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THE FIRST EPISTLE GENERAL OF
TTS GENUINENESS ig attested by : Peter, 3.1: on the authority of 2 Peter, see the Introduction. Also by Polyear 1 din Eusebius, 4. 14), who, in writing to the Philippians, quotes many passages: in ch.2 he quotes 1 Peter, 1. 13, 91, and 2. 9; in ch.5., 1 Peter, 2, 11. Eusebius says of Papias, Ecclesiastical History, 3. 39, that he, too, quotes Peter's first epistle Irenaeus (Haereses 4. 9. 9) expressly mentions it; and in 4. 16. 5, 1 Peter, $. 16. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 1.1, p. 544 quotes 1 Peter, 2. 11, 12, 15, 16; and p. 562, 1 Peter, 1.21, 22; and 4, p. 584, 1 Peter, 3. 14-17; and p. 535, 1 Peter, 13-14 Origen, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6. 25, mentions this epistle; in Homúly 7, on Joshua, vol. ii., P. 63, he mentions both epistles; and Comment, on Psalm 3., and on John, he mentions 1 Peter, 3. 18-21. Tertullian, Scorp., c. 12, quotes er pressly 1 Peter, 2. 20, 21; and ch, 14., 1 Peter, 2. 13. 17. Eusebius states it as the opinion of those before him, that this was among the universally acknowledged epistles. The Peachito Syriac Version contains it. The fragment of the canon called Muratori's, omits it. Excepting this and the Paulician heretics who rejected it, all ancient testimony is on its side. The internal evidence is equally strong. The author calls himself the apostle Peter, ch, 1. 1, and "a witness of Christ's suf ferings," and an "elder," ch. 6. 1. The energy of the style harmonizes with the warmth of Peter's character; and, us Erasmus esys, this epistle is full of apostolical diguity and authority, and is worthy of the leader a
PETER'S PERSONAL HISTORY.-Simon or Simeon, was a native of Bethsaida on the sea of Galilee, son of Jansa or John. With his father and his brother Andrew, he carried on trade as a fisherman at Capernaum, his subsequent place of abode. He was a married man, and tradition represents his wife's name as Concordia or Perpetra. Clemens Aler. says that she suffered martyrdom, her husband encouraging her to be faithful unto denth, "Remember, dear, our Lord." His wife's mother was restored from a fever by Christ. He was brought to Jesus by his brother Andrew, who had been s disciple of John the Baptist, but was pointed to the Saviour as "the Lamb of God" by his master. Jesus, on first bebelding him, gave him the name by which chiefly he is known, indicative of his subsequent character and work in the charch,
Peter" (Greek) or" Cephas" (Aramaic), a stone. He did not join our Lord finally until a subsequent period. The leading incidents in his apostolio life are well known: his walking on the troubled waters to meet Jesus, but sinking through doubting : bis bold and clear acknowledgment of the Divine person and office of Jesus, notwithstanding the difficulties in the way of such belief, whence he was then also designated as the stone, or rock; but his rebuke of his Lord when annouse ing what was 80 un palatable to carnal prejudices, Christ's coming passion and death; his passing from one extreme to the opposite, in reference to Christ's offer to wash his feet; his self-confident assertion that he would never forsake his Lord, whatever others might do, followed by his base denial of Christ thrice with curses; his deep penitence; Christ's full for. giveness and prophecy of his faithfulness unto death, after he had received from him a profession of "love" as often To peated as his previous denial. These incidents illustrate his character as zealous, pious, and ardently attached to the Lord, but at the same time impulsive in feeling, rather than calmly and continuously stedfast. Prompt in action, and ready to arow his convictions boldly, he was hasty in judgment, precipitate, and too self-confident in the assertion of his own sted. fastness ; the result was that, though he abounded in animal courage, his inoral courage was too easily overcome by fear man's opinion. A wonderful change was wrought in him by his restoration after his fall, through the gree of his risen Lord. His zeal and ardour became sanctified, being chastened by a spirit of unaffected humility. His love to the Lord was, if possible, increased, whilst his mode of manifesting it now was in doing and suffering for His name, rather than in loud protestations. Thus, when imprisoned and tried before the Sanhedrim, for preaching Christ, be boldly avowed us determination to continue to do so. He is well called " the mouth of the apostles." His faithfulness led to his sp. prehension by Herod Agrippa, with a view to his execution, from which, however, he was delivered by the angel of the Lord.
After the ascension he took the lead in the church ; and on the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, he exercised the designed power of "the keys" of Christ's kingdom, by opening the door of the church, in preaching, for the ad mission of thousands of Israelites; and still more so in opening (in obedience to a special revelation) an entrance to the "devout" (ie, Jewish proselyte from heathendom) Gentile, Cornelius : the forerunner of the harvest gathered in from idolatrous Gentiles at Antioch. This explains in what sense Christ used as to him the words," Upon this rock I will build my church, vin, on his preaching of Christ, the true "Rook," by connexion with whom only he was giren the designation: a title shared in common on the same grounds by the rest of the apostles, as the first founders of the cbarch on Christ, the chief corner stone." A name is often given in Hebrew, not that the person is actually the thing itself, but has some special relation to it, as Elijah means Mighty Jehovah: so Simon is called Peter "the rock," not that he is sare by connexion with Jesus, the only true Rock (Isaiah, 28. 16; 1 Corinthians, 8. 11.) As subsequently he identifed him self with “Satan," and is therefore called so, in the same way, by his clear confession of Christ, the Rock, he became identied with film, and is accordingly so called. It is certain that there is no instance on record of Peter's having ever claimed or exercised supremacy; on the contrary, he is represented as sent by the apostles at Jerusalem to confirm the Samaritans baptized by Philip the deacon : again at tbe council of Jerusalem, not he, but James the president, or leading bishop in the church of that city, pronounced the authoritative decision : Acts, 15. 19. "My sentence is," &c A kind of primas, doubtless (though certainly not supremacy), was given him on the ground of his age, and prominent eartiestness, and boldness in taking the lead on many important occasions. Hence he is called “first in enumerating the apostles. He too, arise the phrases, " Peter and the eleven," * Peter and the rest of the apostles;" and Paul, in going up to Jerusalem alte his conversion, went to see Peter in particular.
Once only he again betrayed the same spirit of vacillation through fear of man's reproach, which had caused his dental of his Lord. Though at the Jerusalem council he advocated the exemption of Gentile converts from the ceremoniu observances of the law, yet he, after having associated in closest intercourse with the Gentiles at Antioch, withdrew from them, through dread of the prejudices of his Jewish brethren who came from James, and timidly dissembled his conviction of the religious equality of Jew and Gentile; for this, Paul openly withstood and rebuked him: a plain refutation of his alleged supremacy and infallibility (except where specially inspired, as in writing his epistles). In all other cases he showed himself to be, indeed, as Paul calls him, "a pillar.. Subsequently we find him in * Babylon," whence be wrote this first epistle to the Israelite believers of the dispersion, and the Gentile Christians united in Christ, in Pontus, Galatis, Cod padocia, Asia, and Bithynia
Jerome, de Seriptorum Ecclesiasticorum 1., states that " Peter, after having been bishop of Antioch, and after having prerched to the believers of the circumcision in Pontas, &c. (plainly inferred from ch, 1. 1], in the second year of Claudius, went to Rome to retute Simon Magus, and for twenty-five years there held the episcopal chair, down to the last year of Nero, Le, the 14th, by whom he was crucified with his head downwards, declaring himself unworthy to be crucified as his Lord, and was buried in the Vatican, near the triumphal way." Eusebius, Chron. Ann. 3, also asserts his episoopate at Antioch: his assertion that Peter founded that church, contradicts Acts. 11. 19-22. His journey to Rome to oppose Simon Magus, arose from Justin's story of the statue found at Rome (really the statue of the Sabine god, Semo Sancus, or Hercules, mistaken as if Simon Magus were worshipped by that name, "Simoni Deo Sancto:" found in the Tiber in 1574, or on an Island in the Tiber in 1662), combined with the account, Aots, 8. 9-24. The twenty-five years' bishopric is chronologically impossible, as it would make Peter, at the interview with Paul at Antioch, to have been then for some years bishop of Rome! His crucifixion is certain from Christ's prophecy, John, 21, 18, 19. Dionysius of Corinth (in Eusebius, Ecclesiasti. eal History, 9. 25) asserted in an epistle to the Romans, that Paul and Peter planted both the Roman and Corinthian churches, and endured martyrdom in Italy at the same time. So Tertullian, contra Marcion, 4. 5, and prescriptio Hæreticorum, c. 36. 38. Also Caius, the Presbyter of Rome, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 2. 25, asserts that some memorials of their martyrdom were to be seen at Rume on the road to Ostia. So Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 2. 95, and Demonstratio Evangelicce, 3. 116. So Lactantius de mortibus Persecutorum, 0.2 Many of the details are palpably false: whether the whole be so or not is dubious, considering the tendency to concentrate at Rome events of interest. (Alford.) What is certain is, that Peter was not there before the writing of the epistle to the Romans (58 A.D.), otherwise he must have been mentioned in it; nor during Paul's first imprisonment at Rome, otherwise be would have been mentioned in some ore of Paul's many other epistles written from Rome; nor daring Paul's second imprisonment, at least when be was writing the second epistle to Timotby, just before his martyrdom. He may have gone to Rome after Paul's death, and, as common tradition represents, been imprisoned in the Mamertine dungeon, and crucified on the Janiculum, on the eminence of St. Pietro in Montorio, and his remains deposited under the great alter in the centre of the famous basilica of St. Peter. Ambrose, Ep. 33, Ed. Paris, 1586, p. 1022, relates that St. Peter, not long before his death, being overcome by the solicitations of his fellow Christians to save himself, was flying from Rome when he was met by our Lord, and on asking, "Lord, whither goest thou ?" received the answer, “I go to be erucified a fresh." On this he returned and joyfully went to martyr. dom. The church called "Domine quo vadis," on the Appian way, commemorates the legend. It is not unlikely that the whole tradition is built on the connexion which existed between Paul and Peter. As Paul, "the apostle of the uncir. eumcision," wrote epistles to Galatir, Ephesus, and Colosse, and to Philemon at Cologse, making the Gentile Christians the persons prominently addressed, and the Jewish Chritians subordinately so; so, vice versa, Peter," the apostle of the cir. cumcision," addressed the same churches, the Jewish Christians in them primarily, and the Gentile Christians also secondarily.
TO WHOM HE ADDRESSES THIS EPISTLE. - The heading, ch. 1. 1, "to the elect strangers (spiritually pilgrims) of the dispersion" (Greek), clearly marks the Christians of the Jewish dispersion as prominently addressed, but still including also Gentile Christians as grafted into the Christian Jewish stock by adoption and faith, and so being part of the true [xrael; ch. 1. 14; 2. 9, 10; 3. 6; and 4, 3, clearly prove this. Thus he, the apostle of the circumcision, sought to unite in one Christ Jew and Gentile, promoting thereby the same work and doctrine as Paul the apostle of the uncircumcision. The provinces are named by Peter in the heading in the order proceeding from North East to South and West. Pontus was the country of the Christian Jew Aquila. To Gnlatia Paul paid two visits, founding and confirming churches, Crescens, his companion, went there about the time of Paul's last imprisonment, just before his martyrdom. Ancyra was subsequently its ecclesiastical metropolis. Men of Cappadocia, as well as of " Pontus" and "Asia," were among the hearers of Peter's effective sermon on the Pentecost whereon the Spirit descended on the church; these probably brought home to their native land the first tidings of the gospel, Proconsular "Asia" included Mysia, Lydia, Caria, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia In Lycaonia were the churches of Ioopium, founded by Paul and Barnabas; of Lystra, Timothy's birthplace, where Paul was stoned at the instigation of the Jews; and of Derbe, the birth-place of Gaius, or Caius. In Pisidia vas Antioch, where Paul was the instrument of converting many, but was driven out by the Jews. In Carin was Miletus, containing doubtless a Christian church. In Phrygia Paul preached both times when visiting Galatia in its neighbourhood, and in it were the churches of Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colosse, of which last church Philemon and Onesimus were Inembers, and Arcbippus and Epaphras leaders. In Lydia was the Philadelphian church favourably noticed, Revelation. 27, &c; that of Sardis the capital and of Thyatira, and of Ephesus, founded by Paul, and a scene of the labours of Aquila and Priscilla and Apollos, and subsequently of more than two whole years' labour of Paul again, and subsequently censured for falling from its first love in Revelation, 2 4. Smyrna of Ionia was in the same quarter, and as one of the seven churches receives unqualified praise. In Mysia was Pergamos. Troas, too, is known as the scene of Paul's preaching and ruising Eutychus to life, and of his subsequently staying for a time with Carpus. Of "Bithynia," no church is expressly named in Scripture elsewhere. When Paul at an earlier period "assayed to go into Bithynia," the Spirit suffered him not But afterwards we infer from ch, 1, 1, the Spirit did impart the gospel to that country, possibly by Peter's ministry. In government, these several churches, it appears from this epistle (ch. 5. 1, 2,"feed," &c.), were much in the same state as when Paul addressed the Ephesian "elders" at Miletas (Acts, 2017, 28, “feed") in very similar language: elders or pres. byter-bishops ruled, whilst the apostle exercised the general superintendence. They were exposed to persecutions, though Opparently not systematic, but rather annoyances and reproach arising from their not joining their heatben neighbours in riotous living, into which however some of them were in danger of falling. The evils which existed among themselves, pad which are therefore reproved, were ambition and lucre-seeking on the part of the presbyters (ch. 5. 2, 3), evil houghts and words among the members in general, and a want of sympathy and generosity towards one another.
HIS OBJECT seems to be, by the prospect of their heavenly portion, and by Christ's example, to afford consolation to the persecuted, and prepare them for a greater approaching ordeal, and to exhort all, husbands, wives, servants, pres. bytere, and people, to a due discharge of relative duties, so as to give no handle to the enemy to reproach Christianity, bat rather to win them to it, and so to establish them in "the true grace of God wherein they stand" (ch. 5. 12). Sec. bovever, note there, on the oldest reading. Alford rightly argues, that "exhorting and testifying there, refer to Peter's
teortations throughout the epistle grounded on testimony which he bears to the pospel truth already well known to his aders by the teaching of Paul in those churches. They were already introduced into (so the Greek, ch. 5. 12) this grace of
od as their safe standing ground. Cf. 1 Corinthians, 15. 1, "I declare unto you the gospel wherein ye stand." Therefore he Toes not, in this epistle, set forth a complete statement of this gospel doctrine of grace but falls back on it as already OW. Cl. ch. 1.8, 18, "Ye know;" 3. 15; 9 Peter, 3. 1. Not that Peter servilely copies the style and mode of teaching
of Paul, but as an independent witness in his own style, attests the same truths. We may divide the epistle into (L) The inscription (ch. 1. 1, 9. (II) The stirring up of a pare feeling in believers as born again of God. By the motive of hope to which God has regenernted us (r. 3-12); bringing forth the fruit of faith, considering the costis price paid for our redemption from sin (9, 14-21). Being purified by the Spirit unto love of the brethren as begotten of God's eternal word, as spiritual priest-kings, to whom alone Christ is precions (o. 22,-ch, 2 10): after Christ's example in suffering, maintaining a good conversation in every relation (. 10,-ch. & 14), and a good profession of faith as baring in view Christ's once offered sacrifice, and His future coming to judgment (v. 18,-ch. 4 11); and exhibiting patience is adversity, as looking for future glorification with Christ, (1.) in general as Christians, , 12-19; ) cach in his own sphere, eh, 6. 1-11. "The title Beloved' marks the separation of the second part from the first, ch. 2 11; and of the third part from the second," eh. 4. 12. (Bengol.) (III) The conclusion.
TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING.-It was plainly before the open and systematic persecution of the later years of Nero had begun. That this epistle was written after Paul's epistles, even those written during his imprisonment at Rome ending an A.D. 03, appears from the acquaintance which Peter in this epistle shows he has with them. CI. ch. 2. 13, with 1 Timothy, 2. 2-4; 2. 18, with Ephesians, 6. 5; 1.2, with Ephesians, 1. 4-7; 1. 3, with Ephesians, 1, $; 1. 14, with Romans, 12. 9: 2 6-10, with Romans, 9. 32, 33; 2. 13, with Romans, 13. 14; 2. 16, with Galatians, 3. 13 ; 2. 18, with Ephesians, 6. 5; 3. 1, with Ephesians, 8. 22; 3. 9, with Romans, 12. 17; 4. 9, with Philippians, 2 14, and Romaa, 12 13, and Hebrews, 13. 2; 4, 10, with Romans, 12 6-8; 5. 1, with Romans, 8. 18; 5. 5. with Ephesinds, 5. 91; Philippians, 2. 3,5-8; 5. 8, with 1 Thessalonians, 5. 6; 5. 14, with 1 Corinthians, 16. 90. Moreover, in ch.5. 13. Mark is mentioned as with Peter in Babylon This must have been after Colossians, 4. 10 (A.D. 61-63). when Mark was with Paul at Rome, bat intending to go to Asia Minor. Again, in 9 Timothy, 4. 11 (AD. 67 or €9), Mark was in or near Ephesus, in Asia Minor, and Timothy is told to bring him to Rome. So that it is likely it was after this, via, after Paul's martyrdom that Mark joined Peter, and consequently, that this epistle was written. It is not likely that Peter would have intrencbed og Paul's field of labour, the aburches of Asia Minor, during Paul's lifetime. The death of the apostle of the uncircum" cision, and the consequent need of some one to follow up his teachings, probably gave occasion to the testimony given by Peter to the same churches, collectively addressed, in behalf of the same truth. The relation in which the Panline Get tile churches stood towards the apostles at Jerusalem favours this view. Even the Gentile Christians would naturally look to the spiritual fathers of the church at Jerusalem, the centre whence the gospel had emanated to them, for counsel wherewith to meet the pretensions of Judaizing Christians and hereties; and Peter, always prominent among the Apostles in Jerusalem, would even when elsewhere feel a deep interest in them, especially when they were by death bereft of Paul's guidance. Birka, Hora Evangelica, suggests that false teachers may have appealed from Paul's doctrine to that of James and Peter, Peter then would naturally write to confirm the doctrines of grace and tacitly show there was no difference between his teaching and Paul's. Birks prefers dating the epistle A.D, 58, after Paul's second visit to Galatia, when Silvanus was with him, and so could not have been with Peter (A.D. 56), and before his imprisonment at Rome, when Mark was with him, and so could not have been with Peter (A.D, 69); perhaps when Paul was detained at Casares, and so debarred from personal intercourse with those churches, I prefer the view previously stated. This sets aside the tradition tbnt Paul and Peter suffered martyrdom together at Rome. Origen and Eusebius' statement that Peter visited the churches of Asia in person seems very probable.
The PLACE of writing was doubtless Babylon on the Euphrates (ch. 5. 13). It is most improbable that in the midle of writing matter-of-fact communications and salutations in a remarkably plain epistle, the symbolical language of prophecy (vie., "Babylon" for Rome) should be used. Josephus, Antiquities 15., 2. 9; . 1, states that there was a great multitude of Jews in the Chaldean Babylon; it is therefore likely that "the apostle of the circumcision would at some time or other visit them. Some have maintained that the Babylon meant was in Egypt, for that Mark preached in and arous Alexandria after Peter's death, and therefore it is likely he did so along with that apostle in the same region prenta ously. But no mention elsewhere in Seripture is made of this Egyptian Babylon, but only of the Chaldean oue dad though towards the close of Caligaln's reign a persecution drove the Jews thence to Seleucia, a still further thinned their numbers, yet this does not preclude their return and multiplication during the twenty year that elapsed between the plague and the writing of the epistle. Moreover, the order in which the countries are enumerata from North East to South and West, is such as would be adopted by one writing from the Oriental Babylon on the Euphrates, not from Egypt or Rome. Indeed, Cosmas Indioopleustes in the sixth oentury, understood the Babylon peset to be outside the Roman empire. Silvanus, Paul's companion, became subsequently Peter's, and was the carrier of this! epistle.
STYLE.-Fervour and practical truth, rather than logical reasoning, are the characteristies of this epistle as they were of its energetic warm-hearted writer. His familiarity with Paul's epistles shown in the language accords with it we should expect from the fact of Paul's having " eommunicated the gospel which he preached among the Gentiles (as revealed specially to him) to Peter among others of reputation." Individualities ocour, such as baptisma, stb answer of a good conscience toward God" (ch. 3. 21); "consciousness of God" (Greek) ch. 2. 19, as a motire for enduring se ferings; "living hope" (ch, 1.3); "an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away" (oh. 1. 4); "kisna charity' (ch. 6. 14). Christ is viewed less in relation to His past sufferings than as at present exalted and hereafter to be manifested in all His majesty. Glory and hope are prominent features in this epistle (ch. 1. 8), so much so that Wes entities him " the apostle of hope." The realizntion of future bliss as near causes him to regard believers as but "stratigas and "sojourners' here. Obastened fervour, deep humility, and ardent love appear, just as we should expect from one ? had been 80 graciously restored after his grievous fall. "Being converted" be truly does strengthen his breths. His fervour shows itself in often repeating the same thought in similar words.
In some passages he shows familiarity with the epistle of James, the apostle of especial weight with the Jenis legalizing party, whose inspiration he thus confirms (of. ch. 1. 6, 7, with James, 1. 9, 3; 1. 94, with James. 1. 18:31 with James, 1.91; 4. 8, with James, 5. 20, both quoting Proverbs, 10. 12; . 5, with James, 4. 6, both quoting Proverbs, In most of these cases Old Testament quotations are the common ground of both "Strong susceptibility to our impressions, liveliness of feeling, dexterity in handling subjects, dispose natures like that of Peter to repeat afresh thoughts of others." [Steiger.)
The diction of this epistle and of his speeches in Acts is very similar : an undesigned coincidence, and go a zar genuineness (cf. ob. 2. 7, with Acts, 4. 11; 1. 12, with Acts, 5.32; 2. 24, with Acts, 5.30; 10.39; 6. 1, with Aets, S 1. 10, with Acts, 3. 18; 10.43; 1. 21, with Actr, 2. 15; 10. 40; 4.5, with Acts, 10. 43; 2 94, with Acts, 2. 19, 261
There is, too, a recurrence to the language of the Lori at the last interview after His resurrection, recorded in John
Thanksgiving for the Hope
to which we are Elected.
Cr. "the Shepherd . . of... souls," ch. 2. 25; "Feed the flock of God," "the chief Shepherd," ch 5. 2, 4, with John, 21. 15-17: "Feed my sheep ... lambs;" also " Whom ...ye love," ch. 1. 8; . 7, with John, 21. 15-17: "Lovest thou me?" and 3 Peter, 1. 14, with Jobn, 21. 18, 19. Wiesinger well says, "He who in loving impatience cast himself into the sea to meet the Lord. is also the man who most earnestly testifies to the hope of his return; he who dated his own faith from the sufferings of his Master, is never weary in holding up the suffering form of the Lord before his readers to comfort and stimulate them: he before whom the death of a martyr is in assured expectation, is t forth the duty, as well as the consolation, of suffering for Christ: as a rock of the church he grounds his readers against the storm of present tribulation on the true Rock of ages,"
Mesopotamia and Judea," i.e., the Jews now subject to Ver. 1-25. ADDRESS TO THE ELECTED OF THE GOD the Parthians, whose capital was Babylon, where he HEAD: THANKSGIVING FOR THE LIVING HOPE TO laboured in person ; " dwellers in Cappadocia, WHICH WE ARE BEGOTTEN, PRODUCING JOY AMIDST | Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Bithynia," the Asiatic disSUFFERINGS: THIS SALVATION AN OBJECT OF persion derived from Babylon, whom he ministers to DEEPEST INTEREST TO PROPHETS AND TO ANGELS : by letter. 2. foreknowledge-foreordaining love (0. 20) Its COSTLY PRICE A MOTIVE TO HOLINESS AND inseparable from God's foreknowlerige, the origin from
AGAIN OF TUE EVER- which, and pattern according to which election takes ABIDING WORD or God. 1. Peter-Greek form of place. Acts, 2, 23, and Romans, 11. 2, prove "foreCephas, man of rock, av apostle of Jesus Christ- knowledge" to be forcordination. God's foreknow"He who preaches otherwise than as a messenger of ledge is not the perception of any ground of action Christ, is not to be heardi: if he preach as such, then out of himself; still, in it liberty is comprehended. it is all one as if thou didst hear Christ speaking in thy and all absoluto constraint debarred. (ANSELM in presence." (LUTHER.) to the strangers scattered-lit., STEIGER.] For go the Son of God was "foreknown" "sojourners of the dispersion:" only in John, 7. 35 and (so the Greek for foreordained," v. 20) to be the sacri. James, 1. 1, in New Testament, and LXX., Psalm 147.2, ficial Lamb, not against, or without His will, but His * the outcasts of Israel:" the designation peculiarly will rested in the will of the Father : this includes given to the Jews in their dispersed state thronghout self-conscious action; nay, even cheerful acquiescence. the world ever since the Babylonian captivity. These | The Hebrew and Greek "know" include approval and he, as the apostle of the circumcision, primarily ad- acknowledging as one's own. The Hebrew marks the dresses, but not in the limited temporal sense only: he oneness of loving and choosing, by having one word for regards their temporal condition as a shadow of their both, Bachar (LXX., Greek, hairetizo). Peter descends spiritual calling to be strangers and pilgrims on earth, from the eternal "election of God throagh the new looking for the heavenly Jerusalem as their home. So birth, to the believer's "sanctification," that from tbe Gentile Christians, as the spiritual Israel, are in this he might again raise them through the consideracluded secondarily, as having the same high calling. tion of their new birth to a "living hope” of the He ch. 1. 14: 2. 10; 4. 3) plainly refers to Christian Gen. heavenly "inheritance." (HEIDEGGER.] The Divine tiles (cf. v. 17; ch. 2. 11). Christians, if they rightly con- | three are introduced in their respective functions in sider their calling, must never settle themselves here, I redemption, through - Greek, “in:" the element in but feel themselves travellers. As the Jews in their which we are elected. The "election of God realized dispersion diffused through the nations the knowledge and manifested itself "IN" their sanctification. Beof the one God, preparatory to Christ's first advent, so lievers are "sanctified through the offering of Christ Christians, by their dispersion among the unconverted, once for all” (Hebrews, 10. 10). "Thou must believe diffuse the knowledge of Christ, preparatory to His and know that thou art holy; not, however, through second advent. "The children of God scattered thine own piety, but throngh the blood of Christ." abroad" constitute one whole in Christ, who "gathers (LUTHER.) This is the true sanctification of the them together in one," now partially and in Spirit, Spirit, to obey the gospel, to trust in Christ. (BULbereafter perfectly and visibly. "Elect," in the Greek | LINGER.) sanctification--the Spirit's setting a part of order, comes before "strangers;" elect, in relation to the saint as consecrated to God. The execution of heaven, strangers, in relation to the earth. The elec- God's choice (Galatians, 1.4). God the Father gives us tion here is that of individuals to eternal life by the salvation by gratuitous election : the Son earns it by sovereign grace of God, as the sequel shows. "While His blood-shedding: the Holy Spirit applies the merits each is certified of his own election by the Spirit, he of the Son to the soul by the gospel word. (CALVIN.) receives no assurance concerning others, nor are we to | Cf. Numbers, 6. 24-26, the Old Testament triple blessbe too inquisitive (John, 21, 21, 22]: Peter numbers ing. unto obedience-the result or end aimed at by them among the elect, as they carried the appearance of God as respects us, the obedience which consists in having been regenerated." (CALVIN.) He calls the I faith, and that which flows from faith: “ obeying the whole church by the designation strictly belonging truth through the Spirit" (v. 22). Romans, 1, 5, only to the better portion of them. (CALVIX.) The “obedience to the faith," and obedience the fruit of election to hearing, and that to eternal life, are dis- faith. sprinkling, &c.- not in justification through tinct. Realization of our election is a strong motive the atonement once for all, which is expressed in the to holiness. The minister invites all, yet does not hide previous clauses, but as the order proves the daily the truth that in none but the elect will the preaching I being sprinkled by Christ's blood, and so cleansed effect eternal blessing. As the chief fruit of exhorta-1 from all sin, which is the privilege of one already tions, and even of threatenings, redounds to "the justified and "walking in the light." Grace- the source elect; therefore, at the outset, Peter addresses them. I of " peace." be multiplied-still further than already. STEIGER translates, To "the elect pilgrims who form Daniel, 4. 1. "Ye have now peace and grace, but still the dispersion in Pontus," &c. The order of the pro- not in perfection; therefore, ye must go on increasing vinces is that in which they would be viewed by one l until the old Adam be dead." [LUTN ER.) 3. He bewriting from the East from Babylon (ch. 5. 13); from gins, like Paul, in opening his epistles with giving North East southwards to Galatia, South East to Cap thanks to God for the greatness of the salvation: herein padocia, then Asia, and back to Bitbynia. West of I he looks forward (1.) into the future (r. 3-9) : (2.) backPontus. Contrast the order, Acts, 2. 9. He now was ward into the past (v. 10-12). (ALFORD.) Blessed ministering to those same peoples as he preached to on -A distinct Greek word (eulogetos. "Blessed BE") is Pentecost: "Parthians, Medes, Elamites, dwellers in I used of God, from that used of man (eulogemenos,
1 PETER, L.
Hope and heritane. * Blessed 18). Pather-This whole epistle accords with ward splendour of the lovebest of eartbly thinn. the Lord's prayer: "Father." ch. 1. 3, 14, 17. 23; 2; dooms them soon to rottenness and decay. tundeid **Our. ch. 1. 4, end;" In heaven. ch. 1. 4; * Hallowed -not stained as earthly goods by sin, either in the so be thy name, ch. 1. 15, 16; 3. 16; "Thy kingdom compe, quiring, or in the using of them, unsusceptible of any ch. 2. e: "Thy will be done, ch. 2. 15; 3. 17; 4. 2, 19: stain "The rich man is either a dishonest man him ** daily bread." ch. &. 7: * forgiveness of sins," ch. 4. self, or the beir of a dishonest man." (JEROME) 8. 1; "temptation," ch. 4. 12: "deliverance," ch. 4. 18 Even Israel's inheritance was defiled by the people's
BENGELI: cf. ch.3.7 and 4. 7 for allusions to prayer. sins. Defilement intrudes even on our holy things Dow. Barak, Hebrero *bless, is lit. to kneel. God, as the whereas God's service ought to be undefiled. that original source of blessing, must be blessed through fadeth not away-Contrast 6. 24. Even the most deliall His works. abundant - Greek, "much," "full." cate part of the heavenly inheritance, its bloom, CODThat God's "mercy" should reach us, guilty and tinues unfading. "In substance incorruptible; in enemies, proves its fulness. **Mercy" met our misery: purity undefiled; in beauty unfading." (ALFORD. "grace," our guilt. begotten as again-of the Spirit by reserved-kept up Colossians, 1. 5. * lard up for you in the word (d. 231 : whereas we were children of wrath heaven, 2 Timothy, 4. 8); Greek Perfect, expressings naturally, and dead in síns. unto-so that we have. I fized and abiding state. "whicb has been and is rescrvlively--Greck, "living." It bas life in itself, gives life, ed." The inheritance is in secunty, beyond risk, out and looks for life as its object. (DE WETTE.) Liring of the reach of Satan, though we for whom it is reserved is & favourite expression of St. Peter (v. 23; ch. 2. 4, 5). are still in the midst of dangers. Still, if we be be He delights in contemplating life overcoming death lievers, we too, as well as the inberitance, are kept in the believer. Faith and love follow hope (v. 8,21.22.) (the same Greek, John, 17. 12) by Jesus safely (r. 3). in "Unto) a lively hope" is further explained by " To) | heaveu-Greck, "in the heavens," where it can neither an inberitance incorruptible...fadeth not away," and be destroyed nor plundered. It does not follow that *(unto) salvation...ready to be revealed in the last because it is nono laid up in heaven, it shall not here time." I prefer with BENGEL and STEIGER to join as after be on earth also. for you-It is secure not only in in Greek, *Unto a hope liring (possessing life and itself from all misfortune, but also from all alienation, vitality) through the resurrection of Jesns Christ." so that no other can receive it in your stead. He bed Faith, the subjective means of the spiritual resur- said us (v. 3), he now turns his address direct to the rection of the soul, is wrought by the same power elect, in order to encourage and exhort tbem. 5. kest whereby Christ was raised from the dead. Baptism is -Greek, “who are being guarded." He answers the an objective means (ch. 3. 21). Its moral fruit is a objection, or what use is it that salvation is * reserved bew Life. The connexion of our sonship with the for us in heaven, as in & calm secure baren, wbea resurrection appears also in Luke, 20. 36; Acts, 13. 33. we are tossed in the world as on a troubled ses in the Christ's resurrection is the cause of ours. (1.) as an midst of a thousand wrecks? (CALVIN.) As the inefficient cause (1 Corinthians, 16. 22 : (?) as an exheritance is "kept" (s. 4 safely for the far distant emplary cause, all the saints being about to rise after "heirs," so mast they be "guarded in their persons the similitude of His resurrection. Our "hope" is, so as to be sure of reaching it. Neither shall it be Christ rising from the dead hath ordained the power, wanting to them, por they to it. "We are guarded is! and is become the pattern of the believer's resurrec- the world as our inheritance is kept in heater. This Cion. The soul, born again from its natural state into defines the "you" of v. 4. The inheritance, remember, the life of grace, is after that bom again unto the life belongs only to those who "endure unto the end," te of glory. Matthew, 19. 28. * The regeneration, when ing "guarded" by, or IN "the power of God, through the Son of man shall sit in the throne of His glory: the farth." Contrast Luke, 8. 13. God Himself is our sale resurrection of our bodies is a kind of coming out of guarding power. "It is His power which stres us the womb of the earth and entering upon immortality. | from our enemies. It is His long-suffering which are a pativity into another life. (BisHOP PEARSON.) | us from ourselves." (BENGEL] Jude, 1, preserved The four causes of our salvation are, (1.) the primary in Christ Jesus;" Philippians, 1. 6; 4. 7. "keep." Grecka cause, God's mercy: (2.) the proximate cause, Christ's | "guard," as here. This guarding is effected, on the death and resurrection; (3.) the formal cause, our re-part of God, by His * power," the efficient cause; CO generation ; (4.) the final cause, our eternal bliss. As the part of man, “through faith," the effective means John is the disciple of love, so Paul of faith, and by--Greek,"in." The believer lives spiritually is Peter of hope. Hence, Peter, most of all the apostles, God and in virtue of His power, and God lives in bin urges the resurrection of Christ: an undesigned coin-"In" marks that the cause is inherent in the means cidence between the history and the epistle, and so a working organically through them with living it proof of genuineness. Christ's resurrection was the fluence, so that the means, in so far as the cause York occasion of bis own restoration by Christ after his fall. organically through them, exist also in the cause 1 4. To an inheritance-the object of our "hope" (v. 3), 1 power of God which guards the believer is no external which is therefore not a dead, but a " living* hope. | force working upon him from without with mechanical The inheritance is the believer's already by title, be- necessity, but the spiritual power of God in which ing actually assigned to him; the entrance on its pos-lives, and with whose Spirit he is clothed. It come session is future, and hoped for as a certainty. Being down on, and then dwells in him, even as he is in 2 "begotten again" as a “son," he is an "heir," as (STEIGER.) Let none flatter himself he is being guste earthly fathers beget children who shall inherit their led by the power of God unto salvation, if he be Dot goods. Tho inheritance is "salvation" (v. 6, 9): "the walking by faith. Neither speculative knowledge ad grace to be brought at the revelation of Christ" (v. 13): reason, nor works of seeming charity will shall "a crown of glory that fadeth not away." incorraptible severed from faith. It is through faith that saivati
not having within the germs of death. Negations | is both received and kept. unto salvation-the final of the imperfections which meet us on every side here end of the new birth. "Salvation, not merely are the chief means of conveying to our minds a con- complished for us in title by Christ, and made over ta ception of the heavenly things which have not | us on our believing, but actually manifesterik el entered into the heart of man," and which we have finally completed. ready to be revealed - When Cbris. not faculties now capable of fully knowing. Peter. I shall be revealed, it shall be revealed. The prepart sanguine, impulsive, and highly susceptible of outward | tions for it are being made now, and began wta impressions, was the more likely to feel painfully tbe | Christ came: "All things are now ready:" the sale deep-seated corruption wbich, lurking under the out. I tion is already accomplished, and only waits we