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The Bearing of Justification by


Grace upon a Holy Lir. Scriptures," should "descend into the lower parts of over Him no more. Por in that he died, he died onto the earth" (Ephesians, 4. 9). As this was the last and (i.e., in obedience to the claims of) death once (for all): lowest step of His humiliation, so it was the honour but in that he liveth, he liveth anto (in obedience to the uble dissolution of His last link of connection with claims of God-There never, indeed, was a time when that life which He laid down for us; and we, in being Christ did not "live unto God." But in the days of His ** buried with Him by our baptism into his death," flesh he did so, under the continual burden of sin have by this public act severed our last link of con- "laid on Him" (Isaiah, 63. 6; 2 Corinthians, 5. 21): nection with that whole sinful condition and life which whereas, now that He has " put away sin by the sacri(Christ brought to an end in His death, that like as fice of Himself," He "liveth unto God," the acquitted Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father and accepted Surety, unchallenged and unclouded by

he., by such & forth-putting of the Father's power as the claims of sin. Likewise (even as your Lord Himwas the effulgence of His whole glory. even so we also sell reckon ye yourselves to be deal indeed (* dead on the (as risen to a new life with Him) should walk in new-one hand") unto sin, but alive unto God throngh Jesus ness of life. But what is that "newness Surely ir Christ-The words, "our Lord," at the close of this our old life, now dead and buried with Christ, was verse, are wanting in the best MSS.)-Note (1.) 'Antiwholly sinful, the nero, to which we rise with the rixen nomianism is not only an error; it is a falsehood and Saviour, must be altogether a holy life; so that every a slander.' (HODGE.) That "we should continue in time we go back to "those things whereof we are now | sin that grace may abound," not only is never the ashamed" (0.21), we belie our resurrection with Christ I deliberate sentiment of any real believer in the docto newness of life, and "forget that we have been trine of Grace, but is abhorrent to every Christian purged from our old sins" 2 Peter, 1. 9). Whether the mind, as a monstrous abuse of the most glorious of mode of baptism by immersion be alluded to in this all truths (v. 1). (2.) As the death of Christ is not only verse, as a kind of symbolical burial and resurrection, the expiation of guilt, but the death of sin itself in all does not seem to us of much consequence. Many who are vitally united to Him; so the resurrection of interpreters think it is, and it may be so. But as it Christ is the resurrection of believers, not only to is not clear that baptism in apostolic times was er acceptance with God, but to newness of life (v. 2-11. clusively by immersion (see on Acts, 2, 41), so sprinkling (3.) In the light of these two truths, let all who name and washing are indifferently used in the New Testa- the name of Christ "examine themselves whether they ment to express the cleansing efficacy of the blood or be in the faith." Jesus. And just as the woman with the issue of Ver. 12-23. WHAT PRACTICAL USE BELIEVERS blood got virtue out of Christ by simply touching Him, SHOULD MAKE OF THEIR DEATH TO SIS AND LIFE TO so the essence of baptism seems to lie in the simple GOD THROUGH UNION TO THE CRUCIFIED SAVIOUE. cordact of the element with the body, symbolising | Not content with showing that his doctrine has no living contact with Christ crucified; the mode and tendency to relax the obligations to a holy life, the extent of suffusion being indifferent and variable with apostle here proceeds to enforce these obligations. climate and circumstances.) 5. For if we have been 12. Let not Sin therefore (as a Master) reign-The reader planted together-lit., 'have become formed together.' will observe that wherever in this section the words (The word is used here only.) in the likeness of his "Sin," "Obedience," "Righteousness,” “Uncleandeath, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection ness,* "Iniquity," are figuratively used, to represent a

1.d., 'Since Christ's death and resurrection are in- Master, they are here printed in capitals, to make this separable in their efficacy, union with Him in the one manifest to the eye, and so save explanation.) in your carries with it participation in the other, for privilege mortal body, that ye should obey it (sin in the lasts thereof: and for duty alike. The future tense is used of par "the lusts of the body." as the Greek makes evident. ticipation in His resurrection, because this is but The other reading, perhaps the true one, that ye partially realised in the present state. (See on ch. 5. should obey the lusts thereof,' comes to the same 19.) 6. 7. Knowing this, &c.-The apostle now grows thing.) The "body" is here viewed as the instrument more definite and vivid in expressing the sin-destroy- by which all the sins of the heart become facts of the ing efficacy of our union with the crucified Saviour. outward life, and as itself the seat of the lower appethat our old naj-q.d., 'our old selves, i.e., 'all that tites; and it is called "our mortal body," probably ere were in our old unregenerate condition, before I to remind us how unsuitable is this reign of sin in union with Christ' (cf. Colossians, 3, 9, 10; Ephesians, 4. those who are "alive from the dead." But the reign 22-94; Galatians, 2. 20; 6. 24; 6. 14). is (rather, 'was') here meant is the unchecked dominion of sin tcithin crucified with him, in order) that the body of sin-not a us. Its outward acts are next referred to. 13. Neither figure for the mass of sin, nor the material body,' yield ye your members instruments of unrighteousness considered as the seat of sin, which it is not, but as we unto Sin: but yield yourselves this is the great surrender judge) for sin as it dwells in us in our present em anto God as those that are alive from the dead, and as the bodied state, under the law of the fall. might be fruit of this) your members (till now prostituted to sin destroyed (in Christ's death). (to the end) that henceforth instruments of righteousness unto God - But what if we should not serve (or, 'be in bondage to') sin. For he indwelling sin should prove too strong for us! The that is dead (rather, hath died") is freed (hath been reply is : But it will not. 14. For Sin shall not have set fres') from sin-lit., 'justified,' acquitted,' got his dominion over you as the slaves of a tyrant lord : for discharge, from sin.' As death dissolves all claims, so ye are not under the law, but under grace-The force of the whole claim of sin, not only to "reign unto death, this glorious assurance can only be felt by observing but to keep its victims in sinful bondage, have been the grounds on which it rests. To be “under the law discharged once for all, by the believer's penal death is, first, to be under its claim to entire obedience; and in the death of Christ; so that he is no longer a so, next, under its curse for the breach of these. And "debtor to the flesh to live after the flesh" (ch. 8. 12). as all power to obey can reach the sinner only through 8. Now if we be dead (if we died") with Christ, &c.- Grace, of which the law knows nothing, it follows that See on . 6. -11. Christ being raised from the dead dieth to be "under the law is, finally, to be shut up under no more: death hath no more dominion over him -Though an inability to keep it, and consequently to be the holyChrist's death was in the most absolute sense a volun less slave of sin. On the other hand, to be "ander tary act (James, 10. 17, 18; Acts, 2. 24), that voluntary grace," is to be under the glorious canopy and saving surrender gare death such rightful “ dominion over effects of that "grace which reigns through righteousHim" as dissolved its dominion over us. But this mess unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord" once past, "death hath," even in that sense, "dominion (see on ch, 6. 20, 21). The curse of the law bas been

The Use Believers should make of


their Death to Sin and Life to God. completely lifted from off them; they are made "the by which those who are the most helplessly "sold richteousness of God in Him;" and they are "alive | under sin" are often stung to the quick; but that unto God through Jesus Christ." So that, as when | ingenuous feeling of self-reproach, which pierces and they were "under the law." Sin could not but have weighs down the children of God, as they think of the dominion over them, so now that they are "under dishonour which their past life did to His name, the grace, Sin cannot but be subdued under them. If ingratitude it displayed, the violence it did to their before, Sin resistlessly triumphed, Grace will now be own conscience, its deadening and degrading effects, more than conqueror. 15, 16. What then! ... Know and the death-"the second death"-to which it was ge not it is a dictate of common sense), that to whom ye | dragging them down, when mere Grace arrested them. rield yourselves servants to obey (with the view of obey (On the sense of "death" here, see on ch, 6. 12-21, ing him), his servants ye are to whom ye obey (to whom note 3, and on u. 16: see also Revelation, 21. 8.-The ye yield that obedience); whether of Sin unto death- change proposed in the pointing of this verse: What

issning in death,' in the awful sense of ch. 8. 6, fruit had ye then things whereof ye are now ashamed' as the sinner's final condition. or of Obedience unto | [LUTHER, THOLUCK, DE WETTE, PHILIPPI, ALFORD, righteousness-i.e., obedience resulting in a righteous | &c.]. seems unnatural and uncalled for. The ordinary character, as the enduring condition of the servant of pointing has at least powerful support. (CHRYSOSpew Obedience (1 John, 2. 17; John, 8. 34; 2 Peter, 2. 10; 1 TOM, CALVIN, BEZA, GROTIUS, BENGEL, STUART, Matthew. 6. 24.) 17. But God be thanked, that ye were | FRITZSCHE. 22. But now-as if to get away from the servants of Sia - i.e., that this is a state of things such a subject were unspeakable relief-being made free Low past and gone. but ye have obeyed from the heart from Sin, and become servants to God in the absolute that form of doctrine which was delivered you - rather sense intended throughout all this passage), ye have

Margin), whereunto ye were delivered,' or cast, as in (not 'ought to have,' but 'do have,' in point of fact) à mould. The idea is that the teaching to which your fruit unto holiness – sanctification,' as in v. 19; they had heartily yielded themselves had stamped its meaning that permanently holy state and character own impress upon them. 18. Being then-'And being| which is built up out of the whole "fruits of righteousit is the continuation and conclusion of the preceding ness," which believers successively bring forth. They sentence: pot & new one. made free from Sin, ye be- / "have their frnit unto this, i.e., all going towards came the servants of servants to') Righteousness. The this blessed result. and the end everlasting life-as case is one of emancipation from entire servitude to the final state of the justified believer: the beatifio ope Master to entire servitude to another, whose pro- experience not only of complete exemption from the perty we are (see on ch. 1.1. There is no middle state | fall with all its effects, but of the perfect life of of personal independence; for which we were never | acceptance with God, and conformity to His likeness, rade, and to which we have no claim. When we of unveiled access to Him, and ineffable fellowship wonld not that God should reign over us, we were in with Him through all duration. 23. For the wages of richteons judgment "sold under Sin;" now being sin is death; bnt the gift of God is eternal life through through grace "made free from Sin," it is only to be- (in') Jesus Christ our Lord-This concluding versecorne servants to Righteousness," which is our true as pointed as it is brief-contains the marrow, the most freedom. 19. I speak after the manner of men (descend- fine gold, of the Gospel. As the labourer is worthy of ing, for illustration, to the level of common affairs) | his hire, and feels it to be his due-his own of rightbecause of the infirmity of your flesh (the weakness of so is death the due of sin, the wages the sinner has your spiritual apprehension): for as ye have yielded | well wrought for, his own. But "eternal life" is in no - ye yielded,' the thing being viewed as now past. sense or degree the wages of our righteousness; we four members servants to Uncleanness and to Inignity do nothing whatever to earn or become entitled to it, urto the practice of) iniquity; even so now yield your and never can: it is therefore, in the most absolute members servants to Righteousness unto holiness-rather, sense, “TUE GIFT OF GOD. Grace reigns in the * unto the attainment of) sanctification,' as the same bestowal of it in every case, and that "in Jesus Christ word is rendered in 2 Thessalonians, 2. 13; 1 Corinth our Lord," as the righteous Channel of it. In view of fans, 1. 20; 1 Peter, 1. 2:-q.d., 'Looking back upon the this, who that hath tasted that the Lord is gracious beartiness with which ye served Sin, and the lengths can refrain from saying, “Unto Him that loved us, ye went to be stimulated now to like zeal and like and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and exuberance in the service of a better Master.' 20. hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Por when se were the servants were servants') of Sin, | Father, to Him be glory and dominion for ever and Je were free from (rather, 'in respect of') Righteousness ever. Amen!" (Revelation, 1. 6, 6.)--Note (1.) As the -Difficulties have been made about this clause where most effectual refutation of the oft-repeated calumny, Done exist. The import of it appears clearly to be this: that the doctrine of Salvation by grace encourages to - Since no Bervant can serve "two masters," much continue in sin, is the holy life of those who profess it, less where their interests come into deadly collision, I let such ever feel that the highest service they can and each demands the whole man, so, while ye were render to that Grace which is all their hope, is to in the service of Sin, ye were in no proper sense tho yield themselves unto God, as those that are alive Servants of Righteousness, and never did it one act or from the dead, and their members instruments of real service: whatever might be your conviction of the righteousness unto God" (v. 12, 13). By so doing they elaims of Righteousness, your real services were all will "put to silence the ignorance of foolish men," and always given to Sin: Thus had ye full proof of secure their own peace, carry out the end of their callthe nature and advantages of Sin's service. The ling, and give substantial glory to Him that loved them. searching question with which this is followed up. | (2.) The fundamental principle of Gospel-obedience is shows that this is the meaning. 21. What fruit had l as original as it is divinely rational : that we are set ye then (in those thiogs) whereof ye are now ashamed! free from the law in order to keep it, and are brought for the end of those things is death-What permanent graciously under servitude to the law in order to be adrantage, and what abiding satisfaction, have those free' (v. 14, 15, 18). So long as we know no principle of thinge yielded! The apostle answers his own question: obedience but the terrors of the law, which condemns 'Abiding satisfaction, did I ask? They have left only all the breakers of it, and knows nothing whatever of

sense of "shame." Permanent advantage! "The grace, either to pardon the guilty, or to purify the end of them is death."' By saying they were "novo stained, we are shut up under a moral impossibility ashamed." he makes it plain that he is not referring to of genuine and acceptable obedience: whereas when that disgust at themselves, and remorse of conscience | Grace lifts us out of this state, and through union to

Ont the side to

earth to record

Relation of Believers to


the Law and to Christ. & righteous Surety, brings us into a state of conscious observing that, like Jesus Himself, believers are here reconciliation and loving surrender of heart to a God | viewed as having a double life-the old sin-condemned of salvation, we immediately feel the glorious liberty to life, which they lay down with Christ, and the new be holy, and the assurance that "Sin shall not have life of acceptance and holiness to which they rise with dominion over us is as sweet to our renewed tastes their Surety and Head; and all the issues of this new and aspirations as the ground of it is felt to be firm, life, in Christian obedience, are regarded as the "fruit" ** because we are not under the Law, but under Grace." of this blessed union to the Risen One. How such (3.) As this most momentous of all transitions in the holy fruitfulness was impossible before our union to history of a man is wholly of God's free grace, the Christ is next declared. 5. For when we were in the change should never be thought, spoken, or written of, flesh-in our unregenerate state, as we came into the but with lively thanksgiving to Him who so loved us world. See on John, 3. 6; and ch, 8. 5-9. the motions(, 17). (4.) Christians, in the service of God, should passions' (Margin), affections as in Galatians, 5. emulate their former selves in the zeal and steadiness 24). or 'stirrings.' (REVISED VERSION.] of sins-s.€.. with which they served sin, and the length to which prompting to the commission of sins.' which were by they went in it (v. 19). (5.) To stimulate this holy the law-by occasion of the law, which fretted, irritated rivalry, let us often "look back to the rock whence our inward corruption by its prohibitions. See on . we were hewn, the hole of the pit whence we were 7-9. did work in our members-the members of the digged." in search of the enduring advantages and body, as the instruments by which these inward stir permanent satisfactions which the service of Sin rings find vent in action, and become facts of the life. yielded; and when we find to our "shame" only gall and See on ch, 6. 6. to bring forth fruit unto death-death wormwood, let us follow a godless life to its proper in the sense of ch. 6. 21. Thus hopeless is all holy "end," until, finding ourselves in the territories of fruit before union to Christ. 6. But now-See on the “ death," we are fain to hasten back to survey the same expression in ch. 6. 22, and cf. James, 1. 16. we service of Righteousness, tbat new Master of all are delivered from the law-The word is the same which, believers, and find Him leading us sweetly into abiding in ch. 6. 6, and elsewhere, is rendered "destroyed," and *holiness," and landing us at length in "everlasting is but another way of saying (as in v. 4 that "we were Life" (v. 20-22). (6.) Death and life are before all men slain to the law by the body of Christ" language which, who hear the Gospel: the one, the natural issue and though harsh to the ear, is designed and fitted to proper reward of sin; the other, the absolutely free impress upon the reader the violence of that death of *GIFT OF Gop' to sinners, "in Jesus Christ our Lord." the Cross, by which, as by & deadly wrench, we are And as the one is the conscious sense of the hopless “delivered from the law." that being dead wherein we loss of all blissful existence, so the other is the con- were held-It is now universally agreed that the true scious possession and enjoyment of all that consti- reading here is, 'being dead to that wherein we were tutes a rational creature's highest "life" for evermore held. The received reading has no authority what(v. 23). Ye that read or hear these words, “I call ever, and is inconsistent with the strain of the arguheaven and earth to record this day against you, that ment; for the death spoken of, as we have seen, is not I bave set before you life and death, blessing and the lac's, but our's, through union with the crucified cursing, therefore choose life, that both thou and thy | Saviour. that we should so as to, or so that we') seed may live!" (Deuteronomy, 30. 19.)

serve in newness of spirit (in the newness of the spirit). CHAPTER VII,

and not in the oldvess of the letter--not in onr old way Ver. 1-25. SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED. 1-6. Rela- of literal, mechanical obedience to the divine law, as a tion of believers to the Law and to Christ. Recurring to set of external rules of conduct, and without any the statement of ch. 6.14, that believers are "not under reference to the state of our hearts; but in that new the law but under grace," the apostle here shows horo way of spiritual obedience which, through union to this change is brought about, and what holy con- the risen Saviour, we have learned to render (cf. ch. sequences follow from it. 1. I speak to them that know 1 2. 29; 2 Corinthians, 3. 6). 7-25. False Inverences rethe law of Moses) - to whom, though not themselves garding the Law repelled. And first, e. 7-13, In the Jews (see on ch. 1. 13), the Old Testament was familiar. case of the UNREGENERATE, 7, 8. What ... then! 2. 3. if her husband be dead ('die', -So . 3. she be | Is the law sin! God forbid -.d., I have said that married-joined.' So v. 4. 4. Wherefore ... ye also are when we were in the flesh the law stirred our inward become dead (rather, 'were slain') to the law by the body corruption, and was thus the occasion of deadly fruit: of Christ-through His slain body. The apostle here Is then the law to blame for this? Far from us be such departs from his usual word "died," using the more a thought.' Nay-'On the contrary (as in ch. 8. 37; expressive phrase 'were slain,' to make it clear that 1 Corinthians, 12. 22; Greek). I had not known sin but he meant their being "crucified with Christ" (as ex- / by the law-It is important to fix what is meant by pressed in ch. 6. 3-6, and Galatians, 2. 20), that ye "sin" here. It certainly is not the general nature of should be married to another, even to him that is (was') sin' (ALFORD, &c.), though it be true that this is raised from the dead, (to the intent) that we shonld bring learned from the law; for such a sense will not suit forth fruit uuto God - It has been thought that the what is said of it in the following verses, where the apostle should here have said that 'the law died to us,' meaning is the same as here. The only meaning which not 'we to the law,' but that he purposely inverted suits all that is said of it in this place is 'the principis the figure, to avoid the harshness to Jewish ears of of sin in the heart of fallen man. The sense, then, the death of the law. (CHRYSOSTOM, CALVIN, HODGE, I is this: 'It was by means of the law that I came to PHILIPPI, &c. But this is to mistake the apostle's I know what a virulence and strength of sinful propen. design in employing this figure, which was merely to sily I had within me.' The existence of this it did not illustrate the general principle that 'death dissolves need the law to reveal to him; for even the heathens legat obligation,' It was essential to his argument that recognised and wrote of it. But the dreadful nature we, not the law, should be the dying party, since it is and desperate power of it the law alone discovered-in we that are "crucified with Christ," and not the law. the way now to be described, for I had not know lust, This death dissolves our marriage obligation to the except, &c. - Here the same Greek word is unfortulaw, leaving us at liberty to contract a new relation- nately rendered by three different English ones-"last;" to be joined to the Risen One, in order to spiritual" covet:" "concupiscence"-which obscures the mear.fruitfulness, to the glory of God. (BEZA, OLSHAUSEN, ing. By using the word "lust" only, in the wide sense MEYER, ALFORD, &c.] The confusion, then, is in the of all 'irregular desiru,' or every out-going of the heart expositors, not the text: and it has arisen from not I towards anything forbidden, the sense will best be

and death, blessia the Saviour.

Rastion of Believers to


the Law and to Christ. broueht out: thus, 'For I had not known lust, except but I am carnal-fleshly; see on v. 6, and as such, the law had said, Thou shalt not lust: But sin, taking incapable of yielding spiritual obedience. sold under phaving taken') occasion by the commandment (that sin-enslaved to it. The "I" here though of course one which forbids it) wrought in me all manner of not the regenerate, is neither the unregenerate, but Iusting. This gives a deeper view of the tenth com the sinful principle of the renewed man, as is exmandment than the mere words suggest. The apostlepressly stated in v. 18. 15, 16. For, &c.-better, 'For nawin it the prohibition not only of desire after cer that which I do I know not; q.d., In obeying the tain things there specified, but of "desire after every | impulses of my carnal nature I act the slave of another thing dicinely forbidden;' in other words, all 'lusting will than my own as a renewed man,' for, &c.-rather, or irregular desire.' It was this which " he had not 'for not what I would wish,''desire') that do I, but known bnt by the law." The law forbidding all such what I hate that I do. But if what I would not that I desire so stirred his corruption that it wrought in him do, I consent unto the law that it is good-the judg*all manner of lusting" -desire of every sort afterment of my inner man going along with the law. 17. what was forbidden. For without the law-i.e., Before Now then it is no more I (my reneuocd selt) that do it its extensive demands and prohibitions come to (*that work it') but sin which dwelleth in me--that prinoperate upon our corrupt nature. sin was (rather, 'is) ciple of sin that still has its abode in me. To explain dead-ie, the sinful principle of our nature lies so this and the following statements, as many do [even dormant, so torpid, that its virulence and power are BENGEL and THOLUCK), of the sins of unrenewed men anknown, and to our feeling it is as good as "dead." against their better convictions, is to do painful 9. Par I was alive without the law once-o.d., 'In the violence to the apostle's language, and to affirm of the days of my ignorance, when, in this sense, a stranger unregenerate what is untrue. That co-existence and to the law, I deemed myself a righteous man, and, as mutual hostility of “flesh" and "spirit" in the same such, entitled to life at the hand of God.' but when renewed man, which is so clearly taught in ch. 8. 4. tee commandment came-forbidding all irregular desire: &c., and Galatians, 6. 16, &c., is the true and only key for the apostle sees in this the spirit of the whole law, to the language of this and the following verses. It Flo revived- came to life') in its malignity and strength is hardly necessary to say that the apostle means not it unexpectedly revealed itself, as if sprung from the to disown the blame of yielding to his corruptions, by dead, and I died-saw myself, in the eye of a law saying "it is not he that does it, but sin that dwelleth never kept and not to be kept, a dead man.' 10, 11. in him." Early heretics thus abused bis language; And (thas the commandment, which was... (designed to but the whole strain of the passage shows that his sole give life (through the keeping of it) I found to be tunto object in thus expressing himself was to bring more death through breaking it). For sin (my sinful nature, vividly before his readers the conflict of two opposite taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me or principles, and how entirely. as a new man-honour

gerluced me') - drew me aside into the very thing! ing from his inmost soul the law of God-he convbich the commandment forbade. and by it slew me demned and renounced his corrupt nature, with its discovered me to myself to be a condemned and gone affections and lusts, its stirrings and its outgoings, root man (cf. 8. 9. "I died"). 13, 14. Wherefore (So that') and branch.) 18. For, &c.--better, 'For I know that Lue law is l'is indeed") good, and the commandment (that there dwelleth not in me, that is in my flesh, any good. one so often referred to, which forbids all lusting) for to will (* desire') is present with me; but to perform holy and inst, and good. Was then that which is good that which is good (the supplement "how," in our made (*Hath then that which is good become') death version, weakens the statement I find not -- Here, unto me! God forbid - q.d., 'Does the blame of my again, we have the double self of the renewed man: desth lie with the good law! Away with such & q.d., 'In me dwelleth no good, but this corrupt self is thought. Bat gin (became death unto me, to the end) not my true self; it is but sin dwelling in my real self, that it might appear sin that it might be seen in its as a renewed man.' 19-21. For, &c.-The conflict here true licht, working death in (rather, 'to') me by that graphically described between a self that 'desires' which is good, that sin by the commandment might be- to do good and a self that in spite of this does evil, come exceeding sinful - 'that its enormous turpitude cannot be the struggles between conscience and passion might stand out to view, through its turning God's in the unregenerate, because the description given of holy, fust, and good law into a provocative to the very this “desire to do good" in the verse immediately ching which it forbids.' So much for the law in rela- following, is such as cannot be ascribed, with the least ton to Wee unregenerate, of whom the apostle takes show of truth, to any but the renewed. 22. For I dehimself as the example: first, in his ignorant, self- light in the law of God after the inward man-9.d., 'from Katistied condition; next, under humbling discoveries the bottom of my heart. The word here rendered of his inability to keep the law, through inward con- / "delight" is indeed stronger than "consent" in v. 16: Lrariety to it; tinally, as self-condemned, and already, but both express a state of the mind and heart to which in law,& dead man. Some inquire to what period of the unregenerate man is a stranger. 23. But I see sis recorded history these circumstances relate. But another (it should be a different') law in my members bere is no reason to think they were wrought into such (see on v. 6), warring against the law of my mind, and onscious and explicit discovery at any period of his bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in listory before he met the Lord in the way." and my members-In this important verse, observe, first. bouch, * amidst the multitude of his thoughts within that the word "law" means an inward principle of iraduring his memorable three days' blindness action, good or evil, operating with the firedness and mmediately after that, such views of the law and of regularity of a law. The apostle found two such laws uimself would doubtless be tossed up and down till within him; the one "the law of sin in his members," hey took shape much as they are here described (see called (in Galatians, 5. 17, 24) “the flesh which lusteth 0 Acts. 9. 9): we regard this whole description of his against the spirit," "the flesh with the affections and award struggles and progress rather as the finished, lusts," i.e., the sinful principle in the regenerate; the

ut of all his past recollections and subsequent re-i other, "the law of the mind." or the holy principle of leetions on his unregenerate state, which he throws the renewed nature. Second, when the apostle says

to historical form only for greater vividness. But he "sees" the one of these principles “warring against" low tbe apostle proceeds to repel false inferences re- the other, and "bringing him into captivity" to itself, ording the law, secondly, o. 14-25, In the case of the he is not referring to any actual rebellion going on LEGENERATE; taking himself here also as the example. within him while he was writing, or to any captivity to 4. For we know that the law is spiritual-in its demands. I his own lusts then existing. He is simply describing Relation of Believers to


the Law and to Christ. the two conflicting principles, and pointing out what ful inconsistencies, and so to triumph over all that it was the inherent property of each to aim at bringing threatens to destroy those for whom Christ died, as to about. Third, When the apostle describes himself as bring them safe over the tempestuous seas of this life "brought into captivity by the triumph of the sinful into the haven of eternal rest-is attended with yet principle of his nature, he clearly speaks in the person more heart-affecting wonder, draws forth deeper of & renewed man. Men do not feel themselves to thankfulness, and issues in more exalted adoration of be in captivity in the territories of their own sovereign, Him whose work Salvation is from first to last (v. 24. and associated with their own friends, breathing a 25). (4.) It is sad when such topics as these are handled congenial atmosphere, and acting quite spontaneously. as mere questions of biblical interpretation, or systeBut here the apostle describes himself, when drawn matic theology. Our great apostle could not treat of under the power of his sinful nature, as forcibly seized them apart from personal experience, of which the and reluctantly dragged to his enemy's camp, from facts of his own life and the feelings of his own soul which he would gladly make his escape. This ought furnished him with illustrations as lively as they were to settle the question, whether he is here speaking as apposite. When one is unable to go far into the ina regenerate man or the reverse, 24. O wretched man vestigation of indwelling sin, without breaking out that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body of this into an "O wretched man that I am !" and cannot death 1-The apostle speaks of the "body" here with enter on the way of relief without exclaiming, "I thank reference to "the law of sin" which he had said was God through Jesus Christ our Lord," he will find his "in his members," but merely as the instrument by meditations rich in fruit to his own soul, and may which the sin of the heart finds vent in action, and as expect, through Bim who presides in all such matters itself the seat of the lower appetites (see on ch. 6. 6, to kindle in his readers or hearers the like blessed and on v. 6; and he calls it “the body of this death," | emotions (v. 24, 25). So be it even now, O Lord! as feeling, at the moment when he wrote, the horrors

CHAPTER VIII. of that death (ch. 6. 21, and v. 5) into which it dragged | Ver. 1-3. CONCLUSION OF THE WHOLE ARGUMENT him down. But the language is not that of a sinner -THE GLORIOUS COMPLETENESS OF THEM THAT ARE newly awakened to the sight of his lost state: it is IN CHRIST JESUS. In this surpassing chapter the the cry of a living but agonized believer, weighed down several streams of the preceding argument meet and under a burden which is not himself, but which he flow in one “river of the water of life, clear as crystal, longs to shake off from his renewed sell. Nor does the proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.** question imply ignorance of the way of relief at the until it seems to lose itself in the ocean of a blissful time referred to. It was designed only to prepare the eternity. way for that outburst of thankfulness for the divinely FIRST: The Sanctification of Believers (v. 1-13). 1. provided remedy, which immediately follows. 25. I There is therefore now, &c.-referring to the immediately thank God (the source, through Jesus Christ (the Channel preceding context. [OLSHAUSEN, PHILIPPI, MEYER, of deliverance). So then to sum up the whole matter), ALFORD, &c.] The subject with which ch. 7. concludes with the mind (the mind indeed') I myself serve the is still under consideration. The scope of the four law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin-.d., 'Suchopening verses is to show how “the law of sin and then is the unchanging character of these two principles death" is deprived of its power to bring believers within me. God's holy law is dear to my renewed again into bondage, and how the holy law of God mind, and has the willing service of my new man; receives in them the homage of a living obedience. although that corrupt nature which still remains in (CALVIX, FRASER, PHILIPPI, MEYER, ALFORD, &c.] me listens to the dictates of sin.'-Note (1.) This whole no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus chapter was of essential service to the Reformers in As Christ, who "knew no sin," was, to all legal effects their contendings with the Church of Rome. When “made sin for us," so are we, who believe in Him to the divines of that corrupt Church, in a Pelagian spirit, all legal effects, "made the righteousness of God in denied that the sinful principle in our fallen nature, Him" (2 Corinthians, 6. 21); and thus, one with him in which they called 'Concupiscence,' and which is com- the divine reckoning, there is to such "NO CONDEMmonly called 'Original Sin,' had the nature of sin at NATION." (Cf. John, 3. 18; 5. 24; ch. 6. 18, 19.) But all, they were triumphantly answered from this chapter, this is no mere legal arrangement: it is a union in life: where-both in the first section of it which speaks of it believers, through the indwelling of Christ's Spirit in in the unregenerate, and in the second which treats of them, having one life with Him, as truly as the head its presence and actings in believers--it is explicitly, and the members of the same body have one life. emphatically, and repeatedly called "sin." As such, [who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit) The they held it to be damnable. See the Confessions evidence of MSS. seems to show that this clause both of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.) In the formed no part of the original text of this verse, but following century, the orthodox in Holland had the that the first part of it was early introduced, and the same controversy to wage with the Remonstrants' (the second later, from v. 4, probably as an explanatory followers of Arminius), and they waged it on the field comment, and to make the transition to p. 2 more easy. of this chapter. (2.) Here we see that Inability is con- 2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus bath sistent with Accountability. See v. 18: Galatians, 6. 17. made ine free (rather, 'freed me'--referring to the time • As the Scriptures constantly recognise the truth of of his conversion, when first he believed) from the law these two things, so are they constantly united in of sin and death - It is the Holy Ghost who is here Christian experience. Every one feels that he cannot called "The Spirit of life," as opening up in the souls do the things that he would, yet is sensible that he of believers a fountain of spiritual life (see on John. is guilty for not doing them. Let any man test his 7. 38, 39; p. 751. 2d col.); just as He is called "the power by the requisition to love God perfectly at all Spirit of truth," "guiding them into all truth times. Alas! how entire our inability ! Yet how deep (John, 16. 13), and “the Spirit of counsel and might, our self-loathing and self-condemnation! (HODGE.] the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord (3.) If the first sight of the Cross by the eye of faith (Isaiah, 11. 2), as the Inspirer of these qualities. And kindles feelings never to be forgotten, and in one He is called "the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus," besense never to be repeated-like the first view of an cause it is as members of Christ that He takes up encbanting landscape-the experimental discovery, in His abode in believers, who in consequence of this the later stages of the Christian life, of its power to have one life with their Head. And as the word "lave" beat down and mortify inveterate corruption, to cleanse here has the same meaning as in ch.7. 23, namely, an and heal from long-continued backslidings and fright-inward principle of action, operating with the fixed

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