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and What to Follono. 3. BENGEL takes "the foundation" to be the im- church in general. youthful-Timothy was a youth

she faithfulness of God (to His promises to His (1 Timothy, 4. 12). righteousness-The opposite of

(CALVIN]). This contrasts well with the erring "iniquity," i.e., unrighteousness (v. 19; cf.1 Timothy, or the faith on the part of the reprobate, v. 18. 6. 11). peace, with-rather put no comma, "peace with Dited they deny the faith, God abates not His faith- them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart" as lef.0.13). having-seeing that it has. (ELLICOTT.) (1 Timothy, 1. 6; Ephesians. 6. 6; Colossians, 3. 92).

inseription: indicating ownershipand destination; / We are to love all men, but it is not possible to be at riptions were often engraven on a "foundation" peace with all men, for this needs community of pur0 Revelation, 31. 14). (ALFORD.) This will agree pose and opinion; they alone who call on the Lord sin

the view that the foundation" is the church cerely (as contrasted with the false teachers who had Edesians, 9. 20. If it be taken God's immoveable only the form of godliness, ch, 3, 5, 8; Titus, 1. 16, 16)

falsess, the "seal" will be regarded as attached I have this community (THEODORET) (Romans, 12. 18). Hiscovebant promise, with the inscription or legend, 23. (Titus, 3. 9.) unlearned--Greck, "undisciplined :" one side of its round surface," The Lord knoweth (it not tending to promote the discipline of faith and new in LXX, Numbers, 16. 5, to which Paul here morals (Proverbs, 6. 23). “Uninstructive:" in contrast šes, altering it for his purpose by the Spirit) them with "instructing" (v. 26), and "wise unto salvation"

are His;* on the obverse side, “Let every one that ich. 3. 15). avoid-"decline." 24. not strive - "The methas His Lord, Psalm 20. 7, or preacheth in His servant of the Lord" must imitate his master in not e, Jeremiah, 20. 9) Christ," &c. depart-Greek, striving contentiously, though uncompromising in earsd aloof." from iniquity--(Isaiah, 52. 11.) In both nestly contending for the faith (Jude, 3; Matthew, be there may be an allusion to Numbers, 16. 5, 26, 12. 19). gentle unto all men--" patient" (Greek, "patient A God's part and man's part are marked out. in bearing wrongs", in respect to adversaries. He is to

chooseth and knoweth His elect; our part is to be be gentle so that he may occasion no evils; patient so ise, and by the Spirit depart from all iniquity, an that he may endure evils. apt to teach-Implying not Buivocal proof of our being the Lord's (cf. Deuter only solid teaching and ease in teaching, but patience gay, 23.99, Luke, 13. 23-27). St. Lucian when asked and assiduity in it. (BENGEL) 25. instructing-Greek, la persecutors, "of what country art thout re- disciplining," instructing with correction, which those

"I am a Christian." "What is your occupation?" who deal in "uninstructive" or " undisciplined quesa Christian.* "* Of what family!" "I am & | tions" need (Notes, v. 23; 1 Timothy, 1. 20). those that tian." (CHRYSOSTON Orationes, 75.) He cannot oppose themselves--Greek, "oppositely affected :" those

coured with the name Christian, who dishonours, of a different opinion. if..peradventure-Greele, * if at biquity, Christ, the Author of the name. Blan any time." repentance-which they need as antecedent ta's refreshment amidst ber torures was to say, "I to the full lenovoledge (so the Greek for "acknowledge 2. Christian, and with us Christians no evil is ment") of the truth (1 Timothy, 2. 4), their minds being Maz" IETSEBIUS. Ecclesiastical History, 6.1.) Apostasy | corrupted (ch. 3.8), and their lives immoral. The cause on the faith is sure soon to be followed by indul. of the spiritual ignorance which prompts such "quesar la iniquity. It was so with the false teachers tions" is moral, having its seat in the will, not in the 212.131. 20. in a great house-i.e., the visible pro-intellect (John, 7. 17). Therefore repentance is their acing Curistinn church (1 Timotby, 3. 15). Paul is first need. That, not man, but God alone can give" exiting, not of those without, but of the (visible] (Acts, 5. 31). 26. recover themselves--Greek, "awake

ily of God. [CALVIN.) So the parable of the up to soberness," viz., from the spiritual intoxication Skep net Matthew. 13. 47-49) gathering together of whereby they have fallen into the spare of the devil. kery kind, good and bad: as the good and bad cannot | the spare-(Ephesians, 6. 11, "the wiles of the devil;" kartingaished whilst under the waves, but only 1 Timothy. 3. 7; 6. 9.) taken captive by him at his will the brongbt to shore, so believers and unbelievers -so as to follow the will of "THAT" (the Greek emphati

time in the same church, until the judgment makes cally marks Satan thus) foe. However, different Greek e everlasting distinction. "The ark of Noah is a type pronouns stand for "him" and "his;" and the Greek

the church: as in the former there were together the for "taken captive" means not "captivated for destrucSan and the kid, the wolf and the lamb; so in the tion," but " for being saved alive," as in Luke, 6. 10,

ter, the righteous and sinners, vessels of gold and "Thou shalt catch men to save them unto life;" also use with vessels of wood and earth" (JEROME, contra there is no article before the Greek participle, which the

derianos, 302) (cf. Matthew, 20. 16). vessels of gold English Version "who are taken captive," would reter-precious and able to endure fire. of wood and quire. Therefore translate, "That they may awake,"

- orthless, fragile, and soon burnt (1 Corinthians, &c., taken as saved and willing) captives by bim (the AB-IS; 15. 47). Some...some-the former...the latter. to servant of the Lord, v. 24). so as to follow the will of Detour-Proverbs, 16. 4; Romans, 9. 17-23.) 21. If a Him (the Lord, v. 24, or "God," v. 25). There are here

purge himself from these-The Greck expresses two evils, "the "snare" and sleep, from which they Gee lex. gr., thon, Timothy) purify himself (so as are delivered : and two goods to which they are transSeparate from among these" (vessels unto dishonour). lated, avaking and deliverance. Instead of Satan's Bit-Set apart as wholly consecrated to the Lord. thrall comes the free and willing captivity of obedience

63e:-Some oldest MSS. omit "and," the master to Christ (2 Corinthians, 10. 5). It is God who goes We of the house;" the Lord. Paul himself was before, giving repentance (v. 25); then the work of His CR a vessel: once one among those of earth, but after servant following is sure to be crowned with success,

da be became by grace one of gold. prepared unto leading the convert henceforth to "live to the will e good work-(ch. 3. 17; Titus, 3. 1.) Contrast of God" (Acts, 22. 14; 1 Peter, 4. 2). a. 1. 16. 22. also-Greek, "But:" in contrast to

CHAPTER III. every good work," ». 91. flee-There are many lusts Ver. 1-17. COMING EVIL DAYS: SIGNS OF EVIL a which our greatest safety is in flight (Genesis, ALREADY: CONTRAST IN THE DOCTRINE AND LIFE 12. Avoid occasions of sin. From the abstemious OF PAUL, WHICH TIMOTHY SHOULD FOLLOW, IN ACaracter of Timothy (1 Timothy. 6. 23) it is likely CORDANCE WITH HIS EARLY TRAINING IN SCRIP

bol animal indulgences, but the impetuosity, rash | TURE. 1. also-Greek, "but." last days--preceding Toofidence, hastiness, strife, and vain glory of Christ's second coming (2 Peter, 3.3; Jude, 18). "The ung men 1 John, 2. 14-16), are what he is here latter times." 1 Timothy, 4. 1, refer to a period not so krbed against: though the Spirit probably intended remote as "the last days," viz., the long days of Papal e verding to include both in its application to the land Greek anti-Christianity. Perilous- lit., "difficult

Coming Evil Days:


Sims of Evil Alread

times," in which it is difficult to know what is to be English Version 'increase unto more fungodline! done: "grievous times." shall come-Greek, "shall be yet there is a final limit beyond which they shall 1 imminent:" "shall come unexpectedly." (BENGEL) 2. be able to "proceed further" (Job 38. 11; Revelati men-in the professing church. Cr, the catalogue, Ro- | 11. 7, 11). They themselves shall "pax worse 1 mans, 1. 29, &c., where much the same sins are attri- worse" (v. 13), but they shall at last be for every buted to heathen men, it shall be a relapse into virtual vented from seducing others. "Often malice proce heathendom, with all its beast-like propensities, deeper down, when it cannot extend itsell." (BEXG! whence the symbol of it is "& beast" (Revelation, 13. 1, their folly-lit.," dementation:* rise though they thi 11, 12, &c. ; 17. 3, 8, 11). covetous-translate, “money-themselves, shall be manifest-Grek, "shall loving." a distinct Greek word from that for "covet- brought forth from concealment into open d ous" (Note, Colossians, 3. 6). The cognate Greek sub (BENG EL.) (1 Corinthians, 4. 5). as theirs...was-288 stantive (1 Timothy, 6. 10) is so translated, "the love of those magicians was, when not only could they of money is a (Greek, not"the") root of all evil." boasters longer try to rival Moses in sending boils, but the be -empty boasters [ALIORD]: boasting of having what fell upon themselves: so as to the lice (Exodus, they have not. proud-overweening:lit., showing them. 9. 11). 10. fally kuowa-lit., "fully followed up a selves above their fellows. blasphemers-rather,"evil-traced, viz., with a view to following me as the speakers," revilers. disobedient to parents--The charac- tern, so far as I follow Christ; the same Greek as Lul ter of the times is even to be gathered especially from 1.3, "having had perfect understanding of all thing the manners of the young. (BENGEL.) unthankful | His pious mother Lois, and grandmother Eunik The obligation to pratitude is next to that of obedience would recommend him to study fully Paul's Christu to parents, unholy-irreligious (ALFORD): inobservant course as a pattern. He had not been get the com of the offices of piety. 3. trace-breakers-rather as the panion of Paul at the time of the apostle's persecutio Greek is translated Romans, 1. 31, “ implacable." false) in Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra (Acts, 13. 60; 14.4.1 accusers-slanderers (1 Timothy, 3. 11 : Titus, 2. 3). in- but is first mentioned as such Acts, 16. 1-3. Howev continent, fierce-at once both soft and hard: incontin- he was "a disciple already, when introduced to 15 ently indulging themselves, and inhuman to others. Acts, 16. 1-3; and as Paul calls him my own on despisers, &c.-"no lovers of good" (ALFORD); the op- the faith," he must have been converted by the apos posite of "a lover of good" (Titus, 1. 8). 4. heady-pre- previously : perhaps in the visit to those parts the cipitate in action and in passion, high-minded-lit, years before. Hence arose Timothy's knowledge * puffed up with pride, as with smoke blinding them. | Paul's persecutions, which were the cominon a lovers of pleasure... God- Love of pleasure destroys the | the churches in those regions about the time of his love and sense of God. 5. form-outward semblance. version. The incidental allusion to them here for godliness-piety. denying-rather as Greek, "having an undesigned coincidence between the history and denied," i.e., renounced. the power--the living regene-l epistle indicating genuineness. (PALEY'S Hora rating, sanctifying influence of it. turn away-implying inc.) A forger of epistles from the Acts would ber that some of such characters, forerunners of the last | allude to Timothy's knowledge of persecutions, days, were already in the church. 6. of this sort-Greek. I that knowledge is not expressly mentioned in the

of these." such as were described (v, 5). creep into tory, but is only arrived at by indirect inference: stealthily. laden with sins-(Isaiah, 1.4)--applying to the the omission of Derbe here, in the epistle, is in 1 "silly women" whose consciences are burdened with nute accordance with the fact that in Derbe per sins, and so are a ready prey to the false teachers cution is mentioned in the history, though Dybe a who promise ease of conscience if they will follow them. Lystra are commonly mentioned together. The resso A bad conscience leads easily to shipwreck of faith why he mentions his persecutions before Timothy be (1 Timothy, 1. 19). divers lusts-not only animal lusts, I came his companion, and not those subsequent but passion for change in doctrine and manner of because Timothy was familiar with the latter $8 teaching: the running after fashionable men and fash-eye-witness, and Paul needed not to remind hun onable tenets, drawing them in the most opposite direc them, but the former Timothy had traced up by soek tions. (ALFORD.] 7. Ever learning-some new point. I the information from others, especially as the dates for mere curiosity to the disparagement of what they scene of them was the date and scene of his own CON seemed to know before the knowledge-Greek," the sion, doctrine-teaching." manner of life--"conds perfect knowledge:" the only safeguard against further "behaviour." purpose-The Greek is elsewhere su novelties. Gnosticism laid hold especially of the used of God's "purpose." But here, as in Acts, IL female sex (IRENÆUS, 1, 13. 3.): so Roman Jesuitism. of Paul's determined "purpose of heart in clear 8. Now-Greek, " But;" it is no wonder there should be unto the Lord." My set aim, or resolution, IS now such opponents to the truth, for their prototypes | apostolic function, and in every action is, not myse existed in ancient times. (ALFORD.) Jannes...Jambres ish gain, but the glory of God in Christ, long-suler

Traditional names of the Egyptian magicians who -towards my adversaries, and the false teacbers; resisted Moses (Exodus, 7. 11, 22), derived from "the wards brethren in bearing their infirmities: towania unwritten teaching of the Jews." (THEODORET.) In al unconverted, and the lapsed when penitent cet point so immaterial as the names, where Scripture had | 2 Corinthians, 6.6: Galatians, 6. 22: Ephesians, not recorded them, Paul takes the names which general | lossians, 3. 12). charity-Love to all mea. pauci opinion had assigned the magicians. EUSEBIUS, Pre "endurance:" patient continuance in well-doing anak paratio Evangelica, quotes from Numenins, "Jannes adversities (v. 11: Romans, 2. 7). 11. afdictions- SILE and Jambres were sacred scribes a lower order of priests ings." which-Greek, "such as." in Antiocb-of his in Egypt) skilled in magic." HILLER interprets Jannes (Acts, 13. 14, 60, 61). Iconium-Acts, 14, l-a) 2 from the Abyssinian language a trickster, and Jambres -(Acts, 14, 6, 19.) what-How grievous. Out ol... a juggler (Acts, 13. 8), resist-"withstand," as before. Lord delivered mech. 4. 17: Psalm 34, 17: Corinthia They did so by trying to rival Moses miracles. So the | 1. 10.) An encouragement to Timothy not to feat false teachers shall exhibit lying wonders in the last secutions. 12. Yea, and-An additional considered days (Matthew, 24. 24; 2 Thessalonians, 2.9: Revelation, for Timothy :if he wishes to live godly in Cans 13. 14, 16). reprobate-incapable of testing the truth must make up his mind to encounter persecution (Romans, 1. 28). (BENGEL) ALFORD takes passively. I will-Greek, "all whose will is to live," de. "not abiding the test," rejected on being tested (Jere should persecution be from being a stumbling miah, 6. 30. 9. they shall proceed no further--though

'. y. tney SDA proceed no further-though Timothy, he should consider it a mark of the pure for a time (ch. 2. 16) "they shall advance or proceed the same Gi cek is used of the same thing, Like,

* intending Greekin in Christ-(Galatians.


biously) with English the same time not harsa: Most of the


the "godly lo med / But this wonlome Scripture also useful," wol

Paul Appeals to Timothy's


Knowledge of his life. * intending Greek, wishing) to build a tower...counteth the other must be so too. ALFORD admits his transthe cost live godly in Christ-(Galatians,' 2. 20; Philip-lation to be harsh. though legitimate. It is better pians. 1. 21.) There is no godliness Grecke." piously") | with English Version to take it in a construction legiti. or piety out of Christ. The world easily puts up with | mate, and at the same time not harsh. The Greek, the mask of a religion which depends on itself, but the 1 "God-inspired," is found nowhere else. Most of the piety which derives its vigour directly from Christ is New Testament books were written when Paul wrote as odious to modern Christians as it was to the an this his latest epistle : so he includes in the clause, cient Jews. (BENGEL) shall suffer persecution-and “All Scripture is God-inspired," not only the Old will pot decline it (Galatians, 6. 11). BISHOP PEARSON | Testament, in which alone Timothy was taught when a proves the divine origination of Christianity from its child (v. 15), but the New Testament books according success being inexplicable on the supposition of its as they were recognised in the churches which had being of human origin. The nature of its doctrine was men gifted with "discerning of spirits." and so able to no way likely to command success: (1) it condemned distinguish really inspired utterances, persons, and so all other relizions, some established for ages; (2) it their writings, from spurious. St. Paul means, "All enjoins precepts ungrateful to flesh and blood, the scripture is God inspired and therefore useful." because mortifying of the flesh, the love of enemies, and the we see no utility in any words or portion of it, it does bearing of the cross ; (3) it enforces these seemingly not follow it is not God-inspired. It is useful, because unreasonable precepts by promises seemingly incredi- God inspired, not God-inspired, because useful. One ble; not good things such as afford complacency to reason for the article not being before the Greek, our senses, but such as cannot be obtained till after "Scripture," may be that, if it bad, it might be supthis life, and presuppose what then seemed impossible, posed that it limited the sense to the hiera grammata, the resurrection; (1) it predicts to its followers what" Holy Scriptures" (v.16) of the Old Testament, whereas would seem sure to keep most of the world from em here the assertion is more general: "all Scripture bracing it, persecutions. 13. Reason why persecutions (cf. Greek, 2 Peter, 1. 20). The translation,"all Scripmust be expected, and these becoming worse and worse ture that is God-inspired is also useful," would imply As the end approaches. The breach between light and that there is some Scripture which is not God-inspired. darkness, so far froin being healed, shall be widened.But this would exclude the appropriated sense of the (ALFORD.) evil men-in contrast to the "godly" (v. 12). word "Scripture," and who would need to be seducers-lit., "conjurors." Magical arts prevailed at that "all divine Scripture is useful" ("profitable") ? Ephesus (Acts, 19. 19), and had been renounced by many Hebrews, 4. 13, would, in ALFORD's view, have to be Ephesians on embracing Christianity; but now when rendered, "All naked things are also open to the eyes of Paul was writing to Ephesus, symptoms of a return Him," &c. : so also 1 Timothy, 4. 4, which would be to conjuring tricks appeared : an undesigned coinci- absurd. (TREG ELLES on Daniel.) KNAPP well defines dence. [BURTon.) Probably sorcery will characterise | inspiration, "An extraordinary divine agency upon the final apostasy (Revelation, 13. 15; 18. 23; 22. 15). wax teachers whilst giving instruction, whether oral or worse-lit.. "advance in the direction of worse" (Note, written, by which they were taught how and what 1. 9). Not contradictory to that verse: there the diffu- they should speak or write" (cf. 2 Samuel, 23. 1; Acts, sion of the evil was spoken of; here its intensity.

4. 25; 2 Peter, 1. 21). The inspiration gives the (ALFORD.) deceiving, and being deceived-He who has Divine sanction to all the words of Scripture, thougli once begun to deceive others, is the less easily able | those words be the utterances of the individual writer, to recover himself from error, and the more easily and only in special cases revealed directly by God embraces in turn the errors of others. (BENGEL.] 14. (1 Corinthians, 2. 13). Inspiration is here predicated of But...thou-Whatever they may do. Resuming the the writings, "all Scripture," not of the persons. The thread begun ato. 10. learned-from me and thy mother question is not how God has done it; it is as to the and grandmother (ch. 1. 6; 2. 2). assured of-from Scrip. | word, not the men who wrote it. What we must beture (v. 15). of whom-plural, not singular, in the lieve is that He has done it, and that all the sacred oldest MSS., "from what teachers." Not only from writings are every where inspired, though not all alike me, but from Lois and Eunice. 15. from a child-lit.. matter of special revelation; and that even the very * from an infant." The tender age of the first dawn of words are stamped with Divine sanction, as Jesus used reason is that wherein the most lasting impressions of thom lex. gr., in the temptation, and John, 10. 34, 35). faith may be made. holy scriptures-The Old Testa for deciding all questions of doctrine and practice. Inent taught by his Jewess mother. An undesigned There are degrees of revelation in Scripture, but not of coincidence with ch, 1.5; Acts, 16, 1-3. able-in them. inspiration. The sacred writers did not even always selves: though through men's own fault they often do kuow the full significancy of their own God-inspired not in fact make men savingly alive. wise unto salva words (1 Peter, 1. 10, 11, 12). Verbal inspiration does not tion-1.c., wise unto the attainment of salvation. Con mean mechanical dictation, but "all Scripture is (so) in. trast * folly" (v. 9). Wise also in extending it to spired by God," that every thing in it, its narratives, others, through faith-as the instrument of this wis-prophecies, citations, the whole-ideas, phrases, and dom. Each knows divine things only as far as his own words--are such as He saw fit to be there. The present experience in himself extends. He who has not faith, condition of the text is no ground for concluding has not wisdom or salvation, which is in-ie., rests on against the original text being inspired, but is a reason Christ Jesus, 16. All Scripture-Greek, "Every Scrip-why we should use all critical diligence to restore the ture," i.e., Scripture in its every part. However, English original inspired text. Again, inspiration may be acVersion is sustained, though the Greek article be want companied by revelation or not, but it is as much ing, by the technical use of the term "Scripture" being needed for writing known doctrines or facts authori. so notorious as not to need the article (cf. Greek, Ephe- tatively, as for communicating new truths. (TREsians, 3. 15; 2. 21), The Greek is never used of writings GELLES.) The omission here of the substantive verb in general, but only of the sacred Scriptures. The posi- is, I think, desigued to mark that, not only the Scription of the two Greek adjectives closely united by ture then existing, but what was still to be written till "and, forbids our taking the one as an epithet, the the canon should be completed, is included as Godother as predicated and translated as ALFORD and inspired. The Old Testament law was the school. ELLICOTT, "Every Scripture given by inspiration of master to bring us to Christ; so it is appropriately said God is also profitable," Vulgate in the best MSS.. I to be able to make wise unto salvation through faith favours English Version. Clearly the adjectives are so in Jesus Christ:" the term wisdom being appropriated closely connected, that as surely as one is a predicate, / to a knowledge of the relations between the Old and

Solemn Charge to Timothy.


Nearness of the Apostle's Dead New Testaments, and opposed to the pretended wisdom, able or unseasonable. "Just as the fountains, thou of the false teachers (1 Timothy, 1. 7. 8). doctrine- | none may draw from them, still flow on; and therive Greek, "teaching." i.e., teaching the ignorant dogmatic though none drink of them, still run: so must we truths which they cannot otherwise know. He so uses all on our part in speaking, though none give heed the Old Testament, Romans, 1. 17. reproof-"refuta- / us." (CHRYSOSTOM Homily 30., vol. 5., p. 921.) I thi tion, convicting the erring of their error. Including with CHRYSOSTOM, there is included also the idea polemical divinity. As an example of this use of the times whether seasonable or unseasonable to Tima Old Testament, cf, Galatians, 3. 6, 13, 16. “Doctrine himself: not merely when convenient, but wben ing and reproof" comprehend the speculative parts of venient to thee, night as well as day (Acts, 90, 31). divinity. Next follow the practical: Scripture is pro-danger as well as in safety, in prison and when door fitable for (1) correction (Greek, "setting one right;" | to death as well as when at large, not only in chur cf. an example, 1 Corinthians, 10. 1-10) and instruc- but everywhere and on all occasions, wbenever a tion (Greek, "disciplining," as a father does his child, wherever the Lord's work requires it repreteNote, ch. 2. 25; Ephesians. 6. 4; Hebrews, 12, 6, 11, vict." "confnte." with-Greek, IN (the comment or "training" by instruction, warning, example, kind- which the exhortation ought to have place au lo nesses, promises, and chastisements : cf. an example, suffering (ca. 2. 24, 25; 3. 10) and teaching: d. ch. 2 1 Corinthians, 5. 13). Thus the whole science of theu-"apt to teach." The Greek for "doctrine" bere logy is complete in Scripture. Since Paul is speak didache, but in ch. 3. 16, didascalia. "Didascalia ing of Scripture in general and in the notion of it, the what one receives; didache is what is communieste only general reason why, in order to perfecting the [TITTMANX.) 3. they-professing Christiane. ou godly (v. 17), it should extend to erery department of doctrine-Greek, "the sound (Note, 1 Timothy, L 106 revealed truth, must be that it was intended to be the trine" (didascalias) or "teaching." ris, of the as complete and sufficient rule in all things touching perfec- Presently follows the concrete," teachers." after tion. See Article VI., Common Prayer Book, in- own lusts-instead of regarding the will of God the Greck, "instruction which is in righteousness," as con- dislike being interrupted in their lasts by true tesch trasted with the "instruction in worldly rudiments heap-one on another: an indiscriminate mass of (Colossians, 2. 20. 22). 17. man of God-(Note, 1 Timothy. | teachers. Variety delights itching ears. De who 6. 11.) perfect, throughly furnished-Gr., "thoroughly spises sound teaching, leaves sound teachers: they perfected." and so "perfect. The man of God is per- | instructors like themselves." (BENGEL) It is the fectly accoutred ont of Scripture for his work, whether ruption of the people in the first instance, that are he be a minister (cf. ch. 4. 2, with ch.3. 16) or a spiritual | priestcraft (Exodus, 32. 1). to tbeinselves-such as layman. No oral tradition is needed to be added. suit their depraved tastes: "populus vult decat CHAPTER IV.

decipiatur," the people wish to be deceived, Ver. 1-22. SOLEMN CHARGE TO TIMOTHY TO DO His be deceived. "Like priest, like people a Kings, DUTY ZEALOUSLY, FOR TIMES OF APOSTASY ARE AT Hosea, 4.9). itobing-liking to hear teachers sboa HAND, AND THE APOSTLE IS NEAR HIS TRIUMPHANT them mere pleasure (Acts, 17. 19-21), and do not de END: REQUESTS HIM TO COME AND BRING MARK by truths grating to their ears. They, as it were, tid WITH HIM TO ROME, AS LUKE ALONE IS WITH HIM, THE with pleasure the levity of the multitude (CICEROL, OTHERS HAVING GONE: ALSO BIS CLOAK AND PARCA- come as to a theatre to hear what will deligot the MENTS: WARNS HIM AGAINST ALEXANDER: TELLS ears, not to learn (SENECA, Ep. 10. 8) what will do the WHAT BEFELL HIM AT HIS FIRST DEFENCE: GREET good. "Itch in the ears is as bad as in any other INGS: BENEDICTION. 1. charge-Greck, "adjure." I of the body, and perhaps worse," SOUTE 4.2 therefore-Omitted in the oldest MSS. the Lord Jesus ear brooks not what is opposed to the manu 15 Curist-The oldest MSS read simply, “Christ Jesus." turned-Greek, 'turned aside" (1 Timothy.16. Itu shall judge-His commission from God is mentioned, righteous retribution, that when men tursam Acts, 10. 42: his resolution to do so, 1 Peter, 4. 6; the the truth, they should be turned to fables Jeremy execution of His commission, here. at his appearing-| 2. 19). fables-(1 Timothy. I. 4. 5. I am so I The oldest MSS, read, "and" for "at;" then translate. I here to withstand these things: be thou a worthy

(I charge thee before God, &c.) and by His appearing." cessor of me, no longer depending on me íor eu and his kingdom-to be set up at His appearing, when but thine own master, and swimming without the ca we hope to reign with him. His kingdom is real now, I [CALVIN): foliow my steps, inherit their result but not visible. It shall then be both real and VISIBLE the honour of their end. (ALFORD) watas thos (Luke, 22. 18. 30; Revelation, 1. 7: 11. 16; 19. 6). Now " with the wakefulness of one sober.* in all thing He reigns in the midst of His enemies expecting till they all occasions and under all circunstances (Titas. shall be overthrown (Psalm 110. 2; Hebrews, 10. 13). / endure afflictions-suffer hardships. (ALFORD.) Then He shall reign with His adversaries prostrate. 2. gelist-A missionary bishop. prescher, and tese Preach-it.. "Proclaim as a herald." The term for the make fuil proof of-fulfil in ail its requireinents, long discourses in the synagogue was Daraschoth; the nothing undone (Acts, 12. 25; Romana, 16 17 corresponding Greek term (impiying dialectical style, lossians, 4. 17). 6. Greck, "For I am alreads dialogue, and discussion, Acts, 17. 2, 18; 18. 4, 19) is offered:" lit., as a libation; appropriate to the shed applied in Acts to discourses in the Christian church, of his blood. Every sacrifice began with an initiat JUSTIN MARTYR, Apology 2. describes the order of libation on the victim's head Note, cf. Philips public worship, "On Sunday all meet, and the writings 2. 17). A motive to stimulate Timotby to fsition of the apostles and prophets are read; then the pre- -the departure and final blessedness of Psul: is bei sident delivers a discourse : after this all stand up and end that crowas the work. (BENGEL.) As the IER pray: then there is offered bread and wine and water; his departure was indicated to Peter, so te the president likewise prays and gives thanks, and the (2 Peter, 1. 14). my departure-lit.. "loosing and people solemnly assent, sayirg, Amen." The bishops | (Note, Philippians, 1. 23). Dissolution 1. and presbyters had the right and duty to preach, but striven the good strife:" the Greck is not restrict they sometimes called on deacons, and even laymen, to a fight, but includes any competitive contest, preach. EUSEBIUS, Ecclesiastical History, 6. 19: in this that of the race-course (1 Timothy. & 19 (ULU thechurch imitated the synagogue (Luke, 4. 17-22; Acts 1 Corinthians, 9. 34, &c.; Hebrews, 12. 1. 9. 13. 15, 16). be instant-i.e., urgent, earnest, in the whole faith-the Christian faith committed to me asaba work of the ministry. in season, out of season-ie., at all and an apostle (cf. ch. 1. 14; Revelation, le; seasons: whether they regard your speaking as season- a crown-rather as Greek, "the crown." IDe

Paul Requests him to Come


and Bring Mark with him. forth" marks the decisive moment: he looks to bis with Barnabas (Acts, 16. 37-40;13. 6, 13). Timothy had state in a threefold aspect, (1.) The past, I have fought; subsequently occupied the same post in relation to (2.) the immediately present, there is laid up for me: Paul as Mark once held. Hence Paul, appropriately (3.) the future, the Lord will give in that day. (BENGEL,) | here, wipes out the past censure by high praise of crown-A crown, or garland, used to be bestowed at the Mark, and guards against Timothy's making self-comGreek national games on the successful competitor in placent comparisons between himself and Mark, as wrestling, running &c. (cf. i Peter, 6. 4; Revelation, 2. 10). though he were superior to the latter (cf. Philemon, 24). of righteousness--the reward is in recognition of right- Demas apostatizes. Mark returns to the right way, and eousness wrought in Paul by God's Spirit: the crown is no longer unprofitable, but is profitable for the is prepared for the righteous : but it is a crown which gospel ministry (Philemon, 11). 12. And-Greek, consists in righteousness. Righteousness will be its | "But." Thou art to come to me, but Tychicus I have own revard (Revelation, 22. 11). Cf. Exodus, 39. 30. | sent to Ephesus to supply thy place (if thou so willest A man is justified gratuitously by the merits of Christ it) in presiding over the church there in thy absence through faith; and when he is so justified God accepts (cf. Titus, 3. 12). It is possible Tychicus was the bearer bis works and honours them with a reward which is of this epistle, though the omission of "to thee" is not their due, but is given of grace, "So great is God's rather against this view. 13. cloak...I left-Probably goodness to men that He wills that their works | obliged to leave it in a hurried departure from Troas, should be merits, though they are merely His own | Carpus-a faithful friend to have been entrusted with Kilts." (Bp., POPE CELESTINE I., 12.) give-Greek, / so precious deposits. The mention of his "cloak," "shall award" in righteous requital as “ Judge" (Acts, so far from being unworthy of inspiration, is one of 17. 31; 2 Corinthians, 6. 10; 2 Thessalonians, 1. 6, 7). in those graphic touches which sheds a flood of light on that day--not until His appearing (ch. 1. 12). The par- the last scene of Paul's life, on the confines of two takers of the first resurrection may receive a crown worlds: in this wanting & cloak to cover him from also at the last day, and obtain in that general as- 1 the winter cold, in that covered with the rghteousness sembly of all men, & new award of praise. The of saints, "clothed upon with his house from heaven." favourable sentence passed on the brethren" of the I (GAUSSEN.) So the inner vesture and outer garment Judge, who sit with Him on His throne, is in Matthew, I of Jesus, Paul's master, are suggestive of most instruc25. 40, taken for granted as already awarded, when that tive thought (John, 19.1. books-he was anxious respectaffecting those who benefited them is being passed. ing these that he might transmit them to the faithful, (BENGEL] The former, the elect church who reign so that they might have the teaching of his writings with Christ in the millennium, are fewer than the when he should be gone. especially the parchmentslatter. The righteous heavenly Judge stands in oon containing perhaps some of his inspired epistles themtrast to the unrighteous earthly judges who con- selves. 14. Alexander the coppersmith--or *smith" demned Paul. me-individual appropriation. Greek, in general. Perhaps the same as the Alexander, * Not only to me." them that love-Greek, "have loved, 1 Timothy, 1. 20 (note there) at Epbesus. Excommuniand do love:" habitual love and desire for Christ's ap-cated then be subsequently was restored, and now pearing, which presupposes faith (cf. Hebrews, 9. 28). vented his personal malice because of his excommuniCl. the sad contrast, v. 10, “having loved this present cation in accusing Paul before the Roman judges, world." 9. (v. 21; ch. 1. 4. 8.) Timothy is asked to come / whether of incendiarism or of introducing a new reto be a comfort to Paul, and also to be strengthened | ligion. See my Introduction. He may have been the by Paul, for carrying on the gospel work after Paul's | Alexander put forward by the Jews in the tumult at decease. 10. Demas-once a "fellow-labourer of Paul, | Ephesus (Acts, 19. 33, 34). reward-The oldest MSS. along with Mark and Luke (Colossians, 4. 14; Phile- | read, "shall reward," or "requite him." Personal remon, 20). His motive for forsaking Paul seems to have venge certainly did not influence the apostle (v. 16, end). been love of worldly ease, safety, and comforts at 15. our words-the arguments of us Christians for our home, and disinclination to brave danger with Paul common faith. Believers have a common cause. 16. (Matthew. 13. 20, 21, 22). CHRYSOSTOM implies that At my first answeri.e., "defence" in court, at my Thessalonica was his home. Galatia-One oldest MS. first public examination, Timothy knew nothing of supports the reading " Gaul." But most oldest MSS, this, it is plain, till Paul now informs him. But dur&c., "Galatia." Titus-He must have therefore left ing his former imprisonment at Rome, Timothy was Crete after ** setting in order the affairs of the churches with him (Philippians, I. 1, 7). This must have been, there (Titus, 1.5). Dalmatia-part of the Roman pro therefore, a second imprisonment. He must have been vince of Illyricum on the coast of the Adriatic. Paul set free before the persecution in A.D. 04, when the had written to him (Titus, 3. 12) to coine to him in the Christians were accused of causing the conflagration winter to Nicopolis (in Epirus), intending in the in Rome; for, had he been a prisoner then, he certainly spring to preach the gospel in the adjoining province of would not have been spared. The tradition [EUSEBIUS, Dalmatia. Titus seems to have gone thither to carry 2. 25) that he was finally beheaded, accords with his not out the apostle's intention, the execution of which having been put to death in the persecution, A.D. 64. was interrupted by his arrest. Whether he went of when burning to death was the mode by which the his own accord, as is likely, or being sent by Paul, Christians were executed, but subsequently to it. His wbich the expression is departed" hardly accords with, "first" trial in his second imprisonment seerns to have cannot be positively decided. Paul here speaks only of been on the charge of complicity in the conflagration; his personal attendants having forsaken him; he had his absence from Rome may have been the ground of still friends among the Roman Christians who visited his acquittal on that charge; his final condemnation was him tch. 4. 21), though they had been afraid to stand probably on the charge of introducing a new and unby him at bis trial (v. 16). 11. Take-Greek," take up" on 'lawful religion into Rome. stood with me-Greek, thy journey (Acts, 20. 13, 14). John Mark was probably "came forward with me" (ALFORD) as a friend and in or near, Colosse, as in the epistle to the Colossians 1 advocate. may (it) not be laid to their charge--The

Colossians. 4. 20), written two years before this, he is position of "their," in the Greek, is emphatic. "May mentioned as about to visit them. Timothy was now it not be laid to THEIR charge," for they were intimiobsent from Ephesus, and somewhere in the interior dated : their drawing back from me was not from bad of Asia Minor: hence he would be sure to fall in with disposition so much as from fear; it is sure to be laid Merk op his journey. he is profitable to me for the mi. | to the charge of those who intimidated them. Still Distry-Mark bad been under a cloud for having for Paul, like Stephen, would doubtless have offered the saken Paul at a critical moment in his missionary tour same prayer for his persecutors themselves (Acts. 7. 60).

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