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The Jew under like Condemnation

ROMANS, III.

proved by his ouon Scripture. the righteousness of God, at whatever expense to our- | 119. 32, are employed to conduct men to deeds of darkselves. 5. 6. But if, &c. - Another objection: 9.d., 'It est crime.' Destruction and misery are in their ways: would appear, then, that the more faithless we are, so and the way of peace have they not know--This is a much the more illustrious will the fidelity of God supplementary statement about men's ways, suggested appear: and in that case, for Him to take vengeance on by what had been said about the "feet," and expresses us for our unfaithfulness would be to speak as men the mischief and misery which men scatter in their profanely do) unrighteousness in God.' Answer: God path, instead of that peace which, as strangers to it forbid: for then how shall God judge the world - d., 'Far themselves, they cannot diffuse. There is no fear of from us be such a thought; for that would strike down God before their EYES-(Psalm 38.1): 9.d. Did the eyes all future judgment.' 7, 8. For if the truth of God, &c.-- but “ see Him who is invisible" Hebrews, 11. 27., a A further illustration of the same sentiment: q. d.. reverential awe of Him with whom we have to do * Such reasoning amounts to this-which indeed we would chasten every joy and lift the soul out of its who preach salvation by free grace are slanderously deepest depressions, but to all this the natural man is accused of teaching - that the more evil we do, the a stranger. How graphic is this picture of human more glory will redound to God: a damnable principle,' depravity, finding its way through each several organ (Thus the apostle, instead of refuting this principle, of the body into the life: but how small a part of tbe thinks it enough to hold it up to execration, as one that "desperate wickedness" that is within (Jeremiah, 17. shocks the moral sense.)-On this brief section, Note 9) "proceedeth out of the heart of man." (Mark, . (1.) Mark the place here assigned to the Scriptures. In 21-23; Psalm 19. 12.). Now we know that what the law answer to the question, " What advantage hath the (i.e., the Scriptures, considered as a law of duty) saith, Jew! or, What profit is there of circumcision I those it saith to them that are under the law-of course, there. holding Romish views would undoubtedly have laid fore, to the Jews. that every mouth opened in selfthe stress upon the priesthood, as the glory of the justification) may be stopped, and all the world may Jewish economy. But in the apostle's esteem, "the become (i.e., be seen to be, and own itself) guilty and oracles of God" were the jewel of the ancient church (v. so condemned) before God. 20. Therefore by the deeds of 1, 2), (2.) God's eternal purposes and man's free agency, obedience to) the law there shall no flesh be justifiedas also the doctrine of salvation by grace and the uni.e., be held and treated as righteous; as is plain from changing obligations of God's law, have ever been sub- the whole scope and strain of the argument. in his jected to the charge of inconsistency by those who will sight-at His bar (Psalm 143. 2). for by the law is the bow to no truth which their own reason cannot fathom. knowledge of sin. See on ch. 4. 16; 7.7; 1 John, 3. 4). But amidst all the clouds and darkness which in this Note: How broad and deep does the apostle in this present state envelope the divine administration and section lay the foundations of his great doctrine of many of the truths of the Bible, such broad and deep | Justification by free grace- in the disorder of man's principles as are here laid down, and which shine in whole nature, the consequent universality of human their own lustre, will be found the sheet-anchor of our guilt, the condemnation, by reason of the breach of faith. "Let God be true, and every man a liar;" and divine law, of the whole world, and the impossibility of as many advocates of Salvation by grace as say, "Let justification before God by obedience to that violated us do evil that good may come," * their damnation is law! Only when these humiliating conclusions are just."

accepted and felt, are we in a condition to appreciate 9-20. THAT THE JEW IS SHUT UP UNDER LIKE Cox and embrace the grace of the Gospel, next to be opened DEMNATION WITH THE GENTILE IS PROVED BY HIS up. OWN SCRIPTURE, 9. are we better than they? (do we 21-26. GOD'S JUSTIFYING RIGHTEOUSNESS, THROUGH excel them!) No, in no wise-Better off the Jews cer- FAITU IX JESUS CHRIST, ALIKE ADAPTED TO OUR tainly were, for having the oracles of God to teach them NECESSITIES AND WORTHY OF HIMSELF. 21-23. But better; but as they were no better, that only aggravated now the righteousness of God (see on ch. 1, 17) without their guilt. 10-12. As it is written, dc.-(Psalm 14. 1-3; the law-i.c., a righteousness to which our obedience 63. 1-3.) These statements of the Psalmist, were indeed to the law contributes nothing whatever (v. 28; Galasuggested by particular manifestations of human de- tians, 2. 16). is n an fested, being witnessed attested), pravity occurring under his own eye; but as this only by the Law and the Peophets-the Old Testament Scripshowed what man, when unrestrained, is in his present tures. Thus this justifying righteousness, though new, condition, they were quite pertinent to the apostle's as only now fully disclosed, is an old righteousness, purpose. 13-18. Their, &c.-From generals, the apostle as predicted and foreshadowed in the Old Testament. here comes to particulars, culling from different parts by faith of i.e., in) Jesus Christ unto all and upon all of Scripture passages which speak of depravity as it them that believe-i.e., perhaps, bronght nigh "unto all affects the different members of the boily; as if to show men the Gospel, and actuallyupon all' believing men, more affectingly how "from the sole of the foot eren as theira in possession (LUTHER, &c.); but most interto the head there is no soundness" in us. Their preters understand both statements of believers, as THROAT is an open sepulchre-(Psalm 5, 9); 2.d., 'What only a more empliatic way of saying that all believers, proceeds out of their heart, and finds vent in specch without distinction or exception, are put in possession and action through the throat, is like the pestilential of this gratuitous justification, purely by faith in breath of an open grave.' with their TOXGUES they Christ Jesus. for there is no difference: for all have sinned have used deceit Psalm 6. 9): q.d., .That tongue which - Though med differ greatly in the nature and extent is man's glory (Psalm 16. 9: 67, 8) is prostituted to the of their sinfulness, there is absolutely no difference purposes of deception.' the poison of asps is under their between the best and the worst of men, in the fact. LIPY-(Psalm 140. 3): q.d., Those lips which should that "all have sinnerl," and so underlie the wrath of "drop as an honey-comb," and "feed many,' and God, and come short of the glory (or praise') of God-i... "give thanks unto His name." (Canticles, 4. 11; Pro I have failed to earn his approbation' (cf. John, 12. 43 verbs, 10, 21; Hebrews, 13. 15) are employed to secrete Greek). So the best interpreters. 24. justified freely and to dart deadly poison.' Whose MOUTH, &c.-(Psalm (without anything done on our part to deserve it) by 10. 7):9.d., 'That mouth which should be "most sweet" | his grace (His free love) through the redemption that is (Canticles, 6. 16), being "set on fire of heu" (James, 3. in Christ Jesus--a most important clause: teaching us 6), is filled with burning wrath against those whom it that though justification is quite gratuitous, it is not should only bless. Their FEET are swift to shed blood & mere fat of the divine will, but based on a "Re-(Proverbs, 1, 16; Isaiah. 69.7): q.d., Those feet, which demption," i.e., 'the payment of a Ransom,' in Christ's should " run the way of God's commandments" Psalm death. That this is the sense of the word 'redemptiou.'

ad's Justifying Righteousness

ROMANS, IV.

therough Faith in Jesus Christ. when applied to Christ's death, will appear clear to conclude, &c. It is the unavoidable tendency of de. any impartial student of the passages where it occurs. pendence upon our own works, less or more, for 25, 28. Wbom God hath set forth (to be] a propitiation | acceptance with God, to beget a spirit of "boasting." or propitiatory sacrifice') through faith in his blood But that God should encourage such & spirit in sinners, Some of the best interpreters, observing that "faith I by any procedure of His, is incredible. This therefore woon" is the usual phrase in Greek, not "faith in" stamps falsehood upon every form of 'justification by Carist, would place a comma after "faith," and under-works,' whereas the doctrine thatstand the words as if written thus: “to be a propitia

"Our faith receives a righteousness son in his blood, through faith." But faith in Christ"

That makes the singer just is osed in Galatians, 3. 26, and Ephesians, 1. 15; and manifestly and entirely excludes "boasting;" and this

sith in Alis blood" is the natural and appropriate is the best evidence of its truth. Inference second : Beanings here. to declare his righteousness for the re- This and no other way of salvation is adapted alike to mission-rather, pretermission' or 'passing by.' of sins Jew and Gentile. Is he the God of the Jews only! &c.

the sins) that are past-not the sins committed by | The way of salvation must be one equally suited to the the believer before he embraces Christ, but the sins | whole family of fallen man: but the doctrine of justifcommitted under the old economy, before Christ came cation by faith is the only one that lays the basis of a to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself." through | Universal Religion; this therefore is another mark of the farbearance of God-God not remitting but only for its truth. [it is) one God who shall justify (q.d., 'has paring to punish them, or passing them by, until an unchangeably fixed that he si

angeably fixed that he shall justify the circumadequate atonement for them should be made. In cision by ('of') faith, and the uncircumcision through thus not imputing them, God was righteous, but He faith-probably this is but a varied statement of the we not seem to be so; there was no “manifestation of same truth for greater emphasis (see on u. 22); though His righteousness" in doing so under the ancient Bengel thinks that the justification of the Jews, as the economy. But now that God can "set forth" Christ born heirs of the promise, may be here purposely said ana **propitiation for sin through faith in His blood," to be "of faith," while that of the Gentiles, previously the righteousness of His procedure in passing by the strangers to the covenants of promise," may be said sins or believers before, and in now remitting them, is I to be "through faith," as thus admitted into a new * manifested," declared, brought fully out to the view family. Objcction: Do we then make void the law through of the whole world. Our translators have unfortu. faith 1-0.d., 'Does this doctrine of justification by Dately missed this glorious truth, taking the sins that faith, then, dissolve the obligation of the law? If so, are past," to mean the past sins of believers -com- it cannot be of God. But away with such a thought, mitted before faith-and rendering, by the word "re. for it does just the reverse.' God forbid: yea, we estabmission," what means only a 'passing by: thus making ligh the law. It will be observed here, that, important it appear that "remission of sins" is "through the as was this objection, and opening up as it did so noble forbearance of God," which it certainly is not.) To I a field for the illustration of the peculiar glory of the declare at this time (now for the first time, under the Gospel, the apostle does no more here than indignantly Gospel) his righteousness: that he might be just, and the repel it, intending at & subsequent stage of his arguinstifer of him that believeth in Jesus-Glorious paradox! ment (ch. 6.), to resume and discuss it at length.-Note

Just in punishing,' and 'merciful in pardoning,' men (1.) It is a fundamental requisite of all true religion can understand; but just in justifying the guilty,' that it tend to humble the sinner and exalt God; and startles ther. But the propitiation through faith in every system, which breeds self-righteousness, or Christ's blood resolves the paradox and harmonises cherishes boasting, bears falsehood on its face (v. 27. the seemingly discordant elements. For in that "God 28). (2.) The fitness of the Gospel to be a universal rehath made Him to be sin for us who knew no sin," ligion, beneath which the guilty of every name and mestica has full satisfaction, and in that "we are made degree are invited and warranted to take shelter and the righteousness of God in Him," mercy bas her repose, is a glorious evidence of its truth (1. 20, 30). heart's delight !-Note (1.) One way of a sinner's justifi. (3.) The glory of God's law, in its eternal and immutcation is taught in the Old Testament and in the New able obligations, is then only fully apprehended by the slike: only more dimly during the twilight of Revela sinner, and then only is it enthroned in the depths of tion; in unclouded light under its perfect day (c. 21). his soul, when, believing that “He was made sin for

1 As there is no difference in the need, so is there him who knew no sin," he sees himself "made the pone in the liberty to appropriate the provided salva- righteousness of God in Him." Thus do we not make tion. The best need to be saved by faith in Jesus void the law through faith: yea, we establish the law. Christ; and the worst only need that. On this common (4.) This chapter, and particularly the latter part of it,

toond all saved sinners meet here, and will stand for 'is the proper seat of the Pauline doctrine of Justifi. ever , 22-24. (3.) It is on the atoning blood of Christ, cation, and the grand proof-passage of the Protestant as the one propitiatory sacrifice which God hath set doctrine of the Imputation of Christ's righteousness forth to the eye of the guilty, that the faith of the land of Justification not on account of but through convinced and trembling sinner fastens for deliverance faith alone.' (PHILIPPI.) To make good this doctrine, from wrath. Though he knows that he is "justified and reseat it in the faith and affection of the Church, freely, by God's grace," it is only because it is "through was worth all the bloody struggles that it cost our the redemption that is in Christ Jesus," that he is able fathers, and it will be the wisdom and safety, the life to find peace and rest even in this (v. 26). (4.) The and vigour of the churches, to “stand fast in this

trictly accurate view of believers under the Old Testa- | liberty wherewith Christ hath made them free, and ment is not that of a company of pardoned men, but not be again entangled"-in the very least degree af men whose sins, put up with and passed by in the " with the yoke of bondage." meantime, awaited a future expiation in the fulness of

CHAPTER IV. time (v. 25, 26; see on Luke, 9. 31; and on Hebrews, 9. 16; Ver. 1-25. THE FOREGOING DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFIund 11. 39, 40).

CATION BY FAITH ILLUSTRATED FROM THE OLD 27-31. LNFERENCES FROM THE FOREGOING Doc-TESTAMENT. First: Abraham was justified by faith, PEIXES, AND AX OBJECTION ANSWERED, Inference 1-3. What shall we say then that Abraham our father as irst : Boasting is excluded by this, and no other way pertaining to the flesh, hath found -i.e., (as the order in f justification, 27, 28. Where is boasting then?... the original shows) 'hath found, as pertaining to (acEcluded. By what law 1 (on what principle, or scheme?) cording to,' or 'throngh') the flesh, meaning, 'by all worke? Nay: but by the law of faith. Therefore we l his natural efforts or legal obedience.' For if Abraham

The Jew under like Condemnation

ROMANS, III.

proved by his own Scriptun the righteousness of God, at whatever expense to our 119. 32 , are employed to conduct men to deet of dar selves. 5, 6. But if, &c. - Another objection: q.d., 'It est crime.' Destruction and misery are in their way would appear, then, that the more faithless we are, so and the way of peace have they not knowe-This is much the more illustrious will the fidelity of God supplementary statement about men's soulys, barest appear; and in that case, for Him to take vengeance on by what had been said about the "seet," and expres us for our unfaithfulness would be (to speak as men the mischief and mizery which men setter in th profanely do) unrighteousness in God.' Answer: God path, instead of that peace which, as strangers to for bid: for then bow shall God judge the world -90., 'Far themselves, they cannot diffuse. There is no fear from us be such a thought; for that would strike down God before their EY ES- Psalm 36. 1): 9.d. Did the e all future judgment. 7, 8. For if the truth of God, &c.- but "see Him who is invisible" Hebrews, 11. 2. A further illustration of the same sentiment: q. d. reverential awe of Him with whom we have to Such reasoning amounts to this, which indeed we would chasten every joy and lift the soul out of who preach salvation by free grace are slanderously deepest depressions; but to all this the natural ma accused of teaching — that the more evil we do, the a stranger. How graphic is this picture of bure more glory will redound to God: a damnable principle.' depravity, finding its way through eacli several ars (Thus the apostle, instead of refuting this principle of the body into the lise: but how small a part of 1 thinks it enough to hold it up to execration, as one that "desperate wickedness" that is within Jeremiah, shocks the moral sense.)-On this brief section, Note ) "proceedeth out of the licart of manMark (1. Mark the place here assigned to the Scriptures. In 21-23; Psalm 19. 12.) Now we know that what the 1 answer to the question, “ What advantage hath the (ie., the Scriptures, considered as a law of duty sai Jewy or, What profit is there of circumcision * those it saith to them tbat are under the law-of course, the holding Romish views would undoubtedly have laid fore, to the Jews. that every mouth opened in # the stress upon the priesthood, as the glory of the justification) may be stopped, and all the world a Jewish economy. But in the apostle's esteem, "the become (ie., be seen to be, and oun itself) guilts 18 oracles of God" were the jewel of the ancient church (v. so condemned before God. 20. Therefore by the deed 1, 2. (2.) God's eternal purposes and man's free agency, obedience to the law there shall no desh be jus:ife as also the doctrine of salvation by grace and the un i.e., be held and treated as righteous; 23 is plain fr changing obligations of God's law, have ever been sub- the whole scope and strain of the anument. ir jected to the charge of inconsistency by those who will sight-at His bar (l'salın 143. 2). for by the law is bow to no truth which their own reason cannot fathom. knowledge of siu. See on ch. 4. 15; 7.7; 1 John, 3. I But amidst all the clouds and darkness which in this Note: How broad and deep does the apostle in 1 present state envelope the divine administration and section lay the foundations of his great doctrine many of the truths of the Biblo, such broad and deep Justification by free grace- in the disorder of me principles as are here laid down, and which shine in whole nature, the consequent universality of burts their own lustre, will be found the sheet-anchor of our suilt, the condemnation, by reason of the bread faith. “Let God be true, and every man a liar," and divine law, of the u hole world, and the impossibilit as many advocates of Salvation by grace as say, “Let justification before God by obedience to that vidis us do evil that good may come," " their damnation is law! Only when these humiliating conclusions just."

acceptod and selt, are we in a condition to appreci 9-20. THAT THE JEW 18 SHUT UP UNDER LIKE Cox and embrace the race of the Gospel, next to be ope DEMNATION WITH THE GENTILE IS PROVED BY HIS up. OWN SCRIPTURE. 9. are we better than they? ('do we 21-26. GOD'S JUSTIFYING RIGHTEOUSNESS, THROU excel them?) No, in no wise--Better off the Jews cer. FAITU IN JESUS CHRIST, ALIKE ADAPTED TO O tainly were, for having the oracles of God to teach them NECENSITIES AND WORTHY OF HIMSELF, 21-23. I better; but as they were no better, that only aggravated now the righteousness of God see on ch. L. IT) with their guilt. 10-12. As it is written, &c.-(Psalm 14. 1-3; the law-i.., a righteousness to which our obediies 53. 1-3.) These statements of the Psalmist were indeed to the law contributes nothing whatever (0.33; G# suggested by particular manifestations of human de- tians, 2. 16. is n an.fested, being witnessed attesi pravity occurring under his own eye; but as this only by the Law and the P.opbets-the Old Testament si showed what man, when unrestrained, is in his present tures. Thus this justifying righteousness, though a condition, they were quite pertinent to the apostle's as only now fully disclosel, is an old righteous purpose. 13-18. Their, &c.-From generals, the apostle as predicted and foreshadowed in the Old Testatt here comes to particulars, culling from different parts by faith of i.e., in) Jesus Christ unto all and upon of Scripture passages which speak of depravity as it them that believe-i.e., perhaps, brought nigh"unto : affects the different members of the body; as is to show men the Gospel, and actually "upou all" believing in more affectingly bow"from the sole of the foot eren as theirs in possession (LUTHER, &c.]; but most in! to the head there is no soundness" in us. Their preters understand both statements of believers. THROAT is an open sepulchre- (Psalm 5, 9); 4.d., “What only a more empilatic way of saying that all believ? proceeds out of their heart, and finds vent in specch without distinction or exception, are put in possess and action through the throat, is like the pestilential of this gratuitous justitication, purely by faith breath of an open grave.' with their TONGUEs they Christ Jesus. for there is no difference: for all have e11 have used deceit- Psalm 6, 9): q.d., 'That tongue wbich - Thonba men differ greatly in the nature and im is man's glory Psalm 16. 9; 57. 8) is prostituted to the of their sinfulness, there is absolutely no differe: purposes of deception. the poison of asps is under their between the best and the worst of men, in tile ! LIPS-(Psalm 140. 3): q.d., "Those lips which should that "all have sinnerl," and so underlie the wrats "drop as an honey-comb," and "feed many,' and God, and come short of the glory (or 'praise of God "give thanks unto His name," "Canticles, 4. 11; Pro- 'have failed to earn his approbation' cf. John, 13 verbs, 10. 21; Hebrews, 13. 15) are employed to secrete Greek. So the best interpreters. 24. justified fru and to dart deadly poison.' Whose MOUTH, &c.-(Psalm without anything done on our part to deserve il 10.7): 0.d., 'That mouth which should be "most sweet" his grace (His free love) through the redemption ide! (Canticles, 6. 16), being “set on fire of hell” (James, 3. in Christ Jesus-a most important clause: teaching 6), is filled with burning wrath against those whom it that though justification is quite gratuitous, it ba should only bless.' Their Feet are swift to shed blood a mere fat of the divine will, but based on a " -(Proverbs, 1. 16; Isaiah, 59. 7): 4.d., 'Those feet, which demption," i.e., 'the payment of a Ransom,' in Chr': should "run the way of God's commandments" Psalin death. That this is the sense of the word redempt.

40 Prifying Righteousness

ROMANS, IV.

through Faith in Jesus Christ. e Edd to Christ's death, will appear clear to conclude, &c.- It is the unavoidable tendency of deCartial student of the passages where it occurs. pendence upon our own works, less or more, for SAT God hath set forth (to be) a propitiation acceptance with God, to beget a spirit of " boasting."

tistory sacrifice through faith in his bloed- But that God should encourage such a spirit in sinners,

the best interpreters, observing that "faith by any procedure of His, is incredible. This therefore na the usual phrase in Greek, not "faith in" stamps falsehood upon every form of 'justification by

vel place a comma after "faith," and under works,' whereas the doctrine thatthe words as if written thus: “to be a propitia

**Our faith receives a righteousness is blend, through faith." But "faith in Christ"

That makes the singer just"din Galatisns, 3. 9, and Ephesians, 1. 15; and manifestly and entirely excludes “boasting;" and this

in flis blood is the natural and appropriate is the best evidence of its truth. Inference second : puca bere. to declare his righteousness for the re- This and no other way of salvation is adapted alike to tu-Tather, 'pretermission' or 'passing by.' of sins Jew and Gentile. Is he the God of the Jews only? &c.as", that are past - not the sins committed by The way of salvation must be one equally suited to the &'lere before he embraces Christ, but the sins whole family of fallen man: but the doctrine of justifi

i nader the old economy, before Christ came cation by faith is the only one that lays the basis of a

ir án by the sacrifice of Himself." through Universal Religion; this therefore is another mark of asteaner of God-God pot remitting but only for- its truth. [it is) one God who shall justify q d., 'has

to punish them, or passing them by, until an unchangeably fixed that he shall justify') the circum*** stopement for them should be made. In cision by 'of') faith, and the uncircumcision through

imputing them, God was righteous, but He faith-probably this is but a varied statement of the 2 to be so; there was no "manifestation of same truth for greater emphasis (see on v. 22); though htwasness" in doing so under the ancient Denge thinks that the justification of the Jews, as the

But now that God can "set forth" Christ born heirs of the promise, may be here purposely said tu propitiation for sin through faith in His blood," to be "of faith," while that of the Gentiles, previously souness of His procedure in passing by the "strangers to the covenants of promise," may be said leerers before, and in now remitting them, is to be "through faith," as thus admitted into a new

01" declared, brought fully out to the view family. Objection: Do we theu make void the law through ble world. Our translators have unfortu. faith 1-9.d., 'Does this doctrine of justification by sed this glorious truth, taking "the sins that faith, then, dissolve the obligation of the law? If so, vast te nen the past sins of believers -com- it cannot be of God. But away with such a thought,

dire faith-and rendering, by the word “re- for it does just the reverse.' God forbid: yea, we estab"bat means only a 'passing by; thus making lish the law. It will be observed here, that, important

that "remission of sins" is "through the as was this objection, and opening up as it did so noble * e of God," which it certainly is not.) To a field for the illustration of the peculiar glory of the ada time now for the first time, under the Gospel, the apostle does no more here than indignantly

is gotsoasness: that he might be just, and the repel it, intending at a subsequent stage of his argurete taat believeth in Jesus-Glorious paradox! ment ch. 6.), to resume and discuss it at length.-Note

pething,' and 'merciful in pardonins,' men (1.) It is a fundamental requisite of all true religion en Badd; but just in justifying the guilty,' that it tend to humble the sinner and exalt God; and

1. But the propitiation through faith in every system, which breeds self-righteousness, or SI Lind resolves the paradox and harmonises cherishes boasting, bears falsehood on its face it. 27, rendy discordant elements. For in that “God | 28). (2.) The fitness of the Gospel to be a universal resade Him to be sin for us who knew no sin," ligion, beneath which the guilty of every name and las tau atisfaction, and in that "we are made degree are invited and warranted to take shelter and

23 of God in Him," mercy has her repose, is & glorious evidence of its truth (v. 29, 30). a dugi!-66 (1. One way of a sinner's justifi. 13.) The glory of God's law, in its eternal and immutuht in the Old Testament and in the New able obligations, is then only fully apprehended by the

ay more dimly during the twilight of Revela- sinner, and then only is it enthroned in the depths of La doaded light under its perfect day (c. 21). his soul, when, believing that "He was made sin for

fere is no difference in the need, so is there him who knew no sin," he sees himself “made the este sterty to appropriate the provided salva righteousness of God in Him." Thus do we not make the test need to be saved by faith in Jesus void the law through faith: yea, we establish the law.

tte Forst only need that. On this common (4.) This chapter, and particularly the latter part of it,

sred sinners meet here, and will stand for is the proper seat of the Pauline doctrine of Justifi. 1. 9. It is on the atoning blood of Christ, cation, and the grand proof-passage of the Protestant the propitiatory sacrifice which God hath set doctrine of the Imputation of Christ's righteousness te e eye of the guilty, that the faith of the and of Justification not on account of but through onded trembling sinner fastens for deliverance faith alone. [Philippl.) To make good this doctrine, ma Tbough he knows that he is "justified and reseat it in the faith and affection of the Church,

t's Tace," it is only because it is "through was worth all the bloody struggles that it cost our non ibat is in Christ Jesus," that he is able fathers, and it will be the wisdom and safety, the life

peace and rest even in this 10. 25). (4.) The and vigour of the churches, to "stand last in this curate view of believers under the Old Testa liberty wherewith Christ hath made them free, and

De lat of a company of pardoned men, but not be again entangled"-in the very least degree -

bure sips, put up with and passed by in the “with the yoke of bondage." GREDZ, swailed a future expiation in the fulness of

CHAPTER IV. 5.5.8: see on Luke, 9. 31; and on Hebrews, 9. 16; Ver, 1-26, THE FOREGOING DOCTRINE OF JUSTIFI

CATION BY FAITI ILLUSTRATED FROM THE OLD - INYERISCES FROM THE FOREGOING DOC TESTAMENT. First: Abraham was justified by faith. 23, ASD AN OBJECTION ANSWERED. Inference 1-3. What sball we say then that Abraham our father as

Betting is excluded by this, and no other way pertaining to the flesh, hath found :-i.e., (as the order in dukeutuin. 37, 28. Where is boasting then?.. the original shows) 'bath found, as pertaining to ac.

Sy what law 1 on what principle, or schemer cording to, or through') the flesh meaning, by all ab Jas;

bat by the law of faith. Therefore we his natural efforts or legal obedience. For i Abrazam

Doctrine of Justification by Faith

ROMANS, IV.

illustrated from the Old Testament. were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not ham's faith-whether of his natural seed or no-may before God -9.d., 'It works were the ground of Abra-be assured of the like justification with the parentham's justification, he would have matter for boasting: I believer.' As it is written, &c.-(Genesis, 17. 6.) This but as it is perfectly certain that he hath done in the is quoted to justify his calling Abraham the "father of sight of God, it follows that Abrabain could not have us all," and is to be viewed as a parenthesis. before i.e.. been justified by works. And to this agree the words I'in the reckoning of) him whom he believed - q.d. of Scripture. For what saith the Scriptaret Abraham Thus Abraham, in the reckoning of Him whom he believed God, and it (his faith) was counted to him for believed, is the father of us all, in order that all may righteonsness-Genesis, 15. 6. Romish expositors and be assured, that doing as he did, they shall be treated Arminian Protestants make this to mean that God as he was. (even) God, that quickeneth the dead-The accepted Abraham's act of believing as a substitute nature and greatness of that faith of Abraham which for complete obedience. But this is at variance with we are to copy is here strikingly described. What he the whole spirit and letter of the apostle's teaching. was required to believe being above nature, his faith Throughout this whole argument, faith is set in direct had to fasten upon God's power to surmount physical opposition to works, in the matter of justification-and incapacity, and call into being what did not then exist. even in the next two verses. The meaning, therefore. But God having made the promise, Abraham believed cannot possibly be that the mere act of believing Him in spite of those obstacles. This is still further which is as much a work as any other piece of com illustrated in what follows. 18-22. Who against hope manded duty John, 6. 29; 1 John, 3. 23) --was counted when no ground for hope appeared. believed in hopeto Abraham for all obedience. The meaning plainly i.e., cherished the believing expectation. that he night is, that Abraham believed in the promises which become the father of many nations, according to that which embraced Christ (Genesis, 12. 3; 16. 6, &c.), as we believe was spoken, So (i.e., Such "as the stars of heaven," in Christ Himsel; and in both cases, faith is merely Genesis, 16. 6) shall thy seed be,... he considered not, the instrument that puts us in possession of the bless. &c.-paid no attention to those physical obstacles, both ing gratuitously bestowed.4, 5. Now to him that in himself and in Sarah, which might seem to render worketh (as a servant for wages) is the reward not the fulfilment hopeless. He staggered (hesitated) not reckoned of grace (as a matter of favour) but of debt- ... but was strong in faith, giving glory to God-as able as a matter of right. But to him that worketh bot - to make good His own word in spite of all obstacles who, despairing of acceptance with God by "working And being fully persuaded, &c.-ie., the glory which for it the work of obedience, does not attempt it; but Abraham's faith gave to God consisted in this, that. believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly-casts him firm in the persuasion of God's ability to fulfil his self upon the mercy of Him that justifieth those who promise, no difficulties shook him. And therefore it deserve only condemnation. his faith, &c.- see on v. was imputed, &c.-q.d., 'Let all then take notice that 3. Second: David sings of the same justification. 6-8. this was not because of any thing meritorious in AbraDavid also describeth (*speaketh,' 'pronounceth') the ham, but merely because he so believed.' 23-25. Now, blessedness of the man unto whom the Lord imputeth &c.--Here is the application of this whole argument righteousness without works-whom, though void of all about Abraham: These things were not recorded as good works, He, nevertheless, regards and treats as mere historical facts, but as illustrations for all time righteous. (Saying). Blessed, &c.-Psalm 32. 1, 2.)

of God's method of justification by faith. to whom it David here sings in express terms only of "transgres shall be imputed, if we believe in him that raised up Jesus sion forgiven, sin covered, iniquity not imputed;" but our Lord from the dead-in Him that hath done this. as the negative blessing necessarily includes the posi even as Abraham believed that God would raise up a tive, the passage is strictly in point. 9-12. Cometh this

seed in whom all nations should be blessed. Who was blessedness thea, &c.-9.d., 'Say not, All this is spoken

delivered for ('on account of our offences-i.e., in order of the circumcised, and is therefore no evidence of

to expiate them by His blood. and raised again for ('on God's general way of justifying men; for Abraham's

account of,' i.e., in order to our justification--As His justification took place long before he was circumcised. resurrection was the divine assurance that He had and so could have no dependence upon that rite: nay, * put away sin by the sacrifice of Himsell," and the " the sign of circumcision" was given to Abraham as crowning of His whole work, our justification is filly "a seal" (or token) of the justifying) righteousness connected with that glorious act.-Note, (1.) The doc. which he had before he was circumcised; in order that trine of justification by works, as it generates selfhe might stand fortb to every age as the parent believer exaltation, is contrary to the first principles of all true -the model-man of justification by faith-after whose religion (v.2; and see on ch. 3. 21-26, note 1.). (2.) The type, as the first public example of it, all were to be way of a sinner's justification has been the same in all moulded, whether Jew or Gentile, who should there time, and the testimony of the Old Testament on this after believe to life everlasting.' 13-15. For the promise, subject is one with that of the New (v. 3. &c.; and see &c. This is merely an enlargement of the foregoing on ch. 3. 27-31, note 1.). (3.) Faith and works, in the reasoning, applying to the lay what had just been said matter of justification, are opposite and irreconcileable, of circumcision. that he should be the heir of the world | even as grace and debt (v. 4, 5; and see on ch. 11. 6). II -or, that "all the families of the earth should be God "justifies the ungodly," works cannot be, in any blessed in him." was not to Abraham and his seed through sense or to any degree, the ground of justification. the law in virtue of obedience to the law), but through For the same reason, the first requisite, in order to the righteousness of faith-in virtue of his simple faith justification, must be under the conviction that we in the divine promises. Por if they which are of the are" ungodly") to despair of it by works, and the next. law be heirs-If the blessing is to be earned by obedi- to "believe in Him that justifieth the ungodly --that ence to the law. faith is made void--the whole divine hath a justifying righteousness to bestow, and is ready method is subverted. Because the law worketh wrath to bestow it upon those who deserve none, and to

-has nothing to give to those who break it but con embrace it accordingly. (4.) The sacraments of the demnation and vengeance. for where there is no law Church were never intended, and are not adapted, to there is no transgression-It is just the law that makes confer grace, or the blessings of salvation, upon men. transgression, in the case of those who break it; nor can Their proper use is to set a divine seal upon a state the one exist without the other. 16, 17. Therefore, &c. already eristing, and so, they presuppose, and do not -A general summary: q.d., Thus justification is by create it (v. 8-12. As circumcision merely "sealed" faith, in order that its purely gracions character may Abraham's already existing acceptance with God. 80 be seen, and that all who follow in the steps of Abra. 'with the sacraments of the New Testament. (5.) As

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