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Paul is Assaulted
in the Temple. prediction and that at Tyre (v. 4) were intended, not to conciliation to Jewish prejudice, the Church of Jeruprohibit him from going, but to put his courage to the salem was taught to adhere to the decision of the famous test, and, when he stood the test, to deepen and mature council held there (ch. 15), 26. to signify ic., announce it. we and they at that place (the Cesarean Christians) to the priest) the accomplishment of the days of purificabesought him (even with tears, o. 13) not to go to Jera- tion, &c. See on Numbers, 6. 13-21, 21-30. the Jews salem. Then Paul answered, What mean ye to weep and of Asia-in all likelihood those of Ephesus (since they break mine heart, &c. Beautiful union of manly reso- recognized Trophimus, apparently as a townsman ir. luteness and womanly tenderness, alike removed from 20), embittered by their discomfiture, ch. 19. 9. &c. mawkishness and stoicism! I am ready not to be bound Trophimus. See on ch. 20. 4. took Paul, and drew him only. Q.d. If that is all, let it come.' but to die, &c. It out of the temple; and forthwith the doors were shut-tha was well he could add this, for he had that also to do. · the murder they meant to perpetrate might not pollute 15, 16, we took up our carriages, (*our baggage" and went that Holy Place. 31. tidings came-lit., 'went up,' i.e.. up to Jerusalem--for the fifth time after his conversion, to the fortress of Antonia, where the commandant thus concluding his third missionary tour, which proved resided. See on v. 32. This part of the narrative is parhis last, so far as recorded; for though he accomplished ticularly graphic, the chief captain-'the chiliarch,' or the fourth and last part of the missionary plan sketched tribune of the Roman cohort whose full number was out. ch. 19. 21 - "After I have been at Jerusalem, 1 1.000 men. 33. commanded him to be bound with two must also see Rome"-it was as "a prisoner of Jesus chains. See on ch. 12, 34, soine cried one thing. The Christ." went with us... and brought with them (rather, difficulty would be so to state his crimes as to justify * brought us to") one Mnason of Cyprus, an old disciple, their proceedings to a Roman officer. to be called into &c.- not an aged disciple, but probably a disciple of the castle-rather, perhaps, 'the barracks, or that part old standing,' perhaps one of the 3,000 converted on the ' of the fortress of Antonia appropriated to the soldiers. day of Pentecost, or, more likely still, drawn to the The fort was built by Herod on a high rock at the North Saviour Himself during His Lifetime. He had come, West corner of the great temple-area, and called after probably with the other Cyprians ch. 11. 20) to Antioch, Mark Antony. 35, 36. Away with him-as before of his “preaching the Lord Jesus unto the Grecians," and 'Lord, Luke, 23. 18:John, 19. 15. 37-40. Art not thou that now he appears settled at Jerusalem.
Egyptian, &c. The form of the question implies that 17-40. PAUL REPORTS THE EVENTS OF HIS THIRD the answer is to be in the negative, and is matter of MISSIONARY JOURNEY-IN THE TEMPLE, PURIFYING some surprise: q.d. “Thou art not then,' &c.! madest HIMSELF FROM A JEWINH VOW, HE IS SEIZED BY A an uproar, &c. The narrative is given in Josephus JewMOB AND BEATEN TO THE DANGER OF HIS LIFE--THE ish War. ii, 8.6; and 13.5, though his two allusions and UPROAR BECOMING UNIVERSAL, THE ROMAN Com- ours seem to refer to different periods of the rebellion. MANDANT HAS HIM BROUGHT IN CHAINS TO THE 'a citizen of no mean city. See on ch, 16. 37. stood on the FORTRESS, FROM THE STAIRS OF WHICH HE IS PER stairs. "What nobler spectacle than that of Panlatthis MITTED TO ADDRESS THE PEOPLE. The apostle was moment! There he stood, bound with two chains. full of anxiety about this visit to Jerusalem, from the ready to make his defence to the people. The Roman numerous prophetic intimations of danger awaiting commander sits by, to enforce order by his presence. him, and having reason to expect the presence at this An enraged populace look up to him from below. Yet feast of the very parties from whose virulent rage he in the midst of so many dangers, how self-possessed is had once and again Darrowly escaped with his life, he, how tranquill' [CHRYSOSTOM or in his name in Hence we find him asking the Roman Christians to HACKET.) a great silence--the people awed at the perwrestle with him in prayer, "for the Lord Jesus Christ's mission given him by the commandant, and seeing bim sake, and for the love of the Spirit, that he might be sitting as a listener. in the Hebrew tougue--the Syrodelivered from them that believed not in Judea," as well Chaldaic, the vernacular tongue of the Palestine Jews as "that his service which he had for Jerusalem (the since the captivity. great collection for the poor saints there) might be ac.
CHAPTER XXII. cepted of the saints." Romans, 15. 30, 31. 17-19. the Ver. 1-30. PAUL'S DEFENCE FROM THE STAIRS OF brethren received us gladly-the disciples generally, as 'THE FORTRESS-THE RAGE OF THE AUDIENCE BURSTdistinguished from the official reception recorded in' ING FORTH, THE COMMANDANT HAS HIM BROUGHT v. 18. Paul went in with us unto James; and all the elders INTO THE FORT TO BE EXAMINED BY SCOURGING, ETT were present-to "report himself" formally to the ac- LEARNING THAT HE IS A ROMAN HE ORDERS HIS knowledged head of the church at Jerusalem, and his RELEASE AND COMMANDS THE SANHEDRIM TO TRY associates in office. See on ch. 15. 13. Had any other HIM, 1, 2. when they heard ... the Hebrew tongue (see of the apostles been in Jerusalem on that occasion, it on ch. 21. 40) they kept the more silence. They could have could hardly fail to have been noted. he declared par- ' understood him in Greek, and doubtless fully expected ticularly in detail) what God had wrought among the the renegade to address them in that language, but Gentiles by his minietry - as on previous occasions, ch. " the sound of their holy mother tongne awed them into 14. 27; and see Romans, 16. 16; no doubt referring to the deeper silence. 3. a Jew of Tarsus, brought up in this city. insidious and systernatic efforts of the Judaizing party at the feet see on Luke, 10. 39. of Gamaliel see on ch.5. in a number of places, to shrivel the Church of Christ 31)--a fact of great importance in the apostle's history. into a Jewish sect, and his own counterprocedure. 20 standing in the same relation to his future career as 25. they glorified the Lord, &c.--constrained to justify Moses' education in the Egyptian court to the work for his course, notwithstanding the Jewish complexion of which he was destined. the perfect manner of the law the Christianity of Jerusalem. they are informed ... of the fathers--the strictest form of traditional Judaism. that thou teachest all the Jews which are among the Gentiles zealous (a zealot') toward God as ye ali are this day-his (those residing in heathen countries) to forsake Moses, own murderous zeal against the disciples of the Lord! &c. This calumny of the unbelieving Jews would find Jesus being merely reflected in their present treatment easy credence among the Christian zealots for Judaism. of himself. 4. I persecuted, &c. See on ch. 9. , 4, 5-7. we have four men Christian Jews, no doubt) which have the high priest (still alive) doth bear me witness, and all a vow-perhaps kept ready on purpose. be at charges the estate of the elders-the whole Sanhedrim. 8. Jesus with them - i.e., defray the expense of the sacrifices of Nazareth- the Nazarene). See on ch, 9. 5. 9-11. legally required of them, along with his own, which the men, &c. See on ch. 9. 7, &c. 12. Ananias, a devout was deemed a mark of Jewish generosity. touching man according to the law. having a good report of all the the Gentiles ... we have written and concluded that they Jews which dwelt there. One would not know from this observe no such things, &c. This shows that with all their i description of Ananias that he was a Christian at all.
before the Sanhedrim. the postle's object being to hold him up as unexception- 1 3, 4. God shall smite thee-&s indeed He did: for he was able even to the most rigid Jews. 13-15. The God of killed by an assassin during the Jewish war (Jose
rithers hath chosen thee-studiously linking the new Puus' Jewish War, ii. 17. 9.) thou whited wall-i.e. hyEconomy upon the old, as but the sequel of it; both 'pocrite (Matthew, 23. 27). This epithet, however, corkaving one glorious Author. that thou shonldest see rectly describing the man, must not be defended as that tbe') Just One : cf. ch. 3. 14; 7. 52. and hear the addressed to a judge, though the remonstrance which soice of his mouth-in order to place him ona level with follows-"for sittest thou," &c.--ought to have put him the other apostles, who had “seen the Risen) Lord." to shame. 5. I wist not that he was the high priest. ke baptized and wash away thy sins. This way of speaking All arises from baptism being the visible seal of remission. high priesthood was in a state of great confusion and calling on the name of the Lord-rather, 'having called,', constant change at this time (as appears from Josephus,
after having done so; referring to the confession and the apostle's long absence from Jerusalem, and of Christ which preceded baptism, as ch. 8. 37. 17-21. perhaps the manner in which he was habited or the teame to pass, &c. This thrilling dialogue between the seat he occupied, with other circumstances to us unHorified Redeemer and his chosen vessel is nowhere known, may account for such a speech. But if he was else related. When I was come again to Jerusalem-on thrown off his guard by an insult which touched him the occasion mentioned ch, 9. 26. &c. while I prayed in to the quick, 'what can surpass the grace with which he the temple. He thus calls their attention to the fact that recovered his self-possession, and the frankness with after his conversion he kept up his connexion with the which he acknowledged his error? If his conduct in temple as before. get quickly out of Jerusalem (cf. ch. 9. yielding to the momentary impulse was not that of 2 for they will not receive thy testimony ... And I said, Christ himself under a similar provocation (John, 18. Lad, they know, &c. : q.d., 'Can it be, Lord, that they 22, 23), certainly the manner in which he atoned for his will resist the testimony of one whom they knew so fault was Christ-like.' (HACKET.) 6-9. when Paul perwell as among the bitterest of all against thy disciples, ceived (from the discussion which plainly had by this and whom nothing short of resistless evidence could time arisen between the parties) that the one part were bave turned to Thee?' Depart, for I will send thee far Sadducees, and the other Pharisees, he cried out raising hence unto the Gentiles, q.d., 'Enough; thy testimony his voice above both parties), I am a Pharisee, the son is not to be thrown away upon Jerusalem; the Gentiles, of a Pharisee the true reading seems to be, 'the son of afar off, are thy peculiar sphere.' 22, 23. gave him Pharisees,' i.e., belonging to a family who from father audience to this word... then ... Away with such a fellow to son had long been such): of the hope and resurrection from the earth, &e. Their national prejudices lashed of the dead (i.e., not the vague hope of immortality, but into fury at the mention of a mission to the Gentiles, the definite expectation of the resurrection) I am called ther would speedily have done to him as they did to in question. By this adroit stroke, Paul engages the Stephen but for the presence and protection of the whole Pharisaic section of the council in his favour: Roman officer. 24-26. examined by scourging-accord the doctrine of a resurrection being common to both, ing to the Roman practice. that he might know where though they would totally differ in their applications fore they cried so. Paul's speech being to him in an un of it. This was, of course, quite warrantable, and the known tongue, he concluded from the horror which it more so as it was already evident that no impartiality kindled in the vast audience that he must have been in trying his cause was to be looked from such an muilty of some crime. Paul said to the centurion that assembly. the Sadducees say ... there is no resurrection, stood by-to superintend the torture and receive the neither angel, nor spirit. See on Luke, 20. 37. the scribes confession expected to be wrung from him. Is it law 1... of the Pharisees' part... strove, saying, We find no fal for you to scourge a man that is a Roman &c. See on evil in this man, but (as to those startling things which ch. la. 37. 27-29. Art thou 2 Roman showing that his he brings to our ears) if a spirit or an angel hath spoken being of Tarsus, which he had told him before (ch. 21. to him-referring, perbaps, to his trance in the temple, 89%, did not necessarily imply that he was a Roman of which he had told them, ch, 22. 17. They put this citizen. With a great sum obtained I this freedom. Roman favourable construction upon his proceedings for no citizenship was bought and sold in the reign of Clau- other reason than that they had found him one of their ains, ve know, at a high price: at & subsequent date, own party. They care not to enquire into the truth of for next to nothing. But to put in a false claim to this what he alleged, over and above their opinions, but privilege was a capital crime. I was (free) born ("born only to explain it away as something not worth raising to it')-by purchase, or in reward of services, on the a noise about. The following words, “Let us not fight part of his father or some ancestor. chief captain feared, against God," seem not to belong to the original text, te. See on ch. 16. 38. 30, commanded the chief priests and perhaps are from ch. 6. 39. In this case, either and all their council to appear-i.e., the Sanhedrim to! the meaning is, 'If he has had some divine communibe formally convened. Note here the power to order a cation, that of that?' or, the conclusion of the sentence Sanhedrim to try this case, assumed by the Roman may have been drowned in the hubbub which the next officers and acquiesced in on their part.
verse shows to have been intense.) 10. the chief captain, CHAPTER XXIII.
fearing lest Paul should have been pulled to pieces ... comVer. 1-10. PAUL'S DEFENCE BEFORE THE SANHED-manded the soldiers to go down and take him by force, &c. RIM DIVIDES TILE RIVAL FACTIONS, FROM WHOSE This shows that the commandant was not himself preVIOLENCE THE COMMANDANT HAS THE APOSTLE RE sent, and further, that instead of the Sanhedrim trying MOVED INTO THE FORTRESS. 1. Paul, earnestly behold- the cause, the proceedings quickly consisted in the one ing the council-with a look of conscious integrity and party attempting to seize the prisoner, and the other unfaltering courage, perhaps also recognising some of to protect him. bis early fellow-pupils. I have lived in all good conscience 11-35. IN THE FORTRESS PAUL IS CHEERED BY A before God until this day, &c. The word has an indirect NIGHT VISION-AN INFAMOUS CONSPIRACY TO ASSASreference to the polity' or "commonwealth of Israel," SINATE HIM IS PROVIDENTIALLY DEFEATED, AND BR of which he would signify that he had been, and was IS DESPATCHED BY NIGHT WITH A LETTER FROM THE to that hour, an honest and God-fearing member. 2. COMMANDANT TO FELIX AT CESAREA, BY WHOM ARthe high priest... commanded ... to smite him on the RANGEMENTS ARE MADE FOR A HEARING OF 118 month-a method of silencing a speaker, common in CAUSE. 11. the night following - his heart perhaps the East to this day. (HACKET) But for a judge thus | sinking, in the solitude of his barrack-ward, and thinkto treat a prisoner on his trial, for merely prefacing his ing perhaps that all the predictions of danger at Jerudefepce by a protestation of his integrity, was infamous, I salem were now to be fulfilled in his death there. the
Paul sent to Feliz.
He is Accused by Tertuttua Lord die. Jesus) stood by him... Be of good cheer, Paul: five days--or, on the fifth day from their departure from for as thou hast testified of me in Jerusalem, so must thou Jerusalem. Ananias... with the elders--a deputation also at Rome: q.d. "Thy work in Jerusalem is done, of the Sanhedrim, a certain orator-one of those Roman faithfully and well done, but thou art not to die here; advocates who trained themselves for the higher practice thy purpose next to "see Rome" (ch. 19. 21) shall not of the metropolis by practising in the provinces, where be disappointed, and there also must thou bear witness the Latin language, employed of Me." As this vision was not unneeded now, so we imperfectly understood and Roman forms were not shall find it cheering and upholding him throughout familiar, informed... against Paul-*laid information.' all that befell him up to his arrival there. 12-14. bound i.e., put in the charges. 24. Seeing that by thee we enjoy themselves with a curse ... that they would neither eat great quietness, &c. In this fulsome flattery there was ...till they had killed Paul: cf. 2 Samuel, 3. 35; 1 Samuel, a semblance of truth: nothing more. Felix acted with 14. 24. 15. Now ... ye with the council signify to the chief a degree of vigour and success in suppressing lawless captain ... as though, &c. That these high ecclesiastics violence. (JOSEPHUS Antiquities, xx, 8. 4; confirmed feü in readily with this infamous plot is clear. What by TACITUS, Ann. xii. 64.) by thy providence-a phrase will not anscrupulous and hypocritical religionists do applied to the administration of the Emperors. 5-8. a under the mask of religion? The narrative bears unmis- pestilent fellow (a plague,' or 'pest,') and a mover of takeable internal marks of truth. or ever he come near. sedition among all the Jews (by exciting disturbances Their plan was to assassinate him on his way down among them) throughout the world. See on Luke, 2. 1. from tbe barracks to the council. The case was critical, This was the first charge; and true only in the sense but He who had pledged His word to him that he should explained on ch. 16, 20. A ringleader of the sect of the testify for Bim at Rome provided unexpected means | Nazarenes the second charge; and true enough, hath of defeating this well-laid scheme. 16-22. Paul's sister's gone about attempted') to profane the temple--the third son. See on ch. 9. 30. If he was at this time residing charge, and entirely false. We ... would have judged at Jerusalem for his education, like Paul himself, he | according to our law. But... Lysias came upon us, and may have got at the schools those hints of the conspiracy with great violence took him out of our hands-a wilful on which he so promptly acted. Then Paul called one falsehood and calumnious charge against & public of the centurions. Though divinely assured of safety officer. He had commanded the Sanhedrim to meet he never allows this to interfere with the duty he owed for no other purpose than to "judge him according to to his own life and the work he had yet to do. (See their law;" and only when, instead of doing so, they on ch. 27. 22-26. 31.) took him by the hand. This shows fell to disputing among themselves, and the prisoner that he must have been quite in his boyhood, and was in danger of being pulled in pieces of them" (ch. throws a pleasing light on the kind-hearted impartiality 23. 10)-or as his own letter says “killed of them (ch. of this officer, and now are they ready, looking for a pro 23. 27), did he rescue him, as was his duty, "by force mise from thee. Thus, as is so often the case with God's out of their hands. commanding his accusers to come unto people, not till tbe last moment, when the plot was all thee. Here they insinuate that, instead of troubling prepared, did deliverance come. 23, 24. iwo hundred Felix with the case, he ought to have left it to be dealt soldiers-a formidable guard for such an occasion; but with by the Jewish tribunal, in which case his life Roman officials felt their honour concerned in the pre-would soon have been taken by examining whom servation of the public peace, and the danger of an (Lysias, as would seem, v. 22) thyself mayest, &c. --referattempted rescue would seem to require it. The depot ring all, as if with confidence to Felix. The Jews assentat Jerusalem was large enough to spare this convoyed, &c. See on ch. 23. 15. 10. thou hast been many years the third hour of the night-nine o'clock. beasts to set a judge to this nation. He bad been in this province for Paul on-as relays, and to carry baggage. unto Felix, six or seven years, and in Galilee for a longer period. the governor - the procurator. See on ch. 24. 24, 25. Paul uses no flattery, but simply expresses his satisfac. 25-30. Claudius - the Roman name he would take on tion at having to plead before one whose long official purchasing his citizenship. Lysias-his Greek family experience of Jewish matters would enable him the name, the most excellent governor--an honorary title better to understand and appreciate what he had to say. of office. came I with an army-rather, with the mili- 11. thou mayest understand (canst easily learn, that there
perceived to be accused of questious of their low, are but twelve days since I went up to Jerusalem: viz., I. de Amidst all his difficulty in getting at the charges The day of his arrival in Jerusalem (ch. 21. 15-17); 2. the laid against Paul. enough, no doubt, came out to l interview with James (ch. 21. 18, &c.); 3. The assumpsatisfy him that the whole was a question of religion, tion of the vow (ch. 21.26):4, 6, 4, continuance of the vow. and that there was no case for a civil tribunal, gave interrupted by the arrest (ch, 21. 27, &c.); 7. Arrest of commandment to his accusers ... to say before thee. This | Paul (ch. 21. 37); 8. Paul before the Sanhedrim (ch. 22. was not done when he wrote, but would be ere the letter 30; 23. 1-10); 9. Conspiracy of the Jews and defeat of it reached. 31, 32, brought him to Antipatris-nearly forty I (ch. 23, 12, &c.), and despatch of Paul from Jerusalem miles from Jerusalem, on the way to Cesarea; 80 named on the evening of the same day (ch. 23. 23, 31); 10, 11, 12, by Herod in honour of his father, Antipater. On the 13, the remaining period referred to, ch. 24. 1. (MEYER.) morrow they (the infantry) left the horse-themselves po | This short period is mentioned to show how unlikely longer needed as a guard. The remaining distance was I it was that he should have had time to do what was about twenty-five or twenty-six iniles, 34, 35. asked of charged against him. for to worship-a very different what province he was the letter describing him as a purpose from that imputed to him. 12. 13. they neither Roman citizen. I will hear thee. The word meads, found me... neither cau they prove the things, &c. After
give thee a full hearing.' to be kept in Herod's judgment specifying several particulars, he challenges proof of hall-pretorium,'the palace built at Cesarea by Herod, I any one of the charges brought against him. So much and now occupied by the Roman procurators; in one for the charge of sedition, 14, 15. But this I confess to of the buildings attached to which Paul was ordered l thee (in which Felix would see no crime,) that after the to be kept.
way they call heresy (lit., and better, 'a sect'), so worCHAPTER XXIV.
ship I the God of my fathers (* the ancestral God'). Two Ver. 1-27. PAUL, ACCUSED BY A PROFESSIONAL arguments are contained here: (1.) Our nation is divided PLEADER BEFORE FELIX, MAKES HIS DEFENCE, AND | into what they call 'sects'-the sect of the Pharisees. ES REMANDED FOR A FURTHER HEARING. AT A PRI-l and that of the Sadducees-all the difference between VATE INTERVIEW FELIX TREMBLES UNDER Paul's them and me is, that I belong to neither of these, but PREACHING, BUT KEKTY HIM PRISONER FOR TWO to another sect, or religious section of the nation, which YEARS, WHEN HE WAS SUCCEEDED BY FESTUS. 1. after from its Head they call Nasaretues:-for this reason.