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The Sanctification

af Believers. Dess and regularity of a law,' it thus appears that "the world be cast out;" and again (see on John, 10. 11). lan of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" here means. "When He (the Spirit) shall come, He shall convince

that new principle of action which the Spirit of Christ the world of ... judgment, because the prince of this has opened up within us—the law of our new being. I world is judged," i.e., condemned to let go his hold This "sets us frec," as soon as it takes possession of 1 of men, who, through the cross, shall be emancipated our inner man, "from the law of sin and death," i.e., I into the liberty and power to be holy. in the fleshfrom the enslaving power of that corrupt principle i.e., in human nature, henceforth set free from the which carries death in its bosom. The "strong man grasp of sin. That the righteousness of the law-'the armed" is overpowered by the "Stronger than he:" the righteous demand' (REVISED VE weaker principle is dethroned and expelled by the ment' (ALFORD), or the precept of the law; for it is more powerful; the principle of spiritual life prevails l not precisely the word so often used in this Epistle to against and brings into captivity the principle of spiri | denote the righteousness which justifies' (ch, 1, 17; tual death-"leading captivity captive." If this be the 3. 21; 4. 5, 6; 6. 17, 18, 21), but another form of the same apostle's meaning, the whole verse is to this effect: word, intended to express the enactment of the law, That the triumph of believers over their inward cor meaning here, we believe, the practical obedience raption, through the power of Christ's Spirit in them, which the law calls for. might be fulfilled in as-or, proves them to be in Christ Jesus, and as such absolved | as we say, 'realized in us.' who walk-the most ancient from condemnation. But this is now explained more expression of the bent of one's life, whether in the direcfully. 3. 4. For what the law could not do, &c.- diffi- ' tion of good or of evil (Genesis, 48. 16; Psalm 1. 1; cult and much controverted verse. But it is clearly, Isaiah, 2.5; Micah, 4, 6; Ephesians, 4, 17; 1 John, 1, 6, 7). we think, the law'sinability to free us from the dominion not after (i.e., according to the dictates of) the flesh, but of sin that the apostle has in view; as has partly after the spirit-From 0.9, it would seem that what is appeared already (see on v. 2), and will more fully more immediately intended by "the spirit" here is appear presently. The law could irritate our sinful our own mind, as renewed and actuated by the Holy nature into more virulent action, as we have seen in | Ghost. 5. For they that are after the flesh (i.e., under ch 7. 5. but it could not secure its own fulfilment. I the influence of the fleshly principle) do mind (give Hos that is accomplished comes now to be shown. I their attention to, Philippians, 3. 19) the things of the in that it was weak through the flesh-i.e., having to l flesh, &c. - Mer must be under the predominating address itself to us through a corrupt nature, too influence of one or other of these two principles, and, strong to be influenced by mere commands and threat | according as the one or the other has the mastery. enines. God, &c.-The sentence is somewhat imperfect will be the complexion of their life, the character of in its structure, which occasions a certain obscurity. their actions. 6. For- & mere particle of transition The ineaning is, that whereas the law was powerless | here [THOLUCK), like 'but' or 'now' to be carnally to secure its own fulfilment for the reason given, God minded -lit., 'the mind' or 'minding of the flesh took the method now to be described for attaining I (Margin), i.e., the pursuit of fleshly ends. is deaththat end. sending (having sent') his own Son-This not only 'ends in' (ALFORD, &c.l, but even now 'is;' and similar expressions plainly imply that Christ was carrying death into its bosom, so that such are "dead God's Own Son" before He was sent-that is, in His while they live" 1 Timothy, 5. 6; Ephesians, 2, 1, 5). own proper Person, and independently of His mission (PHILIPPI.) but to be spirituaily minded 'the mind' and appearance in the flesh (see on ch. 8. 32; Galatians, I or minding of the spirit; i.e., the pursuit of spiritual 4. A: and if so, He not only has the very nature of God, I objects. is lifo and peace-not "life" only, in contrast even as a son of his father, but is essentially or the with the “death" that is in the other pursuit, but Father, though in a sense too mysterious for any | "peace" it is the very element of the soul's deepest Langange of ours properly to define (see on ch. 1-4). repose and true bliss. 7. Because the carnal mind is And this peculiar relationship is put forward here to enmity against God. The desire and pursuit of carnal enhance the greatness and define the nature of the relief ends is a state of enmity to God, wholly incompatible provided, as coming from beyond the precincts of sinful with true life, and peace in the soulfor it is not sub. humanity altogether, yea, immediately from the God-ject (*doth not submit itself') to the law of God, neither head itself. in the likeness of sinful flesh-lit., 'of the indeed can be can it')-i.e., In such a state of mind flesh of sin: a very remarkable and pregnant expres- there neither is nor can be the least subjection to the

1, but law of God. Many things may be done which the law only in the likeness of its sinful condition. He took requires, but nothing either is or can be done because our nature as it is in us, compassed with infirmities, I God's law requires it, or purely to please God. 8. So with nothing to distinguish Him as man from sinful then-nearly equivalent to 'And so,' they that are in men, save that He was without sin. Nor does this and therefore, under the government of the flesh mean that He took our nature with all its properties I cannot please God-having no obediential principle, no save one; for sin is no property of Humanity at all, desire to please Him. 9. But ye are not in the flesh, bat only the disordered state of our souls, as the fallen but in the spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you family of Adam, & disorder affecting, indeed, and over - This does not mean, 'if the disposition or mind of apreading our entire nature, but still purely our own. God dwell in you; but if the Holy Ghost dwell in you' and for sin - lit., and about sin: q.d., 'on the business (see 1 Corinthians, 6. 11, 19; 3.16, &c.). (It thus appears of sin.' The expression is purposely a general one, be that to be "in the spirit" means here to be under the cause the design was not to speak of Christ's mission dominion of our own renewed mind; because the into atone for sin, but in virtue of that atonement to dwelling of God's Spirit is given as the evidence that dedroy its dominion and extirpate it altogether from we are in the spirit.") Now (But, if any man have believers. We think it wrong, therefore, to render the words (as in Margin) 'by a sacrifice for sin' (sug- the disposition or mind of Christ,' but the Holy Ghost; gested by the language of the LXX., and approved by here called “the Spirit of Christ" just as He is called CALVIX, &c.); for this sense is too definite, and makes "the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus" (see on 0, 2). It is the idea of expiation more prominent than it is, I as "the Spirit of Christ" that the Holy Ghost takes condemned sin - 'condemned it to lose its power over possession of believers, introducing into them all the Imen.' (BEZA, BENGEL, FRASER, MEYER, THOLUCK, I gracious dove-like disposition which dwelt in Him PHILIPPI, ALFORD.) In this glorious sense our Lord (Matthew, 3. 16; John, 3. 34). Now if any man's heart ays of His approaching death (John, 12. 31). "Now is l be void, not of such dispositions, but of the blessed the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this ! Author of them, "the Spirit of Christ"-he is done of

NOW (But, if any man was

sacrifice for sin sues 900 the Spirit of Christ"

sested by the language of the

The Sanctification

of Belierers. his even though intellectually convinced of the truth subjection to the law of God (v. 5-7). Hence (5.) the of Christianity, and in a general sense influenced, by estrangement of God and the sinner is mutual. For its spirit. Sharp, solemn statement this! 10, 11. And as the sinner's state of mind is “enmity against God" if Christ be in you-by His indwelling Spirit in virtue (v.7), so in this state he “cannot please God" (v. 8). of which we have one life with him. the body-'the (6.) Since the Holy Ghost is, in the same breath, called body indeed.' is dead because of (*by reason of) sin; | indiscriminately the Spirit of God," " the Spirit of but the spirit is life because (or, 'by reason') of righteous | Christ," and "Christ" Himself as an indwelling life in ness. The word 'indeed,' which the original requires, believers), the Essential Unity and yet Personal disis of the nature of a concession-q.d., 'I grant you that tinctness of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, the body is dead, &c., and so far redemption is income in the one adorable Godhead must be believed, as the plete, but,' &c.; q.d., 'If Christ be in you by His in only consistent explanation of such language (v. 9-11). dwelling Spirit, though your "bodies" have to pass (7.) The consciousness of spiritual life in our renewed through the stage of " death," in consequence of the souls is a glorious assurance of resurrection life in the first Adam's "sin," your spirit is instinct with new and body also, in virtue of the same quickening Spirit undying "life," brought in by the "righteousness" of whose inhabitation we already enjoy (v. 11). (8.) Whatthe second Adam.' ITUOLUCK, MEYER, and ALFORD ever professions of spiritual life men may make, it rein part, but only HODGE entirely.) But Andif the mains eternally true that "if we live after the flesh we Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in shall die," and only "if we through the Spirit do yon - 1.e., If He dwell in you as the Spirit of the mortify the deeds of the body we shall live" (v. 13Christ-raising One,' or, in all the resurrection-power and cf. Galatians, 6. 7, 8; Ephesians, 6. 6; Philippians, which He put forth in raising Jesus,' he that raised 3. 18, 19; 1 John, 3. 7, 8). up Christ from the dead-Observe the change of name SECOND: The Sonship of Believers - Their future from JESUS, as the historical Individual whom God Inheritance - The Intercession of the Spirit for them raised from the dead, to CHRIST, the same Individual, (v. 14-27). 14. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, considered as the Lord and Head of all His members, they &c. (* these are sons of God'). Hitherto the apostle or of redeemed Humanity. [ALFORD.) shall also has spoken of the Spirit simply as a power through quicken (rather, 'shall quicken even') your mortal bodies which believers mortify sin: now he speaks of Him as by (the true reading appears to be 'by reason of his a gracious, loving Guide, whose "leading”-enjoyed by Spirit that dwelleth in you-q.d.Your bodies indeed all in whom is the Spirit of God's dear Son - shows are not exempt from the death which sin brought in; that they also are "sons of God." 15. For, &c.- For but your spirits even now have in them an undying ye received not at the time of your conversion the life, and if the Spirit of Aim that raised up Jesus from spirit of bondage,' i.e., “The spirit ye received was not the dead dwell in you, even these bodies of yours, a spirit of bondage.' again Igendering] to fear-as under though they yield to the last enemy and the dust of the law which "worketh wrath" - q.d., 'Such was them return to the dust as it was, shall yet experience your condition before ye believed, living in legal bondthe same resurrection as that of their living Head, in age, haunted with incessant forebodings under a sense virtue of the indwelling of the same Spirit in you that of unpardoned sin. But it was not to perpetuate quickened Him.' 12, 13. Therefore, brethren, we are

that wretched state that ye received the Spirit. but ye debtors, not to the flesh, to live after the flesh - q.d., have received 'ye received') the Spirit of adoption, whereby * Once we were sold under sin ch. 7. 14; but now that (rather, 'wherein') we cry, Abba, Father. The word we have been set free from that hard master, and be "cry" is emphatic, expressing the spontaneousness, the come servants to Righteousness (ch. 6. 92), we owe | strength, and the exuberance of the filial emotions. nothing to the flesh, we disown its unrighteous claims In Galatians, 4, 6, this cry is said to proceed from the and are deaf to its imperious demands.' Glorious Spirit in us, drawing forth the final exclamation in sentiment! For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die in our hearts: Here, it is said to proceed from our ouon the sense of ch. 6. 21); but if ye through the Spirit do hearts under the vitalizing energy of the Spirit, as mortify the deeds of the body (see on ch. 7. 23). ye shall the very element of the new life in believers (cf. live din tbe sense of ch. 6. 29). The apostle is not satis. Matthew, 10. 19, 20; and see on v. 4. “Abba" is the fied with assuring them that they are under no obliga. Syro-Chaldaic word for "Father;" and the Greek word tions to the flesh, to hearken to its suggestions, with for that is added, not surely to tell the reader that out reminding them where it will end if they do: and both mean the same thing, but for the same reason he uses the word "mortify" (put to death) as a kind which drew both words from the lips of Christ Himself of play upon the word “die" just before-9.d., 'If ye during his agony in the garden (Mark, 14. 36). He. do not kill sin, it will kill you. But he tempers this doubtless, loved to utter his father's name in both by the bright alternative, that if they do, throngh the the accustomed forms; beginning with His cherished Spirit, mortify the deeds of the body, such a course mother tongue, and adding that of the learned. In will infallibly terminate in "life" everlasting. And this view the use of both words here has a charmins this leads the apostle into a new line of thought, open- simplicity and warmth. 16. The Spirit itseli-It should ing into his final subject, the "glory" awaiting the be * Himself' (see on v. 26). beareth witness with our justified believer.-Note (1. There can be no safety, no apirit, that we are the children are children') of God holiness, no happiness, to those who are out of Christ: The testimony of our own spirit is borne in that cry of No safety, because all such are under the condemnation conscious sonship. Abba, Father:" but we are not of the law (v. 1); no holiness, because such only as are therein alone; for the Holy Ghost within us, yes, even united to Christ have the Spirit of Christ (v. 9; no in that very cry which it is His to draw forth, sets His happiness, because to be "carnally minded is death" own distinct seal to our's; and thus, " in the mouth of (v. 6).' [HODGE.) 2.) The sanctification of believers, two witnesses" the thing is established. The apostle as it has its whole foundation in the atoning death, had before called us "sons of God," referring to our so it has its living spring in the indwelling of the adoption: here the word changes to "children." refer Spirit of Christ (V. 2-4), (3. "The bent of the thoughts, ring to our nere birth. The one expresses the dignity affections, and pursuits, is the only decisive test or to which we are admitted: the other the new life which character (v. 6. HODGE. (4.) No human refinement we receive. The latter is more suitable here: because of the carnal mind will make it spiritual, or com- a son by adoption might not be heir of the property. pensate for the absence of spirituality. “Flesh" and whereas a son by birth certainly is, and this is what the ** spirit" are essentially and unchangeably opposed; apostle is now coming to. 17. And if children, then por can the carnal mind, as such, be brought into real l heire (beirs alsoos: heirs of God-of our Father's king

The Future Inheritance of Believers

ROMANS, VIII. The Intercession of the Spirit for them. dom, and joint-beirs with Christ-as the "First-born when the other comes. 25. But if we hope for that wa anong many brethren" (v. 29), and as "Heir of all see not, then do) we with patience wait for it-i.e., then, Ibinns if so be that we suffer (* provided we be suffer patient waiting for it is our fitting attitude. 26, 27. ing with Him') that we may be also glorified together Likewise also the Spirit, &c.-or, 'But after the like zith Him). This necessity of conformity to Christ in manner doth the Spirit also help,' &c. our infirmities suffering in order to participation in His glory, is taught rather (according to the true reading), *our infirmi.

like by Christ Himself and by His apostles (John, 12. ty;' not merely the one infirmity here specified, but 24-26: Matthew, 18. 24, 25; 2 Timothy, 2. 12). 18. For I the general weakness of the spiritual life in its present raczoa that the sufferings of this present time are not state, of which one example is here given, for we know werthy to be coinpared with the glory which shall be re- not what we should pray for as we ought-It is not the Tealed in us-q.d., True, we must suffer with Christ proper matter of prayer that believers are at so much if we would partake of His glory; but what of that? loss about, for the fullest directions are given them on For if such sufferings are set over against the com this head; but to ask for the right things "as they ing glory, they sink into insignificance.' 19-22. For, ought" is the difficulty. This arises partly from the

- The apostle, fired with the thought of the future dimness of our spiritual vision in the present veiled glors of the saints, pours forth this splendid passage, state, while we have to "walk by faith, not by sight" in which he represents the whole creation groaning (see on 1 Corinthians, 13. 9; and on 2 Corinthians, 6. 7). under its present degradation, and looking and long- and the large admixture of the ideas and feelings which ing for the revelation of this glory as the end and con- spring from the fleeting objects of sense that there is in ammation of its existence.' (HODGE.) the earnest the very best views and affections of our renewed expectation (cf. Philippians, 1.20) of the creature (rather, nature; partly also from the necessary imperfection of 'the creation') waiteth for the manifestation ('is waiting all human language as a vehicle for expressing the for the revelation') of the sons of God-1.e., “for the re- subtle spiritual feelings of the heart. In these circumdemption of their bodies from the grave (v. 23), which stances, how can it be but that much uncertainty will reveal their sonship, now hidden (cf. Luke, 20. 36; should surround all our spiritual exercises, and that Revelation, 21,7). For the creature ('the creation') was in our nearest approaches and in the freest outpourpade subject to vanity, not willingly - .e., through no lings of our hearts to our Father in heaven, doubts natural principle of decay. The apostle, personifying should spring up within us whether our frame of entation, represents it as only submitting to the mind in such exercises is altogether befitting and wellvanity with which it was smitten, on man's account, I pleasing to God? Nor do these anxieties subside, but in obedience to that superior power which had mys- / rather deepen, with the depth and ripeness of our teriously linked its destinies with man's. And so he spiritual experience. But the Spirit itself - rather, adds - but by reason of him who hath subjected the 'Himself.' (See end of v. 27. maketh intercession for us came who subjected it') in hope; because (or, 'in hope with groanings which cannot be uttered (i.e., which canthat the creature itself also (even the creation itself")not be expressed in articulate language Sublime and shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption (its affecting ideas, for which we are indebted to this pasbondage to the principle of decay) into the glorious sage alone! q.d., 'As we struggle to express in articuliberty (rather, the liberty of the glory') of the children late language the desires of our hearts, and find that of God - i.e., the creation itselt shall, in a glorious our deepest emotions are the most inexpressible, we sense, be delivered into that freedom from debility and "groan" under this felt inability. But not in vain are decay in which the children of God, when raised up in these groanings. For “the Spirit Himself" is in them, glory.shall expatriate: into this freedom from corrupti- giving to the emotions which Himself has kindled the bility the creation itself shall, in a glorious sense, only language of which they are capable;so that though be delivered. 80 CALVIN, BEZA, BENGEL, THOLUCK, | on our part they are the fruit of impotence to utter OLAHAUSEX, DE WETTE, MEYER, PHILIPPI, HODGE, what we feel, they are at the same time the intercession ALFORD, &c.) f for man's sake alone the earth was of the Spirit Himself in our behalf.' And (rather, ‘But,' cursed, it cannot surprise us that it should share in inarticulate though these groanings be, he that searcheth his recovery. And if so, to represent it as sympathis- the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because int with man's miseries, and as looking forward to he (the Spirit) maketh intercession for the saints accordhis complete redemption as the period of its own ing to the will of God--As the Searcher of hearts, He emancipation from its present sin-blighted condition, is watches the surging emotions of them in prayer, and

beautiful thought, and in harmony with the general knows perfectly what the Spirit means by the groanings teaching of Scripture on the subject. See on 2 Peter, which He draws forth within us, because that blessed 3. 13.) 23. And not only they), but ourselves also (or, Intercessor pleads by them only for what God Himself * not only (80), but even we ourselves i.e., besides designs to bestow,--Note (1.) Are believers" led by the the inanimate creation), which have the first-fruits of Spirit of God" (v. 14)? How careful then should they the Spirit-or, the Spirit as the first fruits' of our be not to" grieve the Holy Spirit of God" (Ephesians. foll redemption (cf. 2 Corinthians, 1. 22) moulding the '4. 30,! Cr, Psalm 32. 8,9: "I will ... guide thee with heart to a heavenly frame and attempering it to its mine eye. Be not (then) as the horse, or as the mule." future element. even we ourselves-though we have. &c. (2.) “The spirit of bondage" to which many Protesso much of heaven already within us. groan within , tants are "all their lifetime subject," and the doubtourselves --- under this "body of sin and death," and some faith which the Popish Church systematically under the manifold "vanity and vexation of spirit" inculcates, are both rebuked here, being in direct and that are written apon every object and every pursuit painful contrast to that "spirit of adoption," and that and every enjoyment under the sun. waiting for the witness of the Spirit, along with our own spirit, to the (manifestation of our) adoption, [to wit] the redemption fact of our sonship, which it is here said the children of our body from the grave: 'not (be it observed) the of God, as such, enjoy (v. 15, 16). (3.) As suffering with deliverance of ourselves from the body, but the re- Christ is the ordained preparation for participating in demption of tbe body itself from the grave.' (BENGEL) this glory, so the insignificance of the one as com24. For we are saved by hope — rather, For in hope we pared with the other cannot fail to lighten the sense of are saved! e., it is more a salvation in hope than as it, however bitter and protracted (v. 17, 18). (4.) It yet in actual possession. but hope that is seen is not hope cannot but swell the heart of every intelligent Chris--for the very meaning of hope is, the expectation that tian to think that if external nature has been my something now future will become present. for what a rionsly affected for evil by the fall of man, it only man seeth, wby doik he get hode for? - the latter ending awaits his completed recovery, at the resurrection,

Triumphant Summary of


the whole Argument. experience a corresponding emancipation from its or that He should not make all things, dark as well as blighted condition into undecaying life and unfading light, crooked as well as straight, to co-operate to the beauty (v. 19-23). (6.) It is not when believers, through furtherance and final completion of His high design." sinful " quenching of the Spirit," have the fewest and 29. Por (as touching this "calling according to his purfaintest glimpses of heaven, that they sigh most fer pose") whum he did foreknow he also did predestinate vently to be there; but, on the contrary, when through (foreordain-In what sense are we to take the word the unobstructed working of the Spirit in their hearts, "foreknow here! Those who He foreknew would re"the first-fruits of the glory to be revealed are most pent and believe,' say Pelagians of every age and every largely and frequently tasted, then, and just for that hue. But this is to thrust into the text what is reason, is it that they " groan within themselves" for | contrary to the whole spirit, and even letter, of the full redemption (v. 23). For thus they reason: If such apostle's teaching (see ch. 9. 11: 2 Timothy, 1.0). In ch. be the drops, what will the ocean be! If thus "to 11. 2, and Psalm 1. 6, God's "knowledge" of His peosee through a glass darkly be so very sweet, what ple cannot be restricted to a mere foresight of future will it be to "see face to face ?" If when "my Be- events, or acquaintance with what is passing here loved stands behind our wall, looking forth at the below. Does " whom He did foreknow," then, mean windows, showing Himself through the lattice 'whom He foreordained! Searcely, because both (Canticles, 2. 9-that thin veil which parts the seen foreknowledge and foreordination' are here menfrom the unseen - if He is even thus to me " Fairer tioned, and the one as the cause of the other. It is than the children of men," what shall He be when He difficult indeed for our limited minds to distinguisha stands confessed before my undazzled vision the Only-them as states of the Divine Mind towards men: begotten of the Father in my own nature, and I shall especially since in Acts, 2. 23, "the counsel" is put be like Him, for I shall see Him as He is! 6.) "The before "the foreknowledge of God," while in 1 Peter, patience of hope" (1 Thessalonians, 1. 3) is the fitting 1. 2, "election" is said to be "according to the foreattitude for those who with the joyful consciousness knowledge of God." But probably God's foreknowthat they are already "saved" (2 Timothy, 1. 9; Titus, ledge of His own people means His peculiar, gracious, 3. 6. have yet the painful consciousness that they are complacency in them, while His "predestinating or saved but in part; or, "that being justified by his {"foreordaining" them signibes His fixed purpose, flowgrace, they are made in the present state) heirs acing from this, to "save them and call them with an cording to the hope (only) of eternal life," Titus, 3. 7 holy calling" (2 Timothy, l. 9). to be conformed to the (v. 24, 25). (7.) As prayer is the breath of the spiritual image of his Son-i.e.,to be His sons after the pattern, life, and the believer's only effectual relief under the model, or image of His Sonship in our nature. that

infirmity which attaches to his whole condition here he might be the first-born among many brethren-"The below, how cheering is it to be assured that the blessed First-born," the Son by nature; His "many brethren, Spirit, cognizant of it all, comes in aid of it all; and in sons by adoption: He, in the Aumanity of the Only. particular, that when believers, unable to articulate begotten of the Father, bearing our sins on the ac their case before God, can at times do nothing but lie cursed tree; they in that of mere men ready to perish by

groaning" before the Lord, these inarticulate groan reason of sin, but redeemed by His blood from conings are the Spirit's own vehicle for conveying into demnation and wrath, and transforined into His like* the ears of the Lord of Sabaoth" their whole case: ness: He "the First-born from the dead," they" that and come up before the Hearer of prayer as the Spirit's sleep in Jesus," to be in due time “brought with Him:* own intercession in their behalf, and that they are "The First-born," now "crowned with glory and recognised by Him that sitteth on the Throne, as em honour:" His “many brethren." "when He shall ap. bodying only what His own"will" determined before topear, to be like Him, for they shall see Him as He is. bestow upon them (v. 26, 27) (8.) What a view do 30. Moreover-'And,' or .Now; explanatory of the fore. these two verses (v. 26, 27) give of the relations subsist- going verse-q.d., In" predestinating us to be coning between the Divine Persons in the economny of re- formed to the image of His Son" in final glory, He demption, and the harmony of their respective opera-settled all the successive steps of it. Thus'-whom tions in the case of each of the redeemed!

he did predestinate, them he also called - The word THIRD: Triumphant Summary of the whole Argu-"called" (as Hodge and others truly observe is never ment (v. 28-39). 28. And - or. Moreover,' or 'Now;' in the Epistles of the New Testament applied to those noting a transition to a new particular, we know, &c. who have only the outward invitation of the Gospel _The order in the original is more striking: “ We as in Matthew, 20. 16; 22. 14). It always means inknow that to them that love God cf. 1 Corinthians, ternally, effectually, savingly called.' It denotes the 2. 9: Ephesians, 6. 24: James, 1. 12; 2. 6) all things work first great step in personal salvation, and answers to together for good, (even) to them who are the called "conversion." Only the word conversion expresses the (rather, who are called") according to his (eternal) change of character which then takes place, whereas purpose." Glorious assurance! And this, it seems, this calling" expresses the divine authorship of the was a household word,' a "known" thing, among change, and the sovereign power by which we are sum. believers. This working of all things for good is done moped, Matthew-like, Zaccheus-like, out of our oid. quite naturally to" them that love God;" because such wretched, perishing condition, into a new, safe, blessed souls, persuaded that He who gave His own Son for life. and whom he (thus) called, them be also justified them, cannot but mean them well in all His procedure, (brought into the definite state of reconciliation already learn thus to take in good part whatever He sends them, so fully described), aad whom he justified, them he also however trying to flesh and blood: and to them who glorified - (brought to final glory, v. 17, 18). Noble are the called, according to "His purpose," all things climax, and so rhythmically expressed! And all this do in the same intelligible way, “work together for is viewed as past; because, starting from the past de. good;" for, even when "He hath His way in the whirl I cree of "predestination to be conformed to the image wind," they see "His chariot paved with love" (Can- of God's Son" of which the other steps are but the ticles. 3. 10). And knowing that it is in pursuance of successive unfoldings - all is beheld as one entire, an eternal "purpose of love that they have been eternally coinpleted salvation. 31. What shall we then "called into the fellowship of His Son Jesus Christ" (1 say to these things ?-q.d., 'We can no further go, think. Corinthians, 1.9), they naturally say within themselves, wish,' (BENGEL.] This whole passage, to 2. 34, and

It cannot be that He "of whom, and through Whom, even to the end of the chapter, strikes all thoughtful and to Whom are all things," should suffer that pur- interpreters and readers, as transcending almost every "pose to be thwarted by any thing really adverse to us, I thing in language, whileOlshausen notices the 'profound

Triumphant Summary of


the whole Argument. and colossal character of the thought. If God [be] | participation in the royal power and glory (Matthew. for us. who can be) against us - If God be resolved | 20. 21). The classical writings contain similar allusions. and engaged to bring us through, all mur enemies must Accordingly Christ's sitting at the right hand of God be His; and "Who would set the briers and thorns-predicted in Psalm 110. 1, and historically referred winst Him in battle? He would go through them, to in Mark, 16, 19; Acts, 2. 33; 7. 56; Ephesians, 1. 20; He would burn thein together" (Isaiah, 27. 4). What Colossians, 3. 1; 1 Peter, 3. 22; Revelation, 3. 21-signitrong consolation is here! Nay, but the great Pledgefies the glory of the exalted Son of man, and the poroer of all has already been given; for, 32. Herather, 'He in the government of the world in which He participates. spely. It is a pity to lose the emphatic particle of | Hence it is called " sitting on the right hand of Power the original.) that spared not—'withheld not,' 'kept Matthew, 26. 64), and "sitting on the right hand of not back. This expressive phrase, as well as the whole the Majesty on high" (Hebrews, 1. 3). [PHILIPPI.) thought, is suggested by Genesis, 22. 12,where Jehovah's who also maketh intercession for us-using all His boundtouching commendation of Abraham's conduct regard- less interest with God in our behalf. This is the top ins his son Isaac seems designed to furnish something of the climax. "His Session at God's right hand denotes like a glimpse into the spirit of His own act in sur- | His power to save us; His Intercession, His will to do Tendering His own Son. “Take now said the Lord to it,' (BENGEL] But how are we to conceive of this Abraham) thy son, thine only, whom thou lovest, and Intercession? Not certainly as of one pleading 'on ... offer him for a burnt-offering" (Genesis, 22. 2); and bended knees and with outstretched arms,'to use the only when Abraham had all but performed that expressive language of Calvin. But yet, neither is it loftiest act of self-sacrifice, the Lord interposed, say merely a figurative intimation that the power of ing, "Now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou Christ's redemption is continually operative (THOHAST NOT WITHHELD THY RON, THINE ONLY SON, from LUCK), or merely to show the fervour and vehemence of me." In the light of this incident, then, and of this His love for us, (CHRYSOSTOM.] It cannot be taken language, our apostle can mean to convey nothing less to mean less than this, that the glorified Redeemer, than this, that in "not sparing His own Son, but de conscious of His claims, expressly signifies His will livering Him up." or surrendering Him, God exercised, that the efficacy of His death should be made good to in His Paternal character, a mysterious act of Sex | the uttermost, and signifies it in some such royal style sacrifice, which, thongb involving none of the pain and as we find Him employing in that wonderful InterDone of the loss which are inseparable from the very | cessory Prayer which He spoke as from within the veil idea of self-sacrifice on our part, was not less real, but, (see on John, 17. 11, 12): "Father, I WILL that they also on the contrary, as far transcended any such acts of whom thou hast given me be with me where I am" (see ours as His nature is above the creature's. But this on John, 17, 24). But in what form this will is exis inconceivable if Christ be not God's "own (or pro pressed is as undiscoverable as itis unimportant. 35, per Son." partaker of His very nature, as really as 1 36. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ ? This Isaac was of his father Abraham's. In that sense, | does not mean 'our love to Christ,' as if, Who shall certainly, the Jews charged our Lord with making hinder us from loving Christ? but Christ's love to Himself equal with God" (see on John, 5. 18), which us,' as is clear from the closing words of the chapter, He in reply forthwith proceeded, not to disown, but to which refer to the same subject. Nor would the other Illustrate and confirm. Understand Christ's Sonship | sense harmonize with the scope of the chanter. wh thus, and the language of Scripture regarding it is is to exhibit the ample ground of the believer's conintelligible and harmonious; but take it to be anfidence in Christ, 'It is no ground of confidence to artificial relationship, ascribed to Him in virtue either assert, or even to feel, that we will never forsake of His miraculous birth, or His resurrection from the Christ: but it is the strongest ground of assurance to desd, or the grandeur of His works, or all of these be convinced that His love will never change.' together and the passages which speak of it neither (HODGE.) shall tribulation ...-9.d., 'None of these, explain of themselves nor harmonize with each other. nor all together, bow terrible soever to the flesh, are delivered him up-pot to death merely (as many take it). I tokens of God's wrath, or the least ground for doubt for that is too narrow an idea here but surrendered of His love.' From whom could such a question come Him in the most comprehensive sense: cf. John, 3. better than from one who had himself for Christ's 16, “God so loved the world that He GAVE His only- sake endured so much? (See 2 Corinthians, 11, 11-33; begotten Son." for as all-i.e., for all believers alike; 1 Corinthians, 4. 10-13.) The apostle says not (remarks as nearly every good interpreter admits must be the Calvin nobly) What, but “Who," just as if all meaning here. how shall he not-how can we conceive creatures and all afflictions were so many gladiators that fle should not. with him also-rather, also with taking arms against the Christians. [THOLUCK.) As Him. The word "also" is often so placed in our it is written, For thy sake, &c.-Psalm 14. 22-quoted as version as to obscure the sense: see on Hebrews, 12, 1.) descriptive of what God's faithful people may expect freely give us all things !-all other gifts being not only from their enemies at any period when their hatred of immeasurably less than this Gift of gifts, but virtually | righteousness is roused, and there is nothing to reincluded in it. 33, 34. Who shall lay any thing to the strain it (see Galatians, 4. 29). 37. Nay, in all these charge of (or, 'bring any charge against) God's elect- things we are more than conquerors, through him that the first place in this Epistle where believers are styled loved us-not 'We are so far from being conquered by " the elect." In what sense this is meant will appear them, that they do us much good' (HODGE); for though in next chapter yea rather, that is risen again-to make I this be true, the word means simply. We are pre-emigood the purposes of His death. Here, as in some nently conquerors.' See on ch. 6. 20. And so far are other cases, the apostle delightfully corrects himself they from "separating us from Christ's love," that it see Galatians, 4. 9; and on ch, 1, 12); not meaning that is just "through Him that loved us" that we are the resurrection of Christ was of more saving value victorious over them. 38, 39, For I am persuaded, that than His death, but that having "put away sin by the neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor sacrifice of Himself"--which though precious to us was i powers--whether good or bad. But as the bad are not to Him of unmingled bitterness-it was incomparably I called "angels," or "principalities," or "powers," save ipare delightful to think that He was again alive, and with some addition to show that such are meant living to see to the efficacy of His death in our behalf. | (Matthew, 25. 41; Colossians, 2. 16; Ephesians, 6. 12: who is even (also") at the right hand of God -The right 2 Peter, 2. 4-except perhaps 1 Corinthians, 6. 3), pro. hand of the king was anciently the seat of honour (cf. | bably the good are meant here, but nerely as the same 1 Samuel. 20. 95:1 Kings, 2. 19, Psalm 46.9), and denoted I apostle supposes an angel from heaven to preach a false

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