to any difference of God's purpose to "take out of the Gentiles a people for personal character: this is the only doctrine that could His name" (Acts, 20. 14), and that subject, thus introsuggest the objection here stated, and to this doctrine duced, is now continued to the end of ch. 11. 25. As the objection is plausible. What now is the apostle's he saich also in Osee (* Hoses), I will call them my people, answer! It is twofold. First: It is irreverence and which were uot my people, and her beloved, which was not presumption in the creature to arraign the Creator.' beloved-quoted, though not quite to the letter, from 20, 21, Nay but, Oman, who art thou that repliest against Hosea, 2. 23, a passage relating immediately, not to the God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, heathen, but to the kingdom of the ten tribes: but Why hast thou made (* didst thou make') me thus (Isaiah, since they had sunk to the level of the heathen, who 45.9) 1 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the were "pot God's people," and in that sense "not besame lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another to loved," the apostle legitimately applies it to the dishonour - The objection is founded on ignorance or heathen, as "aliens from the commonwealth of Israel misapprehension of the relation between God and His and strangers to the covenants of promise" (80 1 Peter. sinful creatures; supposing that He is under obligation 2. 10). 26. Ava (another quotation from Hosea, 1. 10) to extend His grace to all, whereas He is under obliga- it shall come to pass, that in the place wbere it was said tion to none. All are sinners, and have forfeited every unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be claim to His mercy : It is therefore perfectly competent called the children ('called sons') of the living God-The to God to spare one and not another, to make one expression, 'in the place where ... there,' seems vessel to honour and another to dishonour. But it is designed only to give greater emphasis to the gracious to be borne in mind that Paul does not here speak of change here announced, from divine exclusion to divine God's right over his creatures as creatures, but as sin admission to the privileges of the people of God. ful creatures: as he himself clearly intimates in the | 27-29. Esaias also crieth (But Isaiah crieth')-an exnext verses. It is the cavil of a sinful creature against pression denoting a solemnn testimony openly borne his Creator that he is answering, and he does so by (John, 1, 16; 7. 28, 37; 12. 44; Acts, 23. 6; 24. 41). conshowing that God is under no obligation to give his cerning Israel, Though the number of the children (Sons') grace to any, but is as sovereign as in fashioning the of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a (the') remnant i.e.. clay.' (HODGE] But Second: There is nothing unjust the elect remnant only) shall be saved : for he will finish in such sovereignty. 22, 23. What if God, willing to the work, and cut (is finishing the reckoning, and show (designing to manifest') his wrath (His holy dis-cutting') it short in righteousness: becanse a short work pleasure against sin), and to make his power (to punish (*reckoning') will the Lord make upon the earth-Isaiah, it) known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels 10. 22, 23, as in the IXX. The sense given to these of wrath-ie...destined to wrath just as "vessels of words by the apostle may seem to differ from that inmercy," in the next verse, mean vessels destined to tended by the prophet. But the sameness of sentiment mercy compare Ephesians, 2. 3, "children of wrath." in both places will at once appear, if we understand fitted for destruction-It is well remarked by Stuart that those words of the prophet," the consumption decreed the difficulties which such statements involve are not shall overflow with righteousness," to mean that while to be got rid of by softening the language of one text, a remnant of Israel should be graciously spared to rewhile so many others meet us which are of the same turn from captivity, "the decreed consumption of tenor; and even if we give up the Bible itself, so long the impenitent majority should be "replete with rightas we acknowledge an omnipotent and omniscient God eousness," or illustriously display God's righteous we cannot abate in the least degree from any of the vengeance against sin. The "short reckoning" seems difficulties which such texts make. Be it observed, to mean the speedy completing of His word, both in however, that if God, as the apostle teaches, expressly cutting off the one portion and saving the otber. And ** designed to manifest His wrath, and to make flisas Esaias said ("hath said') before --i.e., probably in an power din the way of wrath) known," it could only be earlier part of his book, namely, Isaiah, 1.9. Except the by punishing some, while He pardons others; and if | Lord of Sabaoth-i... 'the Lord of Hosts: the word is the choice between the two classes was not to be Hebrew, but occurs so in the Epistle of James (ch. 5. 4), founded, as our apostle also teaches, on their own and has thence become naturalised in our Christian doings but on God's good pleasure, the decision be- phraseology. had left us a seed-meaning a remnant: hoved ultimately to rest with God. Yet, even in the small at first, but in due time to be a seed of plenty necessary punishment of the wicked, as Hodge ob- (cf. Psalm 22. 30, 31: Isaiah, 6. 12, 13). we had been

TM Calling of

the Gentiles. become') as Sodom, &C.-But for this precious seed, have arrived (v. 14-23). (7.) Sincerity in religion, or the chosen people would have resembled the cities of a general desire to be saved, with assiduous efforts to the plain, both in degeneracy of character and indo right, will prove fatal as a ground of confidence bemerited doom, 30. 31. What shall we say then -'What fore God, if unaccompanied by implicit submission to now is the result of the whole?' The result is this His revealed method of salvation (v. 31-33). (8.) In very different from what one would have expected the rejection of the great mass of the chosen people, That the Gentiles, which followed not after righteousness, and the inbringing of multitudes of estranged Gentiles, have attained ("attained') to righteousuess, even the God would bave men to see a law of His procedure, righteousness of faith-As we have seen that “the right which the judgment of the great day will more vividly eousness of faith" is the righteousness which justifies reveal-that "the last (see on ch. 3. 22, &c.), this verse must mean that 'the (Matthew, 20. 16). Gentiles, who while strangers to Christ, were quite in

CHAPTER X. different about acceptance with God, having embraced Ver.1-21. SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED-How ISRAEL the gospel as soon as it was preached to them, experi. I CAME TO MISS SALVATION, AND THE GENTILES TO enced the blessedness of a justified state.' but Israel, I FIND IT. 1. Brethren, my heart's desire-The word bere Whica followed following') after the law of righteous used expresses 'entire complacency,' that in which the ness, hath not attained (* attained not') unto the law of heart would experience full satisfaction. and prayer righteousness-The word “law" is used here, we think, I sapplication') to God for Israel - for them' is the true be the same sense as in ch. 7. 23, to denote *a principle reading: the subject being continued from the close of of action:-9.d., 'Israel, though sincerely and steadily the preceding chapter. is, that they may be saved for aiming at acceptance with God, nevertheless missed their salvation.' Having before poured forth the anit' 32. 33. Wherefore I Because (they sought it) not by l guish of his soul at the general unbelief of his nation faith, but as it were (rather simply, 'as') by the works of and its dreadful consequences (ch, 9. 1-3), he here exthe law-as if it were thus attainable, which justifica presses in the most emphatic terms his desire and tion is not: Since, therefore, it is attainable only by prayer for their salvation. 2. For I bear thein recordfaith, they missed it. for (it is doubtful if this particle | or, 'witness,' as he well could from his own sad experiW38 originally in the text) they stumbled at that stum ence. that they have a zeal of (* for') God, but not accordblingstone-better, against the stone of stumbling,' ing to knowledge-(cf, Acts, 22. 3; 26. 9-11; Galatians, meaning Christ. But in this they only did, as it is | 1. 13, 14). He alludes to this well meaning of his written (Isaiah, 8, 14; 28. 16), Behold, &c.-Two Mes-notwithstanding their spiritual blindness, not certainly sianic predictions are here combined, as is not unusual to excuse their rejection of Christ and rage against His in quotations from the Old Testament. Thus com saints, but as some ground of hope regarding them. bided, the prediction brings together both the classes See 1 Timothy, l. 13.) 3. For they being ignorant of of whom the apostle is treating: those to whom Messiah God's righteonsness - i.e., for the justi should be only a stone of stumbling, and those who l guilty (see on ch. 1. 17). and going about (seeking') to were to regard Him as the Corner-Stone of all their establish their own righteousness, have not submitted hopes.-Tbus expounded, this chapter presents no themselves to the righteousness of God-The apostle serious difficulties, none which do not arise out of the views the general rejection of Christ by the nation as subject itself, whose depths are unfathomable; wbere one act. 4. For Christ is the end (the object or aim) of as on every other view of it the difficulty of giving it the law for justifying) righteousness to every one that any consistent and worthy interpretation is in our believeth-i.e., contains within Himself all that the law judgment insuperable. Note (1.) To speak and act demands for the justification of such as embrace Him,

in Christ, with a conscience not only illuminated, whether Jew or Gentile (Galatians, 3. 24). 5-10. For but under the present operation of the Holy Ghost, Moses describeth the righteoasuess which is of the law, is not peculiar to the supernaturally inspired, but is That the man that doeth (hath done') those things the privilege, and ought to be the aim, o every believer (which it commands) shall live in them - (Leviticus, fo. 1). (2.) Grace does not destroy, but only intensify 28. 5. This is the one way of justification and life-by and elevate, the feelings of nature; and Christians "the righteousness which is of (or, by our own obedisbould study to show this (v. 2, 3). (3.) To belong toence to the law." Bat the justifying) righteousness tbe visible Church of God, and enjoy its high and holy which is of faith speaketh on this wise (speaketh tbus') distinctions, is of the sovereign mercy of God, and -its language or import is to this effect (quoting in abould be regarded with devout thankfulness (v. 4, 5). substance Deuteronomy, 30. 13, 14), Say not in thine 14.) Yet the most sacred external distinctions and heart. Who shall ascend into heaven ? that is, to bring privileges will avail nothing to salvation without the Christ down, &C.-9.d., 'Ye bave not to sigh over the heurt's submission to the righteousness of God (v. impossibility of attaining to justification; as if one 31-3). (5.) What manner of persons ought “God's should say, Ah! if I could but get some one to mount elect" to be-in humility, when they remember that I up to heaven and fetch me down Christ, tbere might He hath saved them and called them, not according to be some hope, but since that cannot be, mine is a tbeir works but according to His own purpose and desperate case.' or, Who shall descend, &c.--another grace, given them in Christ Jesus before the world case of impossibility, suggested by Proverbs, 30. 4, and bezen (2 Timothy, l. 9); in thankfulness, for “Who perhaps also Amos, 9. 2-probably proverbial expresmaketh thee to differ, and what hast thou that thou sions of impossibility (cf. Psalm 139. 7.10; Proverbs, didst not receiver' (1 Corinthians, 4. 7); in godly jealousy 24. 7, &c.) But what saith it? (It saith)-continuing over themselves, remembering that "God is not the quotation from Deuteronomy, 30, 14, The word is IDocked," but whatsoever a man soweth that shall he nigh thee-easily accessible. in thy mouth-when thou also reap" (Galatians, 6.7);in diligence "to make our call confessest Him, and in thine heart-when thou believest ing and election sure" (2 Peter, 1. 10); and yet in calm on Him. Though it is of the law which Moses more confidence that "whom God predestinates, and calls. immediately speaks in the passage quoted, yet it is and justities, thern (in due time) He also glorifies" (ch. of the law as Israel shall be brought to look upon it 8.301. 10.) On all subjects which from their very nature when the Lord their God shall circumcise their heart lie beyond human comprehension, it will be our wisdom "to love the Lord their God with all their heart," &c. to set down what God says in His word, and has ac- (0.6); and thus, in applying it, the apostle (as Olshausen tually done in His procedure towards men, as indis- | truly observes) is not merely appropriating the lanputable, even though it contradict the results at which guage of Moses, but keeping in the line of his deeper in the best exercise of our limited judgment, we may thought. that is, the word of faith, which we preach

their works but in Christ Jesus before me. Who I Derbaps also Amos:

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How Israel came to miss Salration,


and the Gentiles to find it. i.e., the word which men have to believe for salva- sball one find a believer!' The prophet speaks as if tion (cf. 1 Timothy, 4. 6). that if thou shalt, &c.-So next to none would believe: The apostle softens this understanding the words, the apostle is here giving, into “They have not all believed." So then faith cometa the language of the true method of justification : and by hearing, and hearing by the word of God-9.d. This this sense we prefer (with CALVIN, BEZA, FERME, is another confirmation of the truth that faith supLOCKE, JOWETT.). But able interpreters render the poses the hearing of the word, and this a commission words, For,' or 'Because if thou shalt,' &c. (VULGATE, to preach it.' 18. Bat I say, Have they not heard! (Did LUTHER, DE WEITE, STUART, PHILIPPI, ALFORD, they not hear !")-Can Israel, through any region of his REVISED VERSION.) In this case, these are the dispersion, plead ignorance of these glad tidings! Yes apostle's own remarks, confirming the foregoing state-verily, their sound went ('their voice went out ') into all ments as to the simplicity of the gospel method of the earth, and their words unto the end of the world salvation. confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus--i.e., These beautiful words are from Psalm 19. 4. Whether probably. If thou shalt confess Jesus (to be) the Lord,' the apostle quoted them as in their primary intention which is the proper manifestation or evidence of faith applicable to his subject as OLSHAUSEN, ALFORD. (Matthew, 10. 32; 1 John, 4. 15). This is put first merely &c.), or only used Scriptural language to express his to correspond with the foregoing quotation-"in thy own ideas, as is done involuntarily almost by every mouth and in thine heart." So in 2 Peter, 1. 10, the preacher in every sermon' (HODGE), expositors are "calling of believers" is put before their "election," not agreed. But though the latter may seem the more as that which is first" made sure," although in point natural, since “the rising of the Sun of righteousness of time it comes after it. and shalt believe in thine upon the world" (Malachi, 4. 2), "the day-spring from heart that God hath raised that God raised") him from on high visiting us, giving light to them that sat in the dead, &c.-See on ch. 4. 25. In the next verse the darkness, and guiding our feet into the way of peace ** two things are placed in their natural order. Yor with (Luke, 1. 78, 79), must have been familiar and delightthe heart man believeth unto justifying) righteousness: ful to the apostle's ear, we cannot doubt that the and with tbe mouth confession is made unto salvation | irradiation of the world with the beams of a better This confession of Christ's name, especially in times of sun by the universal diffusion of the gospel of Christ persecution, and whenever obloquy is attached to the must have a mode of speaking quite natural, and to Christian profession, is an indispensable test of dis- him scarcely figurative. 19. But I say, Did not Israel cipleship. 11-13. For the Scripture saith - in Isaiah, knowl-know, from their own Scriptures, of God's 28. 16, & glorious Messianic passage, Whosoever believeth intention to bring in the Gentilest First-1.e., First on hum shall not be ashamed-Here, as in ch. 9. 33, the in the prophetic line (DE WETTE), Moses saith, &c.-'I quotation is from the LXX., which renders those will provoke you to jealousy (* against) (them that words of the original,"shall not make haste" (i.e., fly are) not a nation, and against a nation without under for escape, as from conscious danger, 'shall not be put standing will I anger you' (Deuteronomy. 32. 21). In to shame,' which comes to the same thing. For there this verse God warns His ancient people that because is no difference (or, distinction') between Jew and Greek: they had (that is, in after times would) moved Him for the same Lord over all-i.e., not God (as CALVIN, to jealousy with their "no-gods," and provoked Him GROTIUS, OLSHAUSEN, HODGE), but Christ, as will be to anger with their vanities, He in requital would seen, we think, by comparing v. 9, 12, 13, and observing move them to jealousy by receiving into His favour & the apostle's usual style on such subjects. (So CURY-no-people," and provoke them to anger by adopting a SOSTOM, MELVILLE, BENGEL, MEYER, DE WETTE, nation void of understanding. 20. But Esaias is very FRITZsCne, THOLUCK, STUART, ALFORD, PHILIPPI) bold, and saith-i.e., is still plainer, and goes even the is rich favourite Pauline term to express the exu length of saying, I was found of them that sought me not berance of that saving grace which is in Christ Jesus. -until I sought them, I was made (" became') manifest unto all that call upon him-This confirms the applica- unto them that asked not after me-until the invitation tion of the preceding words to Christ; since to call from Me came to them. That the calling of the Genupon the name of the Lord Jesus is a customary ex- tiles was meant by these words of the prophet (Isaiah, pression. (See Acts, 7. 59, 60; 9. 14, 21; 22. 16; 1 Co 66. 1) is manifest from what immediately follows, "I rinthians, 1. 2; 2 Timothy, 2. 22.) For (saith the Scripture said, Behold me, behold me, unto & nation that was whosoever - The expression is emphatic, Every one not called by my name." 21. But to (rather, with whosoever.' shall call upon the name of the Lord shall | regard to') Israel he saith, Al day (* All the day') long be saved-Joel, 2. 32: quoted also by Peter, in his great I have stretched out ( did I stretch forth') my haudsPentecostal sermon (Acts, 2, 21), with evident applica- the attitude of gracious entreaty. unto a disobedient tion to Christ. 14, 15. Hw then shall they call on him and gainsaying people-These words, which immediately in whom they have not believed ? and ... believe in him follow the announcement just quoted of the calling of of whom they have not heard ! and ... bear without a the Gentiles, were enough to forewarn the Jews both preacher and ... preach except sent 2-9.d., True, the I of God's purpose to eject them from their privileges, same Lord over all is rich unto all alike that call upon in favour of the Gentiles, and of the cause of it on Him: But this calling implies believing, and believing their own part.-Note (1.) Mere sincerity, and even hearing, and hearing preaching, and preaching a mis earneatness in religion-though it may be some ground sion to preach: Why, then, take ye it so ill, O children of hope for a merciful recovery from error-is no exof Abraham, that in obedience to our heavenly mission cuse, and will not compensate, for the deliberate (Acts, 26, 16-18) we preach among the Gentiles the un rejection of saving truth, when in the providence of searchable riches of Christ ?' as it is written (Isaiah, God presented for acceptance (v. 1-3; and see on ch. 2.. 52. 7), How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the note 7). (2.) The true cause of such rejection of saving gospel of peace, &c.-The whole chapter of Isaiah from truth, by the otherwise sincere, is the prepossession of which this is taken, and the three that follow, are so the mind by some false notions of its own. So long richly Messianic, that there can be no doubt “the as the Jews "sought to set up their own righteousglad tidings" there spoken of announce & more ness," it was in the nature of things impossible that glorious release than of Judah from the Babylonish they should "sub..it themselves to the righteousness captivity, and the very feet of its preachers are called of God;" the one of these two methods of acceptance "beautiful" for the sake of their message. 16, 17, But being in the teeth of the other (0.3). (3.) The essential they have not all obeyed the gospeli.e., the Scripture terms of salvation have in every age been the same : hath prepared us to expect this sad result. For Esaias "Whosoever will" is invited to "take of the water of saith, Lord, who hath believed our report1-9.d., 'Where I life freely." Revelation, 22. 17. (v. 13). (4.) How will

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