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The Whore's Name, Mystery,
REVELATION, XVII.

Baby'on the Great. Revelation thrice assigns to the harlot or Babylon. So numphe kai to arnion. The whore and tbe beast: the Joachim, an abbot from Calabria, about A.D, 1200, when Bride and the Lamb. of harlots-Greek. " of the har. asked by Richard of England, who had summoned him lots and of the abominations." Not merely Rome, to Palestine, concerning antichrist, replied that "he but Christendom as a whole, even as formerly Israel was born long ago at Rome, and is now exalting him as a wbole, has become a harlot. The invisible church self above all that is called God." Roger Hoveden of true believers is hidden and dispersed in the visible Angl. Chron., 1.2, and elsewhere, wrote, "The harlot ar church. The boundary lines which separate harlot and rayed in gold is the church of Rome." Whenever, and women are not denominational nor drawn externally, wherever (not in Rome alone) the church, instead of but can only be spiritually discerned. If Rome were being "clothed (as at first, ch. 12. 1) with the sun" of the only seat of Babylon, much of the spiritual profit heaven, is arrayed in earthly meretricions gauds, com- of Revelation would be lost to us: but the harlot promising the truth of God through fear, or flattery,of "sitteth upon many waters" (v. 1), and "ALL nations the world's-power, science, or wealth, she becomes the have drunk of the wipe of her fornication" (v. 2: ch. 18. harlot seated on the beast, and doomed in righteous | 3; "the earth," ch. 19. 2). External extensiveness over retribution to be judged by the beast (v. 16), Soon, like the whole world, and internal conformity to the world Rome, and like the Jews of Christ's and the apostles' -worldliness in extent and contents -- is symbolized time leagued with the heathen Rome, she will then be- by the name of the world city, " Babylon." As the *come the persecutor of the saints (0.6). Instead of sun shines on all the earth, tbus the woman clothed 'drinking her Lord's "cup" of suffering, she has "& cup with the sun is to let her light penetrate to the utter. full of abominations and filthinesses," Rome, in her most parts of the earth. But she in externally Chrismedals, represents herself holding a cup with the self- tianizing the world, permits herself to be seduced by condemning inscription, "Sedet super universum." the world: thus ber universality or catholicity is not Meanwhile the world. power gives up its hostility and that of the Jerusalem which we look for the MOTHER accepts Christianity externally: the beast gives up of us all." ch. 21. 2; Isaiah. 2. 2-4; Galatians, 4. 26), but its God-opposed character, the woman gives up her that of Babylon, the world-wide but harlot city! (As divine one. They meet half way by mutual conces- Babylon was destroyed and the Jews restored to Jeru. sions: Christianity becomes worldly, the world becomes salem by Cyrus, so our Cyrus-a Persian name, meaning Christianized. The gainer is the world, the loser is the the sun-the sun of righteousness, shall bring Israel, church. The beast for a time receives a deadly wound literal and spiritual, to the holy Jerusalem at His (ch. 13. 3), but is not really transfigured: he will return coming. Babylon ard Jorusalem are the two opposite worse than ever (v. 11-14). The Lord alone by His com- poles of the spiritual world.) Still the Romish church ing can make the kingdoms of this world become the is not only accidentally, and as a matter-of-fact, but in kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ. The "purple" virtue of its very PRINCIPLE, a harlot, the metropolis is the badge of empire: even as in mockery it was put of whoredom, "the mother of harlota ;" whereas the on our Lord. decked - lit., "gilded." Stones - Greek, Evangelical Protestant Church is, according to her "stone." filthiness-A, B, and ANDREAS read, "the principle and fundamental creed, a chaste woman: the Althy (impure) things." 5. upon... forehead... name-as Reformation was a protest of the woman against the harlots usually had. What a contrast to "HOLINESS | harlot. The spirit of the heathen world-kingdomn Romo TO THE LORD," inscribed on the mitre on the high had, before the Reformation, changed the Church in priest's forehead, mystery-Implying a spiritual fact the West into a Church-State, Rome: and in the East, heretofore hidden, and incapable of discovery by mere into a State-Church, fettered by the world-power, bav. reason, but now revealed. As the union of Christ anding its centre in Byzantium ; the Roman and Greek the church is a "great mystery" (a spiritual truth of Churches have thus fallen from the invisible spiritual momentous interest, once hidden, now revealed, Ephe-essence of the gospel into the elements of the world. sians, 5. 31, 32): so the church conforming to the world (AUBERLEN.) Cf, with the "woman" called "Baby. and thereby becoming a harlot is a counter "mystery" lon" here, the woman named "wickedness" or "law(or spiritual truth, symbolically now revealed), As I lessness," "iniquity" (Zechariah, 5. 7, 8, 11), carried to iniquity in the harlot is a leaven working in "mys- Babylon; cf. "the mystery of iniquity" and "the man tery." and tberefore called "the mystery of iniquity," | of sin." "that wicked one," lit., "the lawless one" so when she is destroyed, the iniquity heretofore work (2 Thessalonians, 2. 7, 8; also Matthew, 24. 12). 6. ibg (comparatively) latently in her, shall be rerealed martyrs-witnesses. I wondered with great admiration in the man of iniquity, the open embodiment of all 1-As the Greek is the same in the verb and the noun, previous evil. Contrast the “mystery of God" and translate the latter "wonder." Jobn certainly did not

godliness," ch. 10. 7; 1 Timothy, 3. 16. It was Rome admire her in the modern English sense. Elsewbere that crucified Christ: that destroyed Jerusalem and (v. 8: ch. 13. 3), all the earthly-minded ("they that scattered the Jews; that persecuted the early Christians dwell on the earth") wonder in admiration of the in Pagan times, and Protestant Christians in Papal beast. Here only is John's wonder called forth: not times ; and probably shall be again restored to its the beast, but the woman sunken into the harlot, the pristine grandeur, such as it had under the Caesars. church become a world loving apostate, moves his sorjust before the burning of the harlot and of itself with rowful astonishment at so awful a change. That the her. So HIPPOLYTUS, de Antichristo (who lived in the world should be beastly is natural, but that the faithsecond century), tbought. Popery cannot be at one and I ful bride should become the whore is monstrous, ani! the same time the “mysiery of iniquity," and the mani. excites the same amazement in him, as the same awful fested or revealed antichrist. Probably it will compro- change in Israel excited in Isaiah ard Jeremiah. "Hormise for political power (v. 3) the portion of Christi- rible thing" in them answers to "abominations" here. anity still in its creed, and thus shall prepare the way " Corruptio optimi pessima:" when the church falls. for antichrist's manifestation. The name Babylon, she sinks lower than the godless world, in proportion which in the image, Daniel, 2., is given to the head, is as her right place is higher than the world. It is bere given to the barlot, which marks her as being con- striking that in v. 3, "woman" has not the article, the nected with the fourth kingdom, Rome, the last part woman," as if she had been before mentioned: for of the image. Benedict XIII., in bis indiction for a though identical in one sense with the woman, ch. 12.. jubilee, A.D. 1726, called Rome "the mother of all be- in another sense she is not. The elect are never per lievers, and the mistress of all churches" (harlots like verted into apostates, and still remain as the true herself). The correspondence of syllables and accepts woman invisibly contained in the harlot : yet Chris. in Greek is striking : He porne kai to therion : He tendom regarded as the woman has apostatized from

The Interpretation
REVELATION, XVII.

of the Seren Heade first faith. 8. beast... was, and is not-(cf, 6. 11.) The "mountains," grent seats of the world-power. The time when the beast “is not" is the time during which seven universal Govt.opposed monarchies, are Egypt it has "the deadly wound :" the time of the serenth (the first world-power which came into collision with head becoming Christian externally, when its beast-| God's people), Assyria, Babylon, Greece, Medo-Persis, like character was put into suspension temporarily. Rome, the Germanio Sclavonic empire the clay of the The healing of its scound answers to its ascending out fourth kingdom mixed with its irop in Nebuchadnezof the bottomless pit. The beast, or anti-Christian world-zar's image, & fifth material, Daniel, 2, 33, 34, 42, 43, power, returns worse than ever, with Satanic powers symbolising this last head). These seven might seeta from hell (ch.11.7), not merely from the sea of convulsed not to accord with the seven heads in Daniel, 9. 47. nations (ch. 13. 1). Christian civilisation gives the beast one head on the first beast (Bubylon), one on the second only a temporary wound, whence the deadly cound is (Medo-Persia), four on the third (Greece: ris, Egypt, always mentioned in connexion with its being healed Syria, Thrace with Bithynia, and Greece with Mace up, the non-existence of the beast in connexion with don): but Egypt and Greece are in both lists. Syria its reappearance; and Daniel does not even notice any answers to Assyria (from which the name Syria is change in the world-power effected by Christianity. We abbreviated, and Thrace with Bithynia answers to the are endangered on one side by the spurious Christi-Gothic-Germanic - Sclavonic hordes which, pouring anity of the harlot, on the other by the open anti- I down on Rome from the North, founded the Germa Christianity of the beast : the third class is Christ's nic-Sclavonic enipire. The woman sitting on the sen ** little flock." 80-So B, Vulgate, and ANDREAS read implies the Old and New Testament church conformthe future tense. But A and IRENÆUS, "goeth." into ing to, and resting on, the world-power, i.c., on all the perdition--The continuance of this revived seventh fi.e.. seven world-kingdoms. Abraham and Isaac dissem the eighth) head is short: it is therefore called "the bling as to their wives through fear of the kings of son of perdition," who is essentially doomed to it | Faypt foreshadowed this. Cf. Ezekiel, 16. aud 23.00 almost immediately after his appearance. names were Israel's whoredoms with Egypt, Assyria, Babylon; and -So Vulgate and ANDREAS, But A, B, Syriac, and Matthew, 7. 94; 24. 10-12, 23-20, on the characteristics of Coptic read the singular,"name is." written in-Greek, I the New Testament church's barlotry, riz, distrust

upon." which-rather," when they behold the beast suspicion, batred, treachery, divisions into parties, that it was," &c. So Vulgate was, and is not, and yet false doctrine. 10. there are--translate,"they (the seven is-AB, and ANDREAS read, "... and shall come" (lit.. beads) are seven kings." five...one-Greck. *tbe Ore... * be present," vie., again: Greek kai parestai). The He- the one;" the first five of the seven are fallen (a Ford brew tetragrammaton, or sacred four letters in Jehovah applicable not to forms of government passing away. "wbo is, who was, and who is to come," the believer's but to the fall of once powerful empires: Egypt, Ezeobject of worship, has its contrasted counterpart in kiel, 29. and 30.; Assyria and Nineveh, Nabum, 3 1-19; the beast " who was, and is not, and shall be present, Babylon, ch, 18. 9; Jeremiah, 50. and 51.: Medo-Persia the object of the earth's worship. (BENG KL.) They Daniel, 8. 3-7, 20-23 ; 10. 13; 11. 9; Greece. Daniel, 11. exult with wonder in seeing that the beast which had 4). Rome was "the one" existing in St. John's dayı seemed to have received its death blow from Christi. "Kings" is the Scripture phrase for kingdoms, because anity, is on the eve of reviving with greater power than these kingdoms are generally represented in character ever on the ruins of that religion which tormented by some one prominent head, as Babylon by Nebathem (ch, 11. 10). 9. Cr. ch. 13. 18: Daniel, 12. 10, where chadnezzar, Medo-Persia by Cyrus, Greece by Alexsimilarly spiritual discernment is put forward as needed ander, &c. the other is not yet come-Not as ALFORD. in order to understand the symbolical prophecy. seven inaccurately representing AUBERLEN, the Christian heads are seven mountains - The connexion between empire beginning soith Constantine; but, the Germamountains and kings must be deeper than the mere nio-Sclavonic empire beginning and continuing in its outward fact to which incidental allusion is made, beast-like, ie., HEATHEX anti-Christian character for that Rome (the then worid-city) is on seven hills only "A short space." The time when it is said of it (whence heathen Rome had a national festival called it is not" (v. 11., is the time during which it is Septimontium, the feast of the seven-hilled city (PLU: "wounded to death," and has the "deadly wound" (ch. TARCH): and on the imperial coins, just as here, sbe 13. 3. The external Christianization of the migrating is represented as a woman seated on seren hills, Coin hordes from the North which descended on Rome, is of Vespasian, described by Captain Smyth, Roman the wound to the beast answering to the earth suallorcoins, p. 310; Ackerman, I., P. 87). The seven heads ing up the flood heathen tribes) sent by the dragon, can hardly be at once seven leings or kingdoms (u. 10), Satan, to drown the woman, the church. The emphus and seven geographical mountains. The true con- sis palpably is on "a short space," which therefore nexion is, as the head is the prominent part of the comes first in the Greek, not on "he must continue, body, so the mountain is prominent in the land. Like as if his continuance for some [considerable) time sere "ser," and "earth" and "waters...peoples" (v. 16), so implied, as ALFORD wrongly thinks. The time of el. ** mountains" have & symbolical meaning, viz., pro- ternal Christianization (whilst the beast's wound cotminent seats of power. Especially such as are protinues) has lasted for upwards of fourteen centuries, minent hindrances to the cagse of God (Psalm 68. 16, ever since Constantine. Rome and the Greek churches 17; Isaiah, 40.4; 41. 16: 49. 11; Ezekiel, 35. 2): especially have partially healed the wound by restoring imageBabylon (which geographically was in a plain, but spi. worship. 11. beast that...is not-bis beastly character ritually is called a destroying mountain, Jeremiah, 51. being kept down by outward Christianization of the 25) in majestic contrast to which stands mount Zion, state until he starts ap to life again as "the eighth * the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isainh, 2.2), and king, his "wound being healed" (ch. 13. 31, antichrist the heavenly mount; ch. 21. 10. a great and high moun manifested in fullest and most intense opposition to tain...and that great city, the holy Jerusalem." So in God. The fe is emphatical in the Greek He, pecu. Daniel, 2. 36. the stone becomes a mountain - Mes. liarly and pre-eminently: answering to the little horu" siah's universal kingdom supplanting the previous with eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mooth speak world-kingdoms. As nature shadows forth the great ing great things, before whom three of the tas horas realities of the spiritual world, so seven-hilled Romei were plucked up by the roots, and to whom the wbole is a representative of the seven-headed world-power ten "give their power and strength" (v. 12, 13, 171. of which the dragon has been, and is the prince. The That a personal antichrist will stand at the head of the "seven kings" are hereby distinguished from the "ten anti-Christian kingdom, is likely from the analogy of kings" (v. 12): the former are what the latter are not Antiochus Epiphanes, the Old Testament antichrist,

The Interpretation
REVELATION, XVII.

of the Ten Horns. the little horn" in Daniel, 8. 9-12; also, “the man of lords, &c.--anticipating ch. 15. 16. are-not in the Greek, sin, son of perdition" (2 Thessalonians, 2, 3-8), answers Therefore translate, “And they that are with Him. here to "goeth into perdition," and is applied to an in- called, chosen, and faithful (shall overcome them, viz.. dividual. viz.. Judas, in the only other passage where the beast and his allied kings)." These bave been with the phrase Occurs (John, 17. 12). He is essentially a Christ in heaven unseen, but now appear with Him. child of destruction, and hence he has but a little time 15. (Ver. 1; Isaiah, 8. 7.) In impious parody of Jehoascended out of the bottomless pit, when he goes vah who "sitteth upon the flood." (ALFORD.) Also, into perdition" (v. 8, 11). "Whilst the church passes contrast the many waters," ch, 19. 6,"Alleluia." The through death of the flesh to glory of the Spirit, the "peoples," &c., here mark the universality of the spi. beast passes through the glory of the flesh to death." | ritual fornication of the church. The "tongues" re(AUBERLEN.) is of the seven-rather, "springs out of mind us of the original Babel, the confusion of tongues, the seven." The eighth is not merely one of the seven the beginning of Babylon, and the first commencerestored, but a new power or person proceeding out ment of idolatrous apostasy after the flood, as the of the seven, and at the same time embodying all the 1 tower was doubtless dedicated to the deitied heavens. God-opposed features of the previous seven concen Thus, Babylon is the appropriate name of the harlot. trated and consummated; for which reason there are | The pope, as the chief representative of the harlot. said to be pot eight, but only seven heads, for the eighth claims a double supremacy over all peoples, typifed is the embodiment of all the seven. In the birth by the "two swords" according to the interpretation pangs which prepare the "regeneration there are wars, of Boniface VIII. in the Bull, "Unam Sanctam," and earthquakes, and disturbances (AUBERLEN). wherein represented by the two keys, viz., spiritual as the antichrist takes his rise ("sea," ch. 13. 1: Mark, 13. 8: universal bishop, whence he is crowned with the mitre: Luke. 21. 9-11). He does not fall like the other seven and temporal, whence he is also crowned with the (v. 10), but is destroyed, going to his own perdition, by tiara in token of his imperial supremacy. Contrast the Lord in person. 12. ten kings...received no kingdom | with the pope's diadems the many diadems" of Him as yet ; but receive power as kings ... with the beast who alone has claim to. and shall exercise when He Hence and from v. 14, 16, it seems that these ten kings shall come, the twofold dominion (ch. 19. 12). 16. upon or kingdoms, are to be contemporaries with the beast the beast-But A, B, Vulgate, and Syriac read, "And in its last or eighth form, viz., antichrist. Cf. Daniel, the beast." shall make her desolate-having first dis2. 34, 44, "the stone smote the image upon his feet." | mounted her from her seat on the beast (v. 3). naked i.e., upon the ten toes, which are in v. 41-44. inter --stripped of all her gaud (v. 4). As Jerusalem used preted to be "kings." The ten kingdoms are not, the world-power to crucify her Saviour, and then was tberefore, ten which arose in the overthrow of Rome destroyed by that very power, Rome; so the church, Theatben), but are to rise out of the last state of the having apostatised to the world, shall have judgment fourth kingdom under the eighth head. I agree with executed on her first by the world-power, the beast ALFORD that the phrase "as kings," implies that they and his allies; and these afterwards shall have judgreserve their kingly rights in their alliance with the ment executed on them by Christ Himself in person. beast, wherein "they give their power and strength So Israel leaning on Egypt, a broken reed, is pierced unto" him (v. 13). They have the name of kings, but by it, and then Egypt itself is punished. So Israel's not with undivided kingly power. [WORDSWORTH.) whoredom with Assyria and Babylon was punished See AUBERLEN's not so probable view, Note, v. 3. one by the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. So the hour- definite time of short duration, during which church when it goes a whoring after the world as if it "the devil is come down to the inhabiters of the earth were the reality, instead of witnessing against its aposand of the sea, having great wrath, because he knoweth | tasy from God, is false to its profession : bei that he hath but a short time." Probably the three longer a reality itself, but a sham, the church is rightly and a half years (ch. 11. 2. 3: 13. 5). Antichrist is in exist judged by that world which for a time had used the ence long before the fall of Babylon; but it is only at church to further its own ends, whilst all the while its fall he obtains the vassalage of the ten kings. He “hating" Christ's unworldly religion, but which now in the first instance imposes on the Jews as the Mes- no longer wants the church's aid. eat her flesh-Greek siah, coming in his own name; then persecutes those plural," masses of flesh," i.e., "carnal possessions;" imof them who refuse his blasphemous pretensions. Not plying the fulness of carnality into which the church until the sixth vial, in the latter part of his reign, does is sunk. The judgment on the harlot is again and he associate the ten kings with him in war with the again described (ch. 18. 1; 19. 6): first by an "angel Lamb, having gained them over by the aid of the spi having great power" (ch. 18. 1), then by "another voice rits of devils working miracles. His connexion with from heaven" (ch, 18. 4-20), then by "a mighty angel" Israel appears from his sitting "in the temple of God" (ch. 18. 21-24). Cr. Ezekiel, 16. 37-44, originally said of (2 Thessalonians, 2. 4), and as the antitypical "abo Israel, but further applicable to the New Testament mination of desolation standing in the Holy place" church when fallen into spiritual fornication. On the (Daniel, 9. 27; 12. 11; Matthew, 24. 15), and "in the city! phrase, "eat...flesh" for prey upon one's property, and where our Lord was crucified" (ch. 11. 8). It is re injure the character and person, cf. Psalm 14. 4; 27. 2; markable that IRENÆUS, Hær.. 6. 25, and St. Cyril of Jeremiah, 10. 25; Micah, 3. 3. The first Napoleon's Jerusalem (Rufinus Hist., 10. 37), prophesied that an edict published at Rome in 1809, confiscating the Papal tichrist should have his seat at Jerusalem, and should dominions and joining them to France, and lately the restore the kingdom of the Jews. Julian the apos- severance of large portions of the pope's territory from tate, long after, took part with the Jews, and aided in his sway, and the union of them to the dominions of building their temple, herein being antichrist's fore- the king of Italy, virtually through Louis Napoleon. runder. 13. one mind--one sentiment. shall give-So I are a first instalment of the full realization of this Coptic. But A, B, and Syriac." give." strength-Greek, I prophecy of the whore's destruction. "Her flesh" "autbority." They become his dependent allies (v. 14). seems to point to her temporal dignities and resources, Thus antichrist sets up to be king of kings; but scarcely las distinguished from "bersell" (Greele). How striking has he put forth his claim when the true KING OF a retribution, that having obtained her first temporal KINGS appears and dashes him down in a moment to dominions, the exarchate of Ravenna, the kingdom of destruction. 14. These shall... war with the Lamb-in the Lombards, and the state of Rome, by recognising league with the beast. This is a summary anticipation the usurper Pepin as lawful king of France, she should of ch. 19. 19. This shall not be till after they have first be stripped of her dominions by another usurper of executed adgment on the harlot (v. 16, 16). Lord of France, the Napoleonic dynasty ! burn... with fire-the

Babylon's Fal:

REVELATION, XVIII.

God's People Cailed out of her. legal punishment of an abominable fornication. 17. thrown away." [AUBERLEN) "The hariot is not hath pat--the prophetical past tense for the future. Rome alope (though she is preeminently sol, but every falfl-Greek, "do," or "accomplish." The Greek poiesai, church that has not Christ's mind and spirit. False is distinct from that which is translated "fulfilled," | Christendom, divided into very many sects, is truly Greek telesthesontai, below. his will--Greek, his mind. Babylon, 1.e., confusion. However, in all Christendom or purpose: whilst they think only of doing their own the true Jesus-congregation, the woman clothed with purpose. to agres lit.. "to do for accomplish) one the sun, lives and is hidden. Corrupt, lifeless Christesmind" or "purpose." A and Vulgate omit this clause, dom is the harlot, whose great aim is the pleasure of But B supports it. the words of God-foretelling the the flesh, and which is governed by the spirit of nature rise and downfall of the beast: Greek hoi logoi in A, B, I and the world." (HAEx in AUBERLEX.) The Orst and ANDREAS. English Version reading is Greek ta justification of the woman is in her being called out of Themata, which is not well supported. Not mere arti. Babylon, tbe harlot, at the culminating stage of the culate utterances, but the efficient words of Ilim who latter's sin, when judgment is about to fall: for apos is the Word, Greek logos. fulfilled (ch. 10. 7.) 18. tate Christendom, Babylon, is not to be converted, reigneth - lit., "hath kingship over the kings." The but to be destroyed. Secondly, she has to pass through harlot cannot be a mere city literally, but is called so an ordeal of persecution from in a spiritual sense (ch. 11. 8). Also the beast cannot and prepares her for the transfiguration-glory at represent a spiritual power, but a world-power. In Christ's coming (ch. 20. 4; Luke, 21, 28). be not par. this verse the harlot is presented before us ripe for takers - Greek, “bave no fellowship with her sins." judgment. The 18th chapter details that judgment. tbat ye receive not of her plagues-38 Lot's wife, by CHAPTER. XVIII.

lingering too near the polluted and doomed city. 5. Ver. 1-24. BABYLON'S FALL: God's PEOPLE CALLED her sins-as a great heap. reached-Greek, ** reached OUT OF HIER: THE KING AND MERCHANTS OF THE so far as to come into close contact with, and to cleare EARTH MOURX, WHILST THE SAINTS REJOICK AT HER | unto.* 6. Addressed to the executioners of God's FALL. 1. And-So Vulgate and ANDREAS. But A, B, wrath. reward-Greek, "repay." she rewarded-Eng. Syriac, and Coptic omit "and." power-Greek "au I lish Version reading adds "you" with none of the thority." lightened-"illumined." with-Greek." owing oldest MSS. But A, B, C, Vulgate, Syriae, and Coptic to." 2. mightily...strong-Not supported by MSS. But omit it. She had not rewarded or repaid the worldA, B, Vulgate, Syriac, and Coptic read, “with (lit.. IN) power for some injury which the world-power bad a mighty voice." is fallen, is fallen-So A, Vulgate. | inflicted on her; but she bad given the world-power Syriac, and ANDREAS. But B and Coptic omit the I that which was its due, ris., spiritual delusions, be second "is fallen” (Isaiah, 21. 9: Jeremiah, 61. 8). I cause it did not like to retain God in its knowledge: This phrase is here prophetical of her fall, still future, the unfaithful church's principle was, Populus ut as v. 4 proves. devils-Greek, "demons," the hold-a decipi, et decipiatur, "The people like to be deceived, keep or prison. 3. tbe wine-So B, Syriac, and Coptic, I and let them be deceived." double-of sorrow. CorBut A, C, and Vulgate cmit. druuk-ch, 14. 8, from trast with this the double of joy which Jerusalem shall which perhaps "the wine" may have been interpolated. receive for her past suffering (Isaiah, 61, 7; Zacbarish, They have drunk of her fornication, the consequence | 9. 12): even as she has received double punishment for of which will be wrath to themselves. But A, B, and her sins (Isaiah, 40. 9). unto her-So Syriac, Coptic, C read, "lowing to the wrath of her fornication all and ANDREAS. A, B, and Comit it in the cop . $: nations) have fallen." Vulgate and most versions read ch, 14. 8; 17. 4). filled-lit., mixed. full to her double-of as English Version, which may be the right reading, I the Lord's cup of wrath. 7. How much-ic, in proporthough not supported by the oldest MSS. Babylon, tion as, lived deliciously - luxuriously : Note, c. the whore, is destroyed, before the beast slays the two wbere the Greek is akin. Sorrow-Greek, * mourning, witnesses (ch. 11.), and then the beast is destroyed him as for a dead husband. I sit-So Vulgate. But A, A sell. abundance - lit.. "power." delicacies - Grecl, I and C prefix "that." I am no widow - for the world "luxury." See Note, 1 Timothy, 5.11, where the Greek power is my husband and my supporter. I shall sees verb "wax wanton" is akin to the noun here. Trans sorrow-Greek, “mourning." "I am seated this lors late. "wanton luxury." The reference is not to earthly 1 time)...I am no widow...I shall see no sorrow." marks merchandise, but to spiritual wares, indulgencies, her complete unconcerned security as to the past. idolatries, superstitions, worldly compromises, where present, and future. (BENGKL) I shall never have to with the harlot, ie, the apostate church, has made mourn as one berest of her husband. As Babylon vs merchandise of men. This applies especially to Rome; queen of the East, so Rome bas been queen of the but the Greek, and even in a less degree Protestant West, and is called on imperial coins "the cerra! churches, are not guiltless. However, the principle of city." So Papai Rome is called by Ammian Marcellin, Evangelical Protestantism is pure, but the principle of 15. 7. * Babylon is a former Rome, and Romne e latter Rome and the Greek churches is not so. 4. Come ont Babylon. Rome is a daughter of Babylon, and by ber. of her, my people-Quoted from Jeremiah, 50.8; 61. 6, 45, as by her mother, God has been pleased to subdue the Even in the Romish church God has a people: but they world under one sway." (ST. AUGUSTINE As the are in great danger: their only safety is in coming out Jews' restoration did not take place tin Babylon's fall, of her at once. So also in every apostate or world. So R. Kimchi, on Obadiah, writes, "When Rombs conforming church there are some of God's invisible (Edom) shall be devastated, there shall be redemption and true church, who, if they would be safe, must to Israel." Romish idolatries have been the gresi come out. Especially at the eve of God's judgment on stumblingblocks to the Jews' acceptance of Chris apostate Christendom: as Lot was warped to come out tianity. 8. death on herself, though she thought of Sodom, just before its destruction, and Israel, to herself secure even from the death of her husband. come from about the tents of Dathan and Abiram. So mourning-instead of her feasting. famine-instead of the first Christians came out of Jerusalem, when the her luxurious delicacies (v. 3. 7), fire-Note, ch. 17.16 apostate Jewish church was judged. "State and Church Literal fire may burn the literal city of Rome, which are precious gifts of God. But the State being dese- is situated in the midst of volcanic agencies. As the crated to a different end from what God designed it. I ground was cursed for Adam's sin, and the earth under viz., to govern for, and as under, God, becomes beast-Noah was sunk beneath the flood, and Sodom was like; the Church apostatizing becomes the harlot. The burnt with fire, so may Rome be. But as the berlot true woman is the kernel: beast and harlot are the is mystical (the whole faithless church), the burning shell; whenever the kernel is mature, the shell is may be mainly mystical, symbolizing utter destruction

also in every but God's invisible

invisible (Edom) shall Remish idolatries have been

Israel." Rom the Jews' acce

of Chris o. Wal ANDREA Stones:

The World's Mourning
REVELATION, XVIII.

over Babylon's Fall. and removal. BENGEL is probably right in thinking true "incense" which God loves (Psalm 141. 2; Malachi. Rome will once more rise to power. The carnal, faith- 11. 11), fine flour-The similago of the Latins. (ALFORD.) less, and worldly elements in all churches, Roman, beasts - of burden: cattle, slaves-Greek, "bodies." Greek, and Protestant, tend towards one common souls of men-Ezekiel, 27. 13.) Said of slaves. Apcentre, and prepare the way for the last form of the propriate to the spiritual harlot, apostate Christenbeast, viz., antichrist. The Pharisees were in the dom, especially Rome, which has so often enslaved main sonnd in creed, yet judgment fell on them as both bodies and souls of men. Though the New on the unsound Sadducees and half heathenish Sa- Testament does not directly forbid slavery, which maritans. So faithless and adulterous, carnal, worldly would, in the then state of the world, have incited a Protestant churches, will not escape for their sound- slave-revolt, it virtually condemns it, as here. Popery ness of creed. the Lord-So B, C, Syriac, and ANDREAS. / has derived its greatest gains from the sale of masses But A and Vulgate omit. "Strong" is the meaning of for the souls of men after death, and of indulgences God's Hebrew name, El. judgeth-But A, B, and purchased froin the Papal chancery by rich merchants read the past tense (Greek krinas), “who hath judged in various countries, to be retailed at a profit. (Moher:" the prophetical past for the future: the charge SIIEIM III., 95, 96.) 14. Direct address to Babylon. in 0. 4. to God's people to come out of her, implies, the fruits that thy soul lasted after-Greek,"thy autumnthat the judgment was not yet actually executed. 9. ripe-fruits of the lust (eager desire) of the soul," dainty Lived deliciously - Greek, luxuriated. The faithless -Greek, "fat:" "sumptuous" in food. goodly"splenchurch, instead of reproving. connived at the self I did," "bright," in dress and equipage. departed indulgent luxury of the great men of this world, and supported by none of our MSS. But A, B, C, Vulgate, sanctioned it by her own practice. Contrast the world's Syriac, and Coptic read, "perished," thou shalt-A. rejoicing over the dead bodies of the two witnesses (ch. c. Pulgate, and Syriac read, "They (men) shall no u. 10) who had tormented it by their faithfulness, with more find them at all." 15. of these things of the things its lamentations over the harlot who had made the mentioned, 0, 12, 13, which-"who." made rich by way to heaven smooth, and had been found a useful Greek,“ derived riches from her." stand afar off for tool in keeping subjects in abject tyranny. Men's the fear-(cf. v. 10.) wailing-Greek, “mourning." 16. carnal mind relishes a religion, like that of the apostate And So Vulgate and ANDREAS. But A, B, and C church, which gives an opiate to conscience, whilst omit. decked-lit.. "gilded." stones...pearls-Greek. leaving the sinner licence to indulge his lusts. bewail "stone...pearl." Band ANDREAS read "pearls." But her-A, B, C, Syriac, Coptic, and CYPRIAN omit" her." | A and C. "pearl." 17. is come to nonght-Greek, "is de10. God's judgments inspire fear even in the worldly, solated," shipmaster-Greck, "steersman," or "pilot." but it is of short duration, for the kings and great all the company in ships - A, C, Vulgate, and Syriac men soon attach themselves to the beast in its last read, “Every one who saileth to a place" (B has "...to and worst shape, as open antichrist, claiming all that the place"): every voyager. Vessels were freighted the harlot had claimed in blasphemous pretensions with pilgrims to various shrines, so that in one month and more, and so making up to them for the loss of (A.D. 1300) 200,000 pilgrims were counted in Rome the harlot mighty-Rome in Greek means strength: 1 (D'AUBIONE, Reformation): & source of gain, not only though that derivation is doubtful. 11. shall-So B. to the Papal see, but to shipmasters, merchants, pilots. But A and C read the present, "weep and mourn." do. These latter, however, are not restricted to those merchandise-Greek, "cargo:" wares carried in ships: literally "shipmasters," &c. but mainly refer, in the sbip-lading (cf. v. 17). Rome was not a commercial city. mystical sense, to all who share in the spiritual traffic and is not likely from her position to be so. The of apostate Christendom. 18. when they saw-Greek merchandise must therefore be spiritual. even as the horontes. But A, B, C, and ANDREAS read, Greek bleharlot is not literal, but spiritual. She did not wit.pontes, "looking at." Greek blepo is to use the eyes, to ness against carnal luxury and pleasure-seeking, the look; the act of seeing without thought of the object source of the merchants' gains, but conformed to them seenGreek horao refer to the thing seen or presented 1o. 7). She cared not for the sheep, but for the wool. I to the eye. (TITTMANN.) smoke--So B, C. But A reads. Professing Christian merchants in her lived as if this | " place." What city is like-cf. the similar boast as to world were the reality, not heaven, and were unscru- the beast, ch. 13. 4: so closely do the harlot and beast pulous as to the means of getting gain. Cf. Zechariah, approximate one another. Contrast the attribution of 5. 4-11 (Notes), on the same subject, the judgment on this praise to God, to whom alone it is due, by His mystical Babylon's merchants for unjust gain. All servants (Exodus, 16, 11). MARTIAL says of Rome, the merchandise here mentioned occurs repeatedly in "Nothing is equal to her;" and ATHENÆUS, "She is the "Roman Ceremonial." 12. (Note, ch. 17. 4) the epitome of the world." 19. wailing-"mourning." stones... pearls-Greek, "stone...pearl." fine linen - A. costliness--her costly treasures : abstract for concrete. B, and read (Greek) bussinou for bussou, i.e., "fine that had ships - A, B, and read, "that had their linen manufacture." (ALFORD.) The manufacture ships:' lit., "the ships." 20. holy apostles-So reads. for which Egypt (the type of the apostate church, ch. But A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and ANDREAS read. 11. B) was famed. Contrast "the fine linen" (Ezekiel, "Ye saints and ye apostles." avenged you ou her 16. 101 put on Israel, and on the New Testament Greek, "judged your judgment on (lit., exacting it church ch, 19. 8), the Bride, by God (Psalm 132. 9). from) her." "There is more joy in heaven at the thgine wood-the citrus of the Romans : probably the barlot's downfall, than at that of the two beasts. For cypressus thrioides, or the thuia articulata. "Citron the most heinous of all sins is the sin of those who know wood." (ALFORD.) A sweet smelling tree of Cyrene | God's word of grace, and keep it not. The worldliness of in Libya, used for incense. all manner vessels-Greek, the church is the most worldly of all worldliness. * every vessel," or "furniture." 13. cinnamon-de-Hence, Babylon, in Revelation, has not only Israel's signed by God for better purposes: being an ingredient sins, but also the sins of the heathen; and John dwells in the holy anointing oil, and a plant in the garden of longer on the abominations and judgments of the har the Beloved (Song of Solomon, 4. 14); but desecrated to lot, than on those of the beast. The term 'harlot' vile uses by the adulterese (Proverbs, 7. 17). odourg describes the false church's essential character. She of incense. A, C, Vulgate, and Syriac prefix "and I retains her human shape as the woman, does not beamomium" (A precious hair ointment made from an come a beast: she has the form of godliness, but denies Asiatic shrub). English Version reading is supported its power. Her rightful lord and husband, Jebovab by Coptic and ANDREAS, but not oldest MSS. oint- | Christ, and the joys and goods of His house, are no ments-Greek. “ointment." frankincense-Contrast the longer ber all in all, but she runs after the visible and

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