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THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF

JUDE.
INTRODUCTION.

A UTIIOR-He calls himself in the address the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of Jamek" See latroduction to 11 the epistle of James, in proof of James the apostle, and James the Lord's brother, the bishop of Jerusaleta, being one and the same person. Galatians, 1. 19. alone seems to me to prove this. Similarly Jude the brother of our Lord, and Jede the apostle, seem to be one and the same. Jerome, contra Hdvidium, rightly maintains that by the Lord's brethren are meant his cousins, children of Mary and Cleopbas (the same as Alphæus). From 1 Corinthians, 9. 5 (as brethren el the Lord" stands between other apostles" and " Cephas"), it seemre natural to think that the brethren of the lard are distinguished from the apostles only because all his brethren were not apostles, but only James and Jude. Jude's reason for calling himself "brother of James," was that James, as bishop of Jerusalem, was better known than himsell Hd he been, in the striot sense, brother of our Lord, he probably would have so entitled himsell. His ommission of mention of his apostl ship is no proof that he was not an apostle for so also James omits it in his heading and Paal, in the epistles to the Philippians, Thessalonians, and Philemon, omits it. Had the writer been a counterferter of the apostle Jets he would doubtless have called himself an "apostle. lle was also called Leblæus and Thaddæus, probably to distingu bim from Judas Iscariot, the traitor. Lebbæus, from Hereu leeb, "heart," means courageous. Thaddæus is the ne Theudas, from Hebrew thad, the ** breast." Luke and John writing later than Matthew, when there would be to coafuske between him and Judas Iscariot, give his name Judas. The only circumstance relating to him recorded in the gospels oorus John, 14.99," Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot. Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto es, and bot unte the world ?" &c. Jerome, Annotationes in Matthaum, says, that he was sent to Edessa, to Abgarus, king of Ostvene, Edessa, and that he preached in Syria, Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Persia, in which last country he suffered maryrdes The story is told on Eusebius authority, that Abgarus, on his sick-bed, having beard of Jesus' power to beal, sent to be Him to come and cure him, to which the Lord replied, praising his faith, that though he had not seen the caricar, le pet believed ; adding, “ As for what thou hast written, that I should come to thee, it is necessary that all those thing which I was sent, should be fulfilled by me in this place, and that having fulfilled then I should be received ap te lo that sent me. When, therefore, I shall be received into heaven, I will send unto thee some one of my dise ples who stal both heal thy distemper and give life to thee and those with thee." Thomas is accordingly said to have been inquired to send Thaddæus for the cure and baptism of Abgarus. The letters are said to have been shown Thaddæus among the archite of Edessa. It is possible such a message was verbally sent, and the substance of it registered in writing afterward 9 Kings, 5.; and Matthew, 15. 22). Hegesippus, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History. 3. 20, states, that when Dumitian esque after David's posterity, some grandsons of Jude, called the Lord's brother, were brought into his presence. Being asiel to their possessions, they said that they had thirty-nine acres of the value of 9000 denarii, out of which tbe paid Aman taxes, and lived by the labour of their hands, a proof of which they gave by showing the hardness of their hands. Being interrogated as to Christ and His kingdom, they replied, that it was not of this world, but hearenly; and that it would k manifested at the end of the world, when He would come in glory to judge the living and the dead.

AUTHENTICITY.-Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 3. 25, reckons it among the Antuepomena or controdertel deri" tures, "though recognised by the majority." The reference to the contest of Michael, the arcbangel, with the devil, M the body of Moses, not mentioned elsewhere in the Old Testament, but found in tbe apocryphal " Book of Enoch," bably raised doubts as to its authenticity, as Jerome, Catalogues Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum, 4, Kase. Moreover, ita est being addressed to one particular church, or individual, caused it not to be so immediately recognised as cancel A counterfeiter would have avoided using what did not occur in the Old Testament, and which might be regarded apocryphal.

As to the book of Enoch, if quoted by Jude, his quotation of a passage from at gives an inspired sanction only to 8 truth of that passage, not to the whole book; just as Paul, by inspiration, sanctions particular sentiments frem Antal Epimenides, and Menander, but not all their writings. I think, rather, as there is some sligh: variation between % statement and that of the book of Enoch, that Jude, though probably not ignorant of the book of Enoch, stamps inspired sanction the current tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies; just as Paul mentions the name of Egyptian magicians, " Jannes and Jambres," not mentioned in the Old Testament. At all events, the prophecy wcile to Enoch by Jude was really his, being sanctioned as such by this inspired writer. So also the narratiou as to the archaan Michael's dispute with Satan concerning the body of Moses, is by Jude's inspired authority (s. 9) declared true. The of Euoch is quoted by Justin Martyr, Irenau, Clement of Alexandria, &c. Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller, brought her three copies of it in Ethiopic, from Alexandria, if wlaich archbishop Lawrence, in 1821. gave an English translation Ethiopic was a version from the Greek, and the Greek doubtless a version from the Hebrew, as the names of the angela it show. The Apostolio Constitutions, Origen contra Celsum, Jerome, and Augustine, pronounce it not canonical I is in the main edifying, vindicating God's goverument of the world, natural and spiritual, and contradicting none ol 05 Scripture statements. The name Jesus Dever occurs, though "Son of man," so often given to Messiah in the gospel frequent, and terms are used expressive of His diguity, character, and acts, exceeding the views of Messiah in sy Jewish book. The writer seems to have been a Jew who had become thoroughly imbued with the sacred writing af Pause And, though many coincidences occur between its sentiments and the New Testament, the Metsiano portions are distinct enough to prove that the writer knew the New Testament. Rather, he seems to have immediately preorded Cars coming, about the time of Herod the Great, and so gives us a most interesting view of believing Jews' opiniogs bele advent of our Lord. The Trinity is recognised, 60. 13, 14. Messiah is "the Elect One" existing from eteruity, 4 2

All kings shall fall down before Him, and worship and 6x their hopes on, this Son of man," 61. 10-12 He is the of worship, 48.3, 4; He is the supreme Judge, 60. 10, 12; 68 38, 39. There shall be a future state of retribution, $46 94. 2, 4; chs. 96., 96., 99., 103. The eternity of future punishment, 103. 5. Volkmar, in A ford, thinks the book was a at the time of the sedition of Barchochebas (A.D. 132), by a follower of Rabbi Akiba, the upholder of that imposte. would make the book anti-Christian in its origin. If this date be correct, doubtless it copied some things from Juds, them the Jewish, not the Christian, colouring.

Eusebius, Demonstratio Evangelica 3. 5, remarks, it accords with John's humility that in 9 and 3 Jobu he calls

Introduction.

JUDE.

Introduction.

"the elder." For the same reason James and Jude call themselves "servants of Jesus Christ." Clemens Alexandrinus, dumbrations, in Ep. Jud., p. 1007, says, “ Jude, through reverential awe, did not call himself brother, but servant, of Jesus Carst, and brother of James."

Tertullian, de Cultu Foeminarum, c. 3, cites the epistle as that of the apostle James. Clemens Alexandrinus quotes it de 8, 17) a. Scripture Stromata 3., 2. 11; and (v. 5) in Pelagogus 3., 8. 44. The Muratori fragment asserts its canonicity. (Boath, R liquice Sacre, 1. 306 ) Origen, Commentary on Matthew 13. 65, says, "Jude wrote an epistle of few lives, but one filed fall of the strong words of heavenly grace." Also, in Commentary on Matthew, 22, 23, he quotes v. 6; and on Matthew, 2310, he quotes v. 1. He calls the writer "Jude the apostle," in the Latin remains of his works (cf. Davidson, Introduction III. 498. Jerome, Catalogus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum, 4, reckons it among the Scriptures. Though the oldest MSS. of the Peschito omit it, Ephrem Syrus recognises it. Wordstcorth reasons for its genuineness thus: St Jude, we know, died before St. John, ie, before the beginning of the secon i century. Now Eusebius, Ecclesiistical History, 3. 32, tells us that St. James was succeeded in the bishopric of Jerusalem by Syneon his irother: and also that Symeon sat in that see

A.D. 107, when as a martyr he was crucified in his 120th year. We find that the epistle to Jude was known in the East ad West in the second century; it was therefore circulated in Symeon's lifetime. It never would bave received currency Boek as it bad, nor would Symeon have permitted a letter bearing the name of an apostle, his owa brother Jude, brother of s own apostolical predecessor, St James, to have been circulated, if it were not really St. Jude's.

TO WHOM ADDRESSED.-The references to Old Testament history, v. 5, 7, and to Jewish tradition, v. 14, &make it likely that Jewish Christians are the readers to whom Jude mainly (though including also all Christians, v. 1) writes, int as the kindred epistle, ? Peter, is addressed primarily to the same class; cf. Introductions to 1 and 2 Peter. The persons wiyantized in it were not merely libertines (as Alford thinks), though no doubt that was one of their prominent character kaber, but heretice in doctrine, “denying the only Lord God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ." Ilence he urges believers

earnestly to contend for the faith once delivered unto the saints." Insubordination, self-seeking, and licentiousness, the trait of Antinomian teachings, were the evils against which Jude warns his readers; reminding them that, to build them elves in their most holy faith, and to pray in the Holy Ghost, are the only effectual safeguards. The same evils, along with moking scepticism, shall characterize the last days before the final judgment, even as in the days when Enoch warned the tengodly of the coming flood. As Peter was in Babylon in writing 1 Peter, 5. 13, and probably also in writing 2 Peter (cf. Introductions to 1 and 2 Peter), it seems not uulikely that Jude addressed his epistle primarily to the Jewish Christians in ad about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of great resort to the Jews in that day), or else to the Christian Jews disperseul i Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, the persons addressed by Peter. For Jude is express y said to have preached in Mesopotamia (Jerome, Annotationes in Mutthaum), and his epistle, consisting of only twenty-five verses, con tata in them zo less than eleven passages from 2 Peter (see the list in my Introduction to 2 Peter). Probably in v. 4 be witnesses to the fulfilment of Peter's prophecy, “There are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained insther as Greek, forewritten,' i.e., announced beforehand by the apostle Peter's written prophecy) to this condemnation, orodiy men denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ." Cf. 9 Peter, 2 1, "There shall be false teachers among you who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves twift destruction." Also, v. 17, 18, plainly refers to the very words of 2 Peter, 3. 3, "Remember the words which were spoken Score of the apostles of our Lord Jesus; How they told you there should be mockers in the last time who should walk aper their own ungodly lusts." This proves, in opposition to Alford, that Jude's epistle is later than Peter's (whose inwdration he thus confirms, just as Peter confirins Paul's, 2 Peter, & 15, 16), not vice versa.

TIME AND PLACE OF WRITING.-Alford thinks, that, considering St. Jude was writing to Jews and citing sig. mal instances of divine vengeance, it is very unlikely he would have omitted to allude to the destruction of Jerusalem, if he Lad written after that event which uprooted the Jewish polity and people. He covjectures from the tone and references, that the writer lived in Palestine. But as to the former, negative evidence is doubtful; for neither does John allude in bu epistles, written after the destruction of Jerusalem, to that event. Mill fixes on A.D. 90, after the death of all the apostles, Kve John, I incline to think from . 17, 18, that some time had elapsed since the second epistle of Peter (written Frobably about A.D. 68 or 69) when Jude wrote, and, therefore, that the epistle of Jude was written after the destruction of Jerusalem

Ver. 1-25. ADDRESS: GREETING: His OBJECT IN "Beloved of the Lord" 2 Thessalonians, 2. 13. preWRITING : WARNING AGAINST SEDUCERS IN Doc. sei ved in Jesus Carigi," kept." Translate not "in," TRINE AND PRACTICE FROM God's VENGEANCE ON but as Greek, "FOR Jesus Christ." "Kept continually APOSTATES, ISRAEL, THE FALLEN ANGELS, SODOM (so the Greek perfect participle means by God the ASD GOMOKRAH. DESCRIPTION OF THESE BAD Father for Jesus Christ," against the day of His comVEN, IN CONTRAST TO MICHAEL : LIKE CAIN, BA- ing. Jude, beforeband, mentions the source and LAAM, AND CORE: Exoch's PROPHECY AS TO THEM: guarantee for the tinal accomplishment of believers' THE APOSTLES' FOREWARNING: CONCLUDING Ex salvation, lest they shouid be disheartened by the HORTATION AS TO PRESERVING TILEIR OWN FAITH, dreadful evjis which he proceeds to announce. (BANAND TRYING TO SAVE OTHERS: DOXOLOGY. 1. GEL) and called-Predicated of "them that are beterraat of Jesus Christ-as His minister and apostle. loved in God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ: brother of James-wbo was more widely known as who are called." God's effectual cal ing in the exercise blsbop of Jerusalem and "brotber of the Lord" i.e., of His Divine prerogative, guarantees their eternal either cousin, or stepbrother, being son of Joseph by & safety. 2. Mercy--in a time of wretchedness. Thereloruer marriage : for ancient traditions universally fore mercy stands first: the mercy of Christ (v. 21). beree that Mary, Jesus' mother, continued perpetually peace-in the Holy Ghost (v. 20). love-of God (v. 21).

virgin). Jude therefore calls himself modestly The three answer to the Divine Trinity, be multiplied brother of James." See my Introduction. to them -in you and towards you. 3. Design of the epistle ".. sanctified by God the Father-The oldest MSS. and (cf. v. 20, 21.) all diligence--13 Peter, 1. 5.) As the versions, ORIG¥N, LUCIFER, &c., read "beloved" for minister is to give all diligence to admonish, so the Kanetihed. If English Version be read, cf. Colossians, people should, in accordance with his admonition, give L 12: 1 Peter. 1. 2. The Greek is not "by." but "in." | all diligence to have all Christian graces, and to make God, the Father's love, is the element in which they their calling sure, the common saivation-wrought by sre "beloved." Thus the conclusion, 0. 21, corre- i Corist. Cf. Note. "obtained LIKE precious faith" spoods. Keep yourselves in the love of God." C. 2 Peter. l. 1. This community of faith, and of the

Israel and the Fallen Angels

JUDE

a Warning against Aporary, object of faith, salvation, forms the ground of mutual fectly is Jesus one with the God of the Israelite exhortation by appeals to common hopes and fears. theocracy. saved-brought safely, and into a stated it was needful for me-rather, "I felt it necessary to safety and salvation. afterward-Greck, "secondly. write (now at once: so the Greek aorist means; the in the next instance "destroyed them that believed present infinitive "to write," which precedes, expresses not." as contrasted with His in the first instance har. merely the general fact of writing) exhorting you." ing saved them. 6. (2 Peter, 2. 1.) kept set their first The reason why he felt it necessary "to write with estate - Vulgate translates, "their own principality." exhortation," he states 1, 4, "For there are certain men which the fact of angels being elsewhere called "pridcrept in," &c. Having intenderl to write generally of cipalities," favours: "their own" implies that, instead the common salvation, he found it necessary from the of being content with the dignity once for all assigned existing evils in the church, to write specially that to them under the Son of God, they aspired higher. they should contend for the faith against those evils, ALFORD thinks the narrative in Genesis, &. ? is alearnestly contend-Cr. Philippians, 1. 27, "striving to luded to, not the fall of the devil and his angels, as gether for the faith of the gospel." once-Greek," once he thinks" giving themselves over to fornication for all delivered," &c. No other faith or revelation proves: cf. Greek, "in like manner to thes," viz., to the is to supersede it. A strong argument for resisting angels (v. 6). It seems to me more natural to take heretical innovators (v.4). Believers, like Nehemiah's sons of God" (Genesis, 6. 2) of the Sethites, than of workmen, with one hand build tbemselves up in angels who, as "spirits," do not seem capable of carpal their most holy faith," with the other they "contend connexion. The parallel, 2 Peter, 2. 4, plainly refers earnestly for the faith" against its foes. the saints to the fall of the apostate angels. And "in hke me all Christians, holy ii.e., consecrated to God) by their per to these," . 7, refers to the inhabitants of Soda calling, and in God's design. 4. crept in unawares-- I and Gomorrah, "the cities about them" sinning in stealthily and unlawfully. Note, 2 Peter, 2. 1, "privily like manner" as they did. (ESTIUS & CALVIN.) Evet shall bring in damnable heresies." certain men-Im- if Greek "these," v. 7, refer to the angels, the sense of plying disparagement before...ordained-Greek, "fore "in like manner as these will be, not that the ai gels written," viz., in Peter's prophecy, v. 17, 18; and in carpally fornicated with tbe daughters of men, but that Paul's before that, 1 Timothy, 4, 1; 2 Timothy, 3. 1; and their ambition whereby their affections went away by implication in the judgments which overtook the from God and they fell, is in God's view a sin of bike apostate angels. The disobedient Israelites, Sodom kind spiritually as Sodom's going away from God's and Gomorrah, Balaam, and Core, and which are writ-order of nature after strange flesh; the sin of the ten " for an example" (v. 7, and 5, 6, 11). God's eternal apostate angels after their kind is analogous to tbal character as the Punisher of sin, as set forth in Scrip of the human Sodomites after their kind. (I the ture of old," is the ground in which such apostate somewhat similar spiritual connexion of thormato characters are ordained to condemnation. Scripture gers and coretousiuess. The apocryphal book of Enoch is the reflexion of God's book of life in which believers interprets Genesis, 6.2, as ALFORD. Bat thonch Jade are "written among the living." "Fore-written" is accords with it in some particulars, it does not follow applied also in Romans, 16. 4, to the things written in that he accords with it in all. The Hebrews name the Scripture. Scripture itself reflects God's character fallen angels Aza and Azael. left-of their own accord from everlasting, wbich is the ground of His decrees their ow-Greek, "their proper." habitation-Heren. from everlasting. BENGEL explains it as an abbre-l all bright and glorious, as opposed to the darknica viated phrase for, “They were of old foretold by I to which they now are doomed. Their ambitious de Enoch (v. 14, who did not write his prophecies), and signs seem to have had a peculiar connexion with this afterwards marked out by the written word." to this I earth, of which Satan before his fail may have been condemnation-Jude graphically puts their judgment | God's vicegerent, whence arises his subsequent com as it were present before the eyes, "THIS." Enoch's | nexion with it as first the Tempter, then the price prophecy comprises the "ungodly men" of the last of this world." reserved-As the Greek is the same days before Christ's coming to judgment, as well as and there is an evident reference to their having "kap their forerunners, the "ungodly men" before the not their first estate." translate, "He hath kept. flood, the type of the last judgment (Matthew, 24. 37-39: | Probably what is meant is, He hath kept them is 2 Peter, 3.3-7). The disposition and the doom of both purpose : that is their sure doom; moreover, sa pek | correspond the grace of our God-A phrase for the Satan and his demons roam at large on the earth. An gospel especially sweet to believers who appropriate earnest of their doom is their having been castonta God in Christ as "our God," and so rendering the heaven, being already restricted to the darkness more odious the vile perversity of those who turn this present world," the "air" that surround the the gospel state of grace and liberty into a ground of earth, their peculiar element now. They lurk licentiousness, as if their exemption from the law places of gloom and death, looking forward to gave them a licence to sin. denying the only Lord–The agonising fear to their final torment in the bottomless oldest MSS.. versions, and fathers omit "God," which pit. He means not literal chains and darkness, follows in English Version. Translate as the Greek. I figurative in this present world where, with restrictes "the only Master;" here used of Jesus Christ, who is at powers and liberties, shut out from heaven, tbey, once Master and "Lord" (a different Greek word). So condemned prisoners, await their doom. 7. Svea 2 Peter, 2.1, Note. By virtue of Christ's perfect one- -ALFORD translates, "I wish to remind you, of ness with the Father, He, as well as the Father, is that," &c. Sodom, &c.-(2 Peter, 2. 6.) giring the termed "the ONLY" God and "MASTER." Greek" Masselves over to fornication-following fornication et ter," implies God's absoluto ownership to dispose of ordinarily, i.e., out of the order of nature(

um His creatures as He likes. 5. (Hebrews, 3. 16,-4. 13.) | like manner to them" (Greek), cf. Note, c. 6. OL therefore Other oldest MSS. and Vulgate read, " But." spiritual fornication," go a uchoring from thee, Hair, in contrast to the ungodly, v. 4. though ye once-rather, 73. 27. going after Etrange Sesh - departing from 12 " once for all." Translate. "I wish to remind you, as I course of nature, and going after that which is u." knowing AI.L (viz., that I am referring to. So the old natural. In later times the most enlightened heated est MSS., versions, and fathers) once for all." As nations indulged in the sin of Sodom withont of already they know all the facts once for all, he needs | punction or shame. are set forth-before our er only to remind"them. the Lord--The oldest MSS. and I suffering-undergoing to this present time : alludley versions read, "Jesus." So "Christ" is said to have the marks of volcanic fire about the Dead Beta. accompanied the Israelites in the wilderness: so per vengeance-Greek, "righteous retribution." eterea tre

Michael an Example of

JUDE

Reverence towards Dimities, -The lasting inarks of the fire that consumed the presented by Joshus the High Priest); and Michael, dtles irreparably, is a type of the eternal fire to which whose connexion seems to be so close with Jehovahthe inhabitants have been consigned. BENGEL trans- Messiah on the one hand, and with Israel on the other, ates as the Greek will admit." Suffering (the) punish- 'Daturally uses the same language as his Lord. As Bent which they endure) as an example or sample of Satan (adrersary in court) or the Devil (accuser) accuses cereal fire (viz., that which shall consume the alike the church collectively, and "the brethren" inwicked)." Ezekiel, 16. 63-55, shows that Sodom's pun- dividually, so Christ pleads for us as our Advocate. Jalment, as a nation, is not eternal. Cr. also 2 Peter, Israel's, and all believers' full justification, and the 16 6. also-rather, “In like manner nevertheless" accuser's being rebuked fin potwithstanding these warning examples). (ALFORD.) PHUS, Antiquities, 4. 8, states that God hid Moses' Dese...dreamers-The Greek has not "filthy" of English body, lest, if it had been exposed to view, it would bave Persion. The clause, "these men dreaming in.e., in been made an idol of. Jude, in this account, either Weir dreams, belongs to all the verbs. "defile," &c.; adopts it from the apocryphal "assumption of Moses" "despise," &c.; "speak evil," &c. All sinners are (as ORIGEN, concerning Principalities, 9. 2, thinks), or pintually asleep, and their carpal activity is as it else from the ancient tradition on which that work was tere a dream (1 Thessalonians, 6, 6, 7). Their speak founded. Jude, as inspired, could distinguish how ng eril of dignities is because they are dreaming, much of the tradition was true, how much false. and know not uchat they are speaking evil of (v, 10. We have no such means of distinguishing, and there"As a man drearning seems to himself to be seeing fore can be sure of no tradition, save that which is in Rad bearing many things, so the natural man's lusts the written word. 10. (2 Peter, 2. 12.) those things are agitated by joy, distress, fear, and the other pas. which-Greek, "all things whatsoever they understand WODs. But he is a stranger to self-command. Hence, not," riz., the things of the spiritual world, but what though he bring into play all the powers of reason, he... naturaliy-Connect thus, "Whatever so the Greek) Depot conceive the true liberty which the sons of light, things naturally (by natural, blind instinct), as the unwho are awake and in the daylight, enjoy" (BENGEL). reasoning (so the Greek) animals, they kuow," &c. The

Se tae flesh--u. 7.) dominion-" lordship." diguities Greek for the former "know" implies deeper know-, "glories." Earthly and heavenly dignities. 9. ledge; the latter "know," the mere perception of the Kisbael the archangel-Nowhere in Scripture is the animal senses and faculties." 11. Woe-Note, 2 Peter, paral used. "archangels:" but only ONE, "archangel." 2. 14. "cursed children." Cain--the murderer: the root Tbe oply other passage in the New Testament where of whose sin was hatred and envy of the godly, as it k occurs, is 1 Thessalonians, 4.16, where Christ is disc is the sin of these seducers. ran greedily-lit., "have Sozished from tbe archangel, with whose voice He been poured forth" like a torrent that has burst its shall descend to raise the dead: they therefore err who banks. Reckless of what it costs, the loss of God's confound Christ with Michael. The name means, who favour and heaven, on they rush after gain like Balaam, w nike God. In Daniel, 10. 13, he is called “One (

Mar. perished in the gainsaying of Core (Cf. Note, v. 12). pa, the first of the chief princes." He is the champion | When we read of Korah perisbing by gainsaying. we Angel of Israel. In Revelation, 12. 7, the conflict be- read virtually also of these perishing in like manner tween Michael and Satan is again alluded to. durst through the same: for the same seed bears the same Dat-froro reverence for Satan's former dignity (v. 8). harvest. 12. spots--So 2 Peter, 2. 13, Greek, spiloi : but miling accusation-Greek, judgment of blasphemy," or here the Greek is spilades, which elsewhere, in secular mil speaking. Peter said, angels do not, in order to writers, means rocks, viz., on which the Christian lore. Svenke themselves, rail at dignities, though ungodly, feasts were in danger of being shipwrecked. The oldwhen they have to contend with them : Jude says, est MS. prefixes the article emphatically," THE rocks." that thie archangel Michael hiniself did not rail even The reference to "clouds...winds... waves of the sea,"

the time when he fought with the Devil, the prince accords with this image of rocks. Vulgate seems to devil spirits-not from fear of him, but from rever- have been misled by the similar sounding word to Ece of God, whose delegated power in this world translate, as English Versim, "spots :* cf. however, Sutag once had, and even in some degree still has., 0, 23, which favours English Version, if the Greek will From the word disputed." or debated in controversy. bear it. Two oldest MSS., by the transcriber's effort His plain it was a judicial contest. about the body of to make Jude say the same as Peter, read here "deKases-his literal body. Satan, as having the power of ceivings" for "love-feasts," but the weightiest MS. death, opposed the raising of it again, on the ground and authorities support English Version reading. The

Moses sin at Meribah, and his murder of the love-feast accompanied the Lord's supper (1 Corinthi. Egyptian. That Moses' body was raised, appears from ans, 11, end). Korah the Levite, not satisfied with his bla presence with Elijah and Jesus (who were in the ministry, aspired to the sacrificing priesthood also: body, at the transfiguration: the sample and earnest of so ministers in the Lord's supper have sought to make be coming resurrection-kingdom, to be ushered in by it a sacrifice, and themselves the sacrificing priests. Lichaei's standing up for God's people. Thus in each usurping the function of our only Christian sacerdotal Ilkpensation a sample and pledge of the future resur- Priest. Christ Jesus. Let them beware of Korah's action was given; Enoch in the patriarchal dispensa. doom ! without fear-Join these words not as English ion, Moses in the Levitical, Elijah in the prophetical. Version, but with "feast." Sacred feasts especially

is pote-worthy that the same rebuke is recorded ought to be celebrated with fear, Feasting is not faulty here, as was used by the Angel of the Lord, or Je- in itself (BENGEL), but it needs to be accompanied with ovah the Second Person, in pleading for Joshua, the fear of forgetting God, as Job in the case of his sons presentative of the Jewish church, against Satan, infeasts. feeding themselves-Greek, "pasturing (tending) lochariah, 3. 2; whence some have thought that also themselves." What they look to is the pampering of ere **the body of Moses" means the Jewish church themselves, not the feeding of the flock.clouis-from ceased by Satan, before God, for its flthiness, on which one would expect refreshing rains. 2 Peter, 2. rhich cround be demands that Divine justice should 17."wells without water." Professorg without practice. Ako its course against Israel, but is rebuked by the carried about-The oldest MSS bave "carried aside," ord who has chosen Jerusalem:' thus, as "the body i.e., out of the right course (cf. Ephesians, 4. 14). trees I Christ" is the Christian church, so "the body of whose fruit withereth-rather, "trees of the late (or Loses" is the Jewish church. But the literal body is waning) autumn," viz., when there are no longer leaves sidestly bere meant (though, secondarily, the Jewish or fruits on the trees (BENGEL), &c. without fruitearch is typified by Moses' body, as it was there re- having no good fruit of knowledge and practice:

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sometimes used of what is positively bad. twice dead | them. Whilst they talk great swelling words, they are -First when they cast their leaves in autumn and really mean and fawning towards those of wealth and seem during winter dead, but revive again in epring: rank. 17. But ye, beloved-in contrast to those repro. secondly, when they are "plucked up by the roots." | bates. 1. 20, again. remember - Implying that his So these apostates, once dead in unbelief, and then readers had been contemporaries of the apostles. For by profession and hantism raised from the death of Peter uses the very same formnla in reminding the sin to the life of righteousness, but now having be- contemporaries of himself and the other apostles. come dead again by apostasy, and so hopelessly dead. spoken before-spoken already before now, the apostles There is a climax. Not only without leares, like trees - Peter Notes, 2 Peter, 3.2, 3), and Paul before Peter in late autumn, but without fruit: not only so, but (Acts, 20. 29:1 Timothy, 4. 1: 2 Timothy 3.1. Jode dead twice : and to crown all, "plucked up by the does not exclude himself from the number of the roots." 13. R ging-Wild. Jude has in mind Isaiah apostles here, for in y. 18, immediately after, he ays, 57, 20. shame-plural in Greek. "shames" (cf. Philip- "they told YOU," not us ratber as Grerk, "used to pians, 3. 10). wandering stars--instead of moving on in tell you." implying that Jude's readers were costers & regular orbit, as lights to the world, bursting forth poraries of the apostles who used to tell them!. 18. on the world like erratic comets, or rather meteors of mocke 3-- In the parallel, 2 Peter. 3. 3. the same Grue fire, with a strange glare, and then doomed to fall back is translated "scoffers." The word is found nowhere again into the blackness of gloom. 14. See Introduc else in the New Testament. How ALFORD can deny tion on the source whence Jude derived this pro that 2 Peter, 3. 2. 3. is referred to at least in part, I phecy or Enoch. The Holy Spirit, by Jude, has sealed cannot imagine, seeing that Jnde quotes the Fery the truth of this much of the matter contained in the words of Peter as the words which the apostles used book of Enoch, though probably that book as well as to speak to his (Jude's) readers, walk after their own Jude, derived it from tradition (cf. Note, v. 9). There ungodly insta-lit., "after taccording to their own lasta are reasons given by some for thinking the book of of ungodliness." 19. These be they-Showing that their Enoch copied from Jude rather than vice versa. It is characters are such as Peter and Paul bad joretold. striking how, from the first, prophecy hastened to separate themselves-from church communion in its wards its consummation. The earliest prophecies of vital, spiritual reality: for outwardly they took part in the Redeemer dwell on His second coming in glory. church ordinances (v. 12). Some oldest MSS ori rather than His first coming in lowliness (cf. Genesis, "themselves:" then understand it, "separate," cast out 3. 15, with Romans, 16. 20. Enoch in his translation meni bers of the church by excommunication disaiak, without death, illustrated that truth which he all his 65. 5; 66.5; Luke. 6. 22; John, 9.31; cf. "casteth the life preached to the unbelieving world, the certainty out of the church," 3 John, 10). Many, hower, of the Lord's coming, and the resurrection of the | understand "themselves," which indeed is read in dead, as the only effectual antidote to their scepti. some of the oldest MSS. as English Version las il cism and sell-wise confidence in nature's permanence. Arrogant setting up of themselves, as baring greater And-Greek, * Moreover, also Enoch." &c. of these-in sanctity and a wisdom and peculiar doctrine, distind relation to these. The reference of his prophecies was from others, is implied, sensual- t. "animal not to the antediluvians alone, but to all the ungodly soulled;" as opposed to the spiritual, or “havire the (v. 15). His prophecy applied primarily indeed to the Spirit." It is translated "the natural man." 1 Coriaflood, but ultimately to the final judgment, seventh thians, 2. 14. In the three-fold division of man's being from Adam-Serrn is the sacred number. In Enoch, body, soul, and spirit, the due state in Gols des an is, freedom from death and the sacred number are com- that "the spirit," which is the recipient of the Holy bined: for every seventh olject is most highly valued. Spirit uniting man to God, should be first, and should Jude thus shows tbe anticuity of the prophecy. Cr. I rule the soul, which stands intern ecliate between the * of old " Note, v. 4. There were only fire fathers be body and spirit: but in the animal, or natural man, tween Enoch and Adam. The serenth from Adam pro the spirit is sunk into subservieney to the animal-soul, phesied the things which shall close the seventh age of which is earthly in its motives and aims. The the world. IBEXGEL) cometh lit., "canie." Pro- "carnal" sink somewhat lower, for in tbese the fu, phecy regurds the future as certain as if it were past. I the lowest element and corrupt side of man's bodily saints - Holy angels (cf Deuteronomy, 33. 2; Daniel, I nature, reigns paramount. not having ihe Spirila 7. 10; Zechariah, 14. 6; Matthew, 25. 31; Hebrews, 12. the animal and natural man the spirit, his higher 22.) 15. This verse and the beginning of Enoch's pro- part, which ought to be the receiver of tbe Boy phecy, is composed in Hebrew poetic parallelism. Spirit, is not so; and therefore, his spirit not being the oldest specimen extant. Some think Lamech's l in its normal state, he is said not to have the spirit speech, which is also in poetic parallelism, was com- John. 3.5. 6). In the completion of redemption the posed in mockery of Enoch's prophecy: as Enoch fore- of redeemed man shall be placed in their due related told Jehovah's coming to judgment, so Lamech pre- whereas in the ungodly, the soul severed from sumes on impunity in polygamy and murier just as I spirit, shall have for ever animal life without watoa Cain the murderer seemed to escape with impunity). I God and heaven-a living death. 20. Resumibg. convince-convict. hard speeches-such as are noticed I building up yourselves-the opposite to the separa in v. 8, 10, 16: Malachi, 3. 13, 14 ; contrast 16, 17, un themselves" (v. 19: as "in the Holy Ghost is opposed godly sinners-not merely sinners, but proud despisers to "Having pot the Spirit." 08-as on a foundation of God: impious. against him-They who speak against Building on THE FAITH is equivalent to building on God's children are regarded by God as speaking Christ, the object of faith. praying in the Holy S. against Himself. 16. murmurers-in secret: muttering --(Romans, 8. 26: Ephesians, 6. 18. The House murmurs against God's ordinances and ministers in teaches rohat we are to pray for, and hou. Noreca church and state. CI. v. ,"speak evil of dignities" pray aright save by being in the Spirit, 1... 18 15,"hard speeches;" against the Lord. complain-rs- element of His influence. CHRYSOSTOM states than never satisfied with their lot Numbers, 11, 1; cf. the among the charisms bestowed at the beginning et penalty, Deuteronomy. 28. 47, 48). walking after their New Testament dispensation, was the gist e prar: own lusts-(0.18.) The secret of their murmuring and bestowed on some one who prayed in the nao e o oom planning is the restless insatiability of their desires, rest, and taught others to pray. Moreover, great, swelling words-(2 Peter, 2. 18.) meu's persons prayers so conceived and often used. were the their mere outward appearances and rank. bec use of and preserved among Christians, and out a advantage for the sake of what they may saiu from 'forms of prayer were framed. Such is te late

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