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The Blessed Efects of


Justification by Faith." Abraham is "the heir of the world." all nations being 1 glory of God - See on "hope," v. 4. 3. 4. we glory in blessed in him, through his Seed Christ Jesus, and tribulation also: knowing that tribulation worketh patience justified solely according to the pattern of his faith, so -Patience is the quiet endurance of what we cannot the transmission of the true religion and all the sal but wish removed, whether it be the withholding of tation which the world will ever experience shall yet promised good (ch. 8. 25), or the continued experience Pre traced back with wonder, gratitude, and joy, to of positive ill (as here). There is indeed a patience of that morning dawn when "the God of glory appeared unrenewed nature, which has something noble in it, into our fatber Abraham, when he was in Mesopo. though in many cases the offspring of pride, if not of tamiz, before he dwelt in Charran." Acts, 7. 2 (v, 13). something lower. Men have been known to endure

Nothing gives more glory to God than simple faith every form of privation, torture, and death, without in His word, especially when all things seem to render a murmur and without even visible emotion, merely the inlfilment of it hopeless. (v. 18-21). (7.) All the because they deemed it unworthy of them to sink Scripture examples of faith were recorded on purpose under unavoidable ill. But this proud, stoical hardito beget and encourage the like faith in every suc-hood has nothing in common with the grace of patience weding age (e. 23, 24; and cf. ch. 16. 4). (8.) Justifica -which is either the meek endurance of ill because it tion in this argument, cannot be taken as Romanists is of God (Job, 1. 21, 22; 2. 10), or the calm waiting for and other errorists insist -- to mean a change upon promised good till His time to dispense it come (Hemen's character: for besides that this is to confound it brews, 10.36); in the full persuasion that such trials are with Sanctification, which has its appropriate place in divinely appointed, are the needed discipline of God's this Epistle, the whole argument of the present chapter children, are but for a definite period, and are not sent -and nearly all its more important clauses, expres- without abundant promises of "songs in the night." If gions, and words-would in that case be unsuitable, such be the " patience which "tribulation worketh," and otted only to mislead. Beyond all doubt it means no wonder that patience worketh experience - rather exelosirely a change upon men's state or relation to 'proof,' as the same word is rendered in 2 Corinthians, God: or, in scientific language, it is an objective, not a 2. 9; 13, 3; Philippians, 2. 22; i.e., experimental evidence subiectite change - a change from guilt and condem that we have "believed through grace." and experience mation to acquittal and acceptance. And the best('proof') hope-" of the glory of God," as prepared for evidence that this is the key to the whole argument is, us. Thus have we hope iu two distinct ways, and at that it opens all the wards of the many-chambered two successive stages of the Christian life: first, immelock with which the apostle has enriched us in this diately on believirg, along with the sense of peace and Epistle.

abiding access to God (v. 1); next, after the reality of CHAPTER V.

this faith has been "proved," particularly by the Ver, 1-11. THE BLESSED EFFECTS OF JUSTIFICA-patient endurance of trials sent to test it. We first TION BY FAITH.- The proof of this doctrine being get it by looking away from ourselves to the Lamb of now concluded, the apostle comes here to treat of its God; next, by looking into or upon ourselves as transfruits, reserving the full consideration of this topic to formed by that “looking unto Jesus." In the one case, another stage of the argument (ch. 8). 1. Therefore being the mind acts as they say) objectively; in the other, sub

having been') jastified by faith, we have peace with jectively. The one is (as divines say) the assurance of God, &c.-If we are to be guided by MS. authority, the faith; the other, the assurance of sense. 5. And hope true reading here, beyond doubt, is, 'Let us have maketh not ashamed (putteth not to shame, as empty pence: a reading, however, which most reject, because hiopes do); because the love of God-i.e., not our love they think it unnatural to exhort men to have what to God,' as the Romish and some Protestant expositors it belongs to God to give, and because the apostle is (following some of the fathers) represent it; but clearly not here giving exhortations, but stating matters of 'God's love to us fact. But as it seems hazardous to set aside the abroad-lit., poured forth,' i.e., copiously diffused (cf. decisive testimony of MSS., as to what the apostle did John, 7. 38; Titus, 3. 6). by the Holy Ghost, which is write, in favour of what we merely think he ought to (rather was given unto us—i.e., at the great Pentehave written, let us pause and ask-If it be the privi-costal effusion which is viewed as the formal donation lege of the justified to "have peace with God," why of the Spirit to the Church of God, for all time and might not the apostle begin his enumeration of the for each believer. The Holy Ghost is here first introfraits of justification by calling on believers to realise' duced in this Epistle.) It is as if the apostle had said, this peace as belonging to them, or cherish the joyful And how can this hope of glory, which as believers consciousness of it as their own! And if this is what we cherish, put us to shame, when we feel God Himbe bas done, it would not be necessary to continue in self, hy His Spirit given to us, drenching our hearts in the same style, and the other fruits of justification sweet, all subduing sensations of His wondrous love micht be set down simply as matters of fact. This to us in Christ Jesus? This leads the apostle to ex** peace is first a change on God's relation to us; and patiate on the amazing character of that love. 6-8. next, as the consequence of this, a change on our part For when we were yet without strength-i.e., powerless towards Him. God, on the one hand, bas "reconciled to deliver ourselves, and so ready to perish, in due us to Himself by Jesus Christ" (2 Corinthians, 5. 18): time at the appointed season) Christ died for the dugodly and we, on the other hand, setting our seal to this, -Three signal properties of God's love are here given: ** are reconciled to God" (2 Corinthians, 5. 20). The First, "Christ died for the ungodly," whose character, * propitiation" is the meeting place: there the con- so far from meriting any interposition in their behalf. troversy on both sides terminates in an honourable | was altogether repulsive to the eye of God, second, He and eternal "peace." 2, By whom also we have have did this "when they were without strength" - with bad access by faith into this grace (favour with God) nothing between them and perdition, but that selfwherein we stand-9.d., "To that same faith which first originating divine compassion; third, He did this "at naye ng " peace with God" we owe onr introduction | the due time," when it was most fitting that it should into that permanent standing in the favour of God, I take place (cf. Galatians, 4, 4). The two former of these which the justified enjoy.' As it is difficult to dis- properties the apostle now proceeds to illustrate. For tinguish this from the peace first mentioned, we regard scarcely for a righteous man (a man of simply unexcep. it as merely an additional phase of the same. (MEYER, tionable character) will one any one') die: yet peradPHILIPPI. MEHRING), rather than something new. venture for a good man-a man who, besides being B2. THoLUCK, HODGE.) and rejoice- glory,' boast,'| unexceptionable, is distinguished for goodness, a benetriumph. rejoice.' is not strong enough. in hope of the factor to society) some (* some one') would rather 'doth)

The Blessed Effects of


Justification by Faith. even dare to dieq.d., 'Scarce an instance occurs of self-Testament sense of the term, is not a lower degree of sacrifice for one merely upright; though for one who faith or assurance (as many now say, I hope for heaven, makes himself a blessing to society there may be found but am not sure of it); but invariably means the conan example of such noble surrender of life. (So fident expectation of future good. It presupposes BENGEL, OLSHAUSEN, THOLUCK, ALFORD, PHILIPPI.) | faith; and what faith assures us will be ours, hope (To make the "righteous" and the "good" man here accordingly expects. In the nourishment of this hope. to mean the same person, and the whole sense to be the soul's look outward to Christ for the ground of it, that 'though rare, the case may occur, of one making a and inward upon ourselves for evidence of its reality, sacrifice of life for & worthy character,' las CALVIN, must act and react upon each other (v.2 and 4 comBEZA, FRITZACHE, JOWETT.] is extremely flat.) But pared). (4.) It is the proper office of the Holy Ghost God commendeth (*setteth off,' displayeth'-in glorious I to beget in the soul the full conviction and joyful contrast with all that men will do for each other) his consciousness of the love of God in Christ Jesus to love toward us, in tbat, while we were yet ginners-i.e., sinners of mankind, and to ourselves in particular: in a state not of positive "goodness," nor even of and where this exists, it carries with it such an assarnegative "righteousness," but on the contrary, "sin. ance of final salvation as cannot deceive (v. 5). (5.) ners," a state which His soul hateth, Christ died for us The justification of sinful men is not in virtue of their -Now comes the overpowering inference, emphatically amendment, but of "the blood of God's Son;" and while redoubled. 9. 10. Much more then, being (having been') this is expressly affirmed in v. 9, our reconciliation to now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath God by the "death of His Son," affirmed in v. 10, is but through him. For is, when we were enemies, we were a variety of the same statement. In both, the blessing reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being meant is the restoration of the sinner to a righteous now having now been", reconciled, we shall be saved by standing in the sight of God; and in both, the merihis life--a.d. If that part of the Saviour's work which torious ground of this, which is intended to be concost Him His blood, and which had to be wrought for veyed, is the expiatory sacrifice of God's Son. (6.) persons incapable of the least sympathy either with Gratitude to God for redeeming love, if it conld exist His love or His labours in their behalf even our without delight in God Himself, would be a selfish "justification," our "reconciliation"-is already com- and worthless feeling; but when the one rises into the pleted: how much more will He do all that remains other the transporting sense of eternal “reconciliato be done, since He has it to do, not by death-agonies tion" passing into "gloriation in God" Himself - then any more, but in antroubled "Life," and no longer for the lower is sanctified and sustained by the higher, and enemies, but for friends-from whom, at every stage each feeling is perfective of the other v. 11). of it, Ho receives the grateful response of redeemed 12-21. COMPARISON AND CONTRAST BETWEEN ADAX and adoring souls! To be "saved from wrath through AND CHRIST IN THEIR RELATION TO THE HUMAN Him." denotes here the whole work of Christ towards FAMILY. (This profound and most weighty section believers, from the moment of justification, when the | has occasioned an immense deal of critical and theo. Wrath of God is turned away from them, till the Judge logical discussion, in which every point, and almost on the great white throne shall discharge that wrath every clause, has been contested. We can here but set upon them that "obey not the Gospel of our Lord down what appears to us to be the only tenable view of Jesus Christ," and that work may all be summed up it as a whole, and of its successive clauses, with some in "keeping them from falling, and presenting them slight indication of the grounds of our judgment.) 12. faultless before the presence of his glory with exceed - Wherefore i.e., Things being so; referring back to the ing joy" (Jude, 24): thus are they "saved from wrath whole preceding argument. as by one man (Adam) sin through him." 11. And not only so, but we also joy -considered here in its guilt, criminality, penal desert. (rather, glory') in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by entered into the world, and death by (as the penalty of ("through') whom we have now received the atonement - sin; and so death passed upon all mnen, for that all have rather, the reconciliation' (Margin, as the same word sinned-rather, 'all sinned,' i.e., in that one man's first is rendered in v. 10, and in 2 Corinthians, 5. 18, 19. sin. Thus death reaches every individual of the (In fact, the earlier meaning of the English word 'atone-human family, as the penalty due to himself. So, in ment was 'the reconciliation of two estranged parties.') substance, BENGEL, HODGE, PHILIPPI.) Here we

TRENCH.] The foregoing effects of justification were should have expected the apostle to finish his sentence, all benefits to ourselves, calling for gratitude: this last in some such way as this: “Even so, by one man right inay be termed a purely disinterested one. Our first eousness has entered into the world, and life by rightfeeling towards God, after we have found peace with eousness. But, instead of this, we have a digression Him, is that of clinging gratitude for so costly a salva extending to five verses, to illustrate the important tion; but no sooner have we learned to cry, Abba, statement of v. 12; and it is only at v, 18 that the comFather, under the sweet sense of reconciliation, than parison is resumed and finished. 13, 14. For until the **gloriation" in Him takes the place of dread of Him, law sin was in the world-i.e., during all the period from and now He appears to us "altogether lovely!"-On Adam "until the law" of Moses was given, God conthis section, Note (1.) How gloriously does the Gospel tinned to treat men as sinners, but sin is not imputed evince its divine origin by basing all acceptable obedi- where there is no law-.d., 'There must therefore have ence on "peace with God," laying the foundations of been a law during that period, because sin was then this peace in a righteous "justification" of the sinner imputed, as is now to be shown. Nevertheless death "through our Lord Jesus Christ," and making this the reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had pot entrance to a permanent standing in the divine favour, sinned after the similitude of Adam's trangression-But and a triumphant expectation of future glory! (v. 1, 2). who are they a much contested question, Infants Other peace, worthy of the name, there is none; and as (say some), who being guiltless of actual sin, may be those who are strangers to it rise not to the enjoyment said not to bave sinned in the way that Adam did. of such high fellowship with God, so they have neither (AUGUSTIN, BEZA, HODGE.) But why should infants any taste for it nor desire after it. (2.) As only believers be specially connected with the period "from Adam to possess the true secret of patience under trials, so, Moses," since they die alike in every period? And if although "not joyous but grievous" in themselves the apostle meant to express here the death of infants, (Hebrews. 12. 17), when trials divinely sent afford them why has he done it so enigmatically 1 Besides, the the opportunity of evidencing their faith by the grace death of infants is comprehended in the universal of patience under them, they should "count it all joy" mortality on account of the first sin, so emphatically (0.3, 4: and see James, 1.2, 3). (3.) "Hope," in the New expressed in v. 12: what need them to specify it here!

Adizer and Christ in their


Relation to the Human Faműy. and why. if not necessary, should we presume it to be grace not only rich in its character, but rich in detail: Beant here, unless the language unmistakably point it is a "righteousness" not only rich in a complete justi. to it-which it certainly does not! The meaning then fication of the guilty, condemned sinner; but rich in 215 be, that 'death reigned from Adam to Moses, the amplitude of the ground which it covers, leaving no eren over those that had not, like Adam, transgressed one sin of any of the justified uncancelled, but making azainst a positive commandment, threatening death to him, though loaded with the guilt of myriads of the disobedient. (So most interpreters.) In this case, I offences, “the righteousness of God in Christ 17. the particle "even" instead of specifying one particular For if by ('the') one man's offence death reigned by one elase of tbose who lived "from Adam to Moses” as the (through the one'); much more shall they which receive etter interpretation supposes), merely explains what (the) abundance of grace and of the gift of justifying)

was that made the case of those who died from righteousness ... reign in life by one ("through the one'), Adam to Moses worthy of special notice, namely, that Jesus Christ-We have here the two ideas of v, 15 and *though unlike Adam and all since Moses, those who 16 sublimely combined into one, as if the subject had lived between the two had no positive threatening of grown upon the apostle as he advanced in his comdeath for transgression, "nevertheless, death reigned I parison of the two cases. Here, for the first time in area our them."' who is the figure (or, 'a type') of him this section, he speaks of that LIFE which springs out that was to come-Christ), 'This clause is inserted on of justification, in contrast with the death which springs the tirat mention of the name " Adam," the one man of from sin and follows condemnation. The proper idea whom he is speaking, to recall the purpose for which of it therefore is, 'Right to live'- Righteous life'-life he is treating of him, as the figure of Christ.' (ALFORD.] possessed and enjoyed with the good will, and in con"The point of analogy intended bere is plainly the public formity with the eternal law, of "Him that sitteth on character which both sustained, neither of the two the Throne;" life therefore in its widest sense-life in being regarded in the divine procedure towards men the whole man and throughout the whole duration of as mere individual men, but both alike as representa- human existence, the life of blissful and loving relationtice men. (Some take the proper supplement here to ship to God in soul and body, for ever and ever. It is be " Him (that is) to come;" understanding the apostle worthy of note too, that while he says death “reigneu zo speak from his own time, and to refer to Christ's over" us through Adam, he does not say Life "reigns second coming. (FRITZSCHE, DE WETTE, ALFORD.) over us". through Christ; lest he should seem to invest but this is unnatural, since the analogy of the second this new life with the very attribute of death-that of Adam to the first has been in full development ever fell and malignant tyranny, of which we were the hapsuce "God exalted Him to be a Prince and a Saviour, less victims. Nor does he say Life reigns in us, which and it will only remain to be consummated at His would have been a scriptural enough idea; but, which second coming. The simple meaning is, as nearly all is much more pregnant, "We shall reign in life." interpreters agree, that Adam is a type of Him who While freedom and might are implied in the figure of was to come after him in the same public character, "reigning," "life" is represented as the glorious terriand so to be " the second Adam.") But ( Yet,' 'How tory or atmosphere of that reign. And by recurring to beit not as the offence ('trespass') so also is the free gift the idea of v. 16, as to the "many offences," whose (or 'the gracious gift,'*the gift of grace')-q.d., The two complete pardon shows “the abundance of grace and cases present points of contrast as well as resemblance. of the gift of righteousness," the whole statement is to Por is, &c.-rather, 'For if through the offence of the this effect: 'If one man's one offence let loose against ope the many died i.e., in that one man's first sin), | us the tyrant power of Death, to hold us as its victims much more did the grace of God, and the free gift by in helpless bondage" much more," when we stand forth

race, even that of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound enriched with God's "abounding grace" and in the unto the many. By "the many" is meant the mass of beauty of a complete absolution from countless offences, inankind represented respectively by Adam and Christ, shall we expatiate in a life divinely owned and legally as opposed, not to fow, but to "the one" who repre-secured, "reigning" in exultant freedom and unchalsented them. By " the free gift" is meant (as in v. lenged might, through that other matchless * One." 17, the glorious gift of justifying righteousness: this is Jesus Christl (On the import of the future tense in expressly distinguished from "the grace of God," as this last clause, see on v. 19; and on ch. 6. 6.) 18. Therethe pect from the cause; and both are said to "abound" tore - now at length resuming the unfinished comtowards us in Christin what sense will appear in parison of v. 12, in order to give formally the concludthe next two verses. And the much more," of the ing member of it, which had been done once and again one cuse than the other, does not mean that we get substantially, in the intermediate verses, as by the much more of good by Christ than of evil by Adam (for offence of one (judgment camej (or, more simply, 'it came') it is not a case of quantity at all); but that we have upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness much more reason to expect, or it is much more | of one the free gift came) (rather, it came') upon all agreeable to our ideas of God, that the many should be men to justification of life - 180 CALVIN, BENGEL, tegedted by the merit of one, than that they should OLSHAUSEN, THOLUCK, HODGE, PHILIPPI.) But saatler for the sin of one: and if the latter has happened, I better, as we judge: 'As through one offence (it camel much more may we assure ourselves of the former. upon all men to condemnation; even so through one IPAILUPPI. HODGE) 16. And not as (it was] by one that I righteousness (it came) upon all men to justification of sinned, so (us) the gift-q.d., 'Another point of contrast lite.' (So BEZA, GROTIUS, FERME, MEYER, DE WETTE, may be mentioned.' for the judgment ('sentence') was ALFORD, REVISED VERSION.] In this case, the apostle. by one rather, was of one,' meaning not 'one man,' | resuming the statement of u. 12, expresses it in a more but, as appears from the next clause, 'one offence') to concentrated and vivid form-suggested no doubt by condemnation, but the free gift ('gift of grace") is of many the expression in v. 16, "through one offence," repreellencee unto justification-& glorious point of contrast: senting Christ's whole work, considered as the ground q.d. The condemnation by Adam was for one sin; but of our justification, as "ONE RIGHTEOUSNESS." (Some the justification by Christ is an absolution not only would render the peculiar word here employed, 'one from the guilt of that first offence, mysteriously attach- righteous act' (ALFORD, REVISED VERSION, &c.; ing to every individual of the race, but from the count understanding by it Christ's death as the one redeeming, less offences into which, as a germ lodged in the bosom act which reversed the one undoing act of Adam. But of every child of Adam, it unfolds itself in his life.' this is to limit the apostle's idea too much; for as the This is the meaning of "grace abounding towards us same word is properly rendered "righteousness" in ch. in the abundance of the gift of righteousness." It is a l 8. 4. where it means "the righteousness of the law as

Adam and Christ in their


Relation to the Human Family. fulfilled by us who walk not after the flesh, but after ) evil occasioned by Adam, and the need and glory of the the Spirit," so here it denotes Christ's whole "obedi remedy by Christ. that the offence might abound (or, ence unto death," considered as the one meritorious be multiplied). But what offence? Througbout all ground of the reversal of the condemnation which this section the offence' (four times repeated besides came by Adam. But on this, and on the expression, here) has one definite meaning, namely, 'the one first "all men," see on v. 19. The expression, "justification offence of Adam;' and this, in our judgment, is its of life," is a vivid combination of two ideas already meaning here also: q.d. 'All our multitudinous expatiated upon, meaning justification entitling to breaches of the law are nothing but that one first offence, and issuing in the rightful possession and enjoyment lodged mysteriously in the bosom of every child of of life.") 19. Por, &c.-better, 'For as by the one man's Adam as an offending principle, and multiplying itself disobedience the many were made sinners, even so by into myriads of particular offences in the life of each.' the obedience of the One shall the many be made What was one act of disobedience in the head has righteous.' On this great verse observe, first, that by been converted into a vital and virulent principle of the "obedience of Christ here is plainly not meant disobedience in all the members of the human family, more than what divines call His active obedience, as whose every act of wilful rebellion proclaims itself the distinguished from His sufferings and death: it is the child of the original transgression. But where sin entire work of Christ in its obediential character. Our abounded (or, 'was multiplied') grace did much more Lord Himself represents even His death as His great abouud rather, 'did exceedingly abound,' or 'superact of obedience to the Father: "This commandment abound.' The comparison here is between the multi(i.e., to lay down and resume His life) have I received plication of one offence into countless transgressions. of my Father" (John, 10. 18). Second, The significant and such an overflow of grace as more than meets that word twice rendered "made," does not signity to work appalling case. That AS sin - Observe, the word a change upon a person or thing, but to constitute or "offence" is no more used, as that had been sufficiently ordain, as will be seen from all the places where it illustrated; but-what better befitted this comprehenis used. Here, accordingly, it is intended to express sive summation of the whole matter--the great general that judicial act which holds men, in virtue of their term Sin. hath reigned unto death-rather, in death, connection with Adam, as sinners; and, in connection triumphing and (as it were) revelling in that complete with Christ, as righteous. Third, The change of tense destruction of its victims. even so might grace reign from the past to the future-"as through Adam we-In v. 14, 17, we had the reign of death over the guilty were made sinners, so through Christ we shall be and condemned in Adam: here it is the reign of the made righteous"-delightfully expresses the enduring mighty causes of these-of SIN which clothes Death a character of the act, and of the economy to which such Sovereign with venomous power (1 Corinthians, 15. 56) acts belong, in contrast with the for-ever-past ruin of and with awful authority (ch. 6. 23), and of GRACE, believers in Adam. (See on ch. 6. 6.) Fourth, The "all the grace which originated the scheme of salvation, the men" of ", 18, and the many of v. 19, are the same grace which "sent the Son to be the Saviour of the party, though under a slightly different aspect. In world," the grace which "made Him to be sin for us the latter case, the contrast is between the one repre who knew no sin," the grace which "makes us to be sentative (Adam-Christ) and the many whom he re the righteousness of God in Him;" so that “we who presented; in the former case, it is between the one receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of richthead (Adam-Christ) and the human race, affected for eousness do reign in life by One, Jesus Christ!' through death and life respectively by the actings of that one. righteousness - not ours certainly (*the obedience of Only in this latter case, it is the redeemed family of Christians,' to use the wretched language of Grotius): man that is alone in view; it is Humanity as actually nor yet exactly 'justification' (STUART, HODGE); but lost, but also as actually saved, as ruined and re- rather, 'the justifying) righteousness of Christ' (BEZA. covered. Such as refuse to fall in with the high ALFORD, and in substance, OLSHAUSEN, MEYER): the purpose of God to constitute His Son a "second Adam," same which in v. 19 is called His "obedience," meanthe Head of a new race, and as impenitent and un-ing His whole mediatorial work in the flesh. This is believing finally perish, have no place in this section here represented as the righteous medium through of the Epistle, whose sole object is to show how God which grace reaches its objects and attains all its ends. repairs in the second Adam the evil done by the first the stable throne from which Grace as a Sovereign (Thus the doctrine of universal restoration has no place dispenses its saving benefits to as many as are brought here. Thus too the forced interpretation by which under its benign sway. tinto eternal life-which is sal the "justification of all" is made to mean a justifica.vation in his highest form and fullest development for tion merely in possibility and offer to all, and the "justi-ever. by Jesus Christ our Lord-Thus, on that "Name tication of the many" to mean the actual justification which is above every name" the echoes of this hymn of as many as believe (ALFORD, &c.). is completely to the glory of "Grace" die away, and Jesus is left avoided. And thus the harshness of comparing a alone."-On reviewing this golden section of our Epistle, whole fallen family with a recovered part is got rid of the following additional remarks occur: (a.) If this However true it be in fact that part of mankind are section do not teach that the whole race of Adam. not saved, this is not the aspect in which the subject standing in him as their federal head, sinned in him is here presented. It is totals that are compared and and fell with him in his first transgression,' we may contrasted, and it is the same total in two successive despairof any intelligibie exposition of it. The apostle, conditions--namely, the human race as ruined in Adam after saying that Adain's sin introduced death into the and recovered in Christ.) 20, 21. Moreover the law world, does not say "and so death passed upon all * The law however,' The Jew might say, If the whole men for that" Adam "sinned," but for that all purposes of God towards men centre in Adam and sinned." Thus, according to the teaching of the Christ, where does "the law come in, and what was apostle, 'the death of all is for the sin of all;' and as the use of it? Answer: It entered-But the word ex- I this cannot mean the personal sins of each individual, Lresses an important idea besides 'entering.' Jt sigui- but some sin of which unconscious infants are guilty fies, 'entered incidentally,' or 'parenthetically. (In equally with adults, it can mean nothing but the one Galatians, 2. 4, the same word is rendered came in I first transgression of their common head, regarded & privily." The meaning is, that the promulgation of the the sin of each of his race, and punished, as such, with law at Sinai was no primary or essential feature of the death. It is vain to start back from this imputation divine plan, but it was "added" (Galatians, 3. 19) for I to all of the guilt of Adam's first sin, as wearing the a subordinate purpose--the more fully to reveal the l appearance of injustice. For not only are all other

Adam and Christ in their


Relation to the Human Family. theories liable to the same objection, in some other | understood "the day" of bis disobedience to be the form-besides being inconsistent with the text-but terminating period of his blissful “life." In that the actual jacts of human nature, which none dispute, simple idea was wrapt up all the rest. But that he and which cannot be explained away, involve essen should comprehend its details was not necessary. Nor tiaily the same difficulties as the great principle on is it necessary to suppose all that to be intended in which the apostle here explains them. If we admit every passage of Scripture where the word occurs, this principle, on the authority of our apostle, a flood Enough that all we have described is in the bosom of of light is at once thrown upon certain features of the the thing, and will be realised in as many as are not divine procedure, and certain portions of the divine the happy subjects of the Reign of Grace. Beyond orades, which otherwise are involved in much dark. doubt, the whole of this is intended in such sublime Dess; and if the principle itself seem hard to digest, it and comprehensive passages as this: "God ... gave is not harder than the existence of evil, which, as a fact, His ... Son, that whosoever believeth in Him might admits of no dispute, but, as a feature in the divine not PERISH, but have everlasting LIFE” (John, 3, 16). administration, admits of no explanation in the present And should not the untold horrors of that “DEATH' state. (2.) What is called original sin - or that de- already "reigning over" all that are not in Christ, uraved tendency to evil with which every child of and hastening to its consummation-quicken our flight Adam comes into the world-is not formally treated into "the second Adam," that having "received the c in this section (and even in ch. , it is rather its abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness. rature and operations than its connection with the first we may reign in LIFE by the One, Jesus Christ ?" sin which is handled). But indirectly, this section

CHAPTER VI. bears testiinony to it; representing the one original Ver. 1-11. THE BEARING OF JUSTIFICATION BY offence. unlike every other, as having an enduring | GRACE UPON A HOLY LIFE. 1. What, &c.-The subvitality in the bosom of every child of Adam, as a Liect of this third division of our Epistle announces principle of disobedience, whose virulence has gotten itself at once in the opening question, “Shall we (or, it the familiar name of original sin.' (3.) In what sense as the true reading is, May we,' 'Are we to') continue is the word "death" used throughout this section in sin, that grace may aboundr" Had the apostle's Not certainly as mere temporal death, as Arminian doctrine been that salvation depends in any degree commentators aflirm. For as Christ came to undo upon our good works, no such objection to it could what Adam did, which is all comprehended in the have been made. Against the doctrine of a purely word “death," it would hence follow that Christ has gratuitous justification, the objection is plausible; nor merely dissolved the sentence by which soul and body has there ever been an age in which it has not been are parted in death; in other words, merely procured urged. That it was brought against the apostles, we the resurrection of the body. But the New Testament know from ch. 3. 8; and we gather from Galatians, 5. throughout teaches that the salvation of Christ is from 13; 1 Peter, 2. 16; Jude, 4, that some did give occasion a vastly more comprehensive “death" than that. But to the charge; but that it was a total perversion of the perther is death here used merely in the sense of penal doctrine of Grace the apostle here proceeds to show. ecil, ie..'any evil inflicted in punishment of sin and 2. God forbid-That be far from us, the instincts of the for the support of law,' (HODGE.) This is too in- | new creature revolting at the thought. How shall we. definite, making death a mere figure of speech to denote that are dead, &c. lit., and more forcibly, 'We who

penal evil' in general-an idea foreign to the simplicity died to sin (as presently to be explained), how shall we of Seripture - or at least making death, strictly so live any longer therein! 3. Know ye not, that so many called, only one part of the thing meant by it, which of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ (cf. 1 Corinthians, ought not to be resorted to if & more simple and 10. 2) were baptized into his death 1-sealed with the seal natural explanation can be found. By "death" then, of heaven, and as it were formally entered and articled, in this section, we understand the sinner's destruction, to all the benefits and all the obligations of Christian in the only sepse in which he is capable of it. Even discipleship in general, and of His death in particular. temporal death is called "destruction" (Deuteronomy, | And since He was "made sin" and "a curse for us" 7. 23; 1 Samuel, 6. 11, &c.), as extinguishing all that (2 Corinthians, 6. 21; Galatians, 6. 13), “bearing our sins men regard as life. But a destruction extending to in His own body on the tree," and "rising again for the soul as well as the body, and into the future world, our justification" (ch. 4. 26; 1 Peter, 2. 24), our whole is clearly expressed in Matthew, 7. 13; 2 Thessalonians, sinful case and condition, thus taken up into His 1.9: 2 Peter, 3. 16, &c. This is the penal “death" of Person, has been brought to an end in His death. our section, and in this view of it we retain its proper Whoso, then, has been baptised into Christ's death sense. Life-as a state of enjoyment of the favour of has formally surrendered the whole state and life of tod. of pure fellowship with Him, and voluntary sub sin, as in Christ a dead thing. He has sealed himself jection to Him-is a blighted thing from the moment to be not only "the righteousness of God in Him." that sin is found in the creature's skirts: in that sense, but "a new creature," and as he cannot be in Christ the threatening," In the day that thou eatest thereof to the one effect and not to the other, for they are one thou shalt surely die," was carried into immediate thing, he has bidden farewell, by baptism into Christ's etfect in the case of Adam when he fell; who was thence- death, to his entire connection with sin, “How." forward * dead while he lived." Such are all his pos- then, " can he live any longer therein? The two terity from their birth. The separation of soul and things are as contradictory in the fact as they are in body in temporal death carries the sinner's "destruc the terms. 4. Therefore we are (rather, 'were,' it tion" a stage further; dissolving his connection with being a past act, completed at once) buried with him, that world out of which he extracted a pleasureable, by baptism into death-(The comma we have placed thongh unblest, existence, and ushering him into the after “him" will show what the sense is. It is not. . By

resence of his Judge-first as a disembodied spirit, | baptism we are buried with Him into death.' wbich but ultimately in the body too, in an enduring condition makes no sense at all; but ‘By baptism with Him into -"to be punished and this is the final state) with death we are buried with Him; in other words, by everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, the same baptism which publicly enters us into Ais and from the glory of His power." This final extinction death, we are made partakers of His burial also. To in soul and body of all that constitutes life, but yet leave a dead body unburied is represented, alike in eternal consciousness of a blighted existence-this, in heathen anthors as in Scripture, as the greatest inits staplest and most awful sense, is "DEATH!" Not | dignity (Revelation, 11, 8, 9). It was fitting, therefore, that Adam understood all that. It is enough that He that Christ, after "dying for our sins according to the

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