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Address to the


Bishops and Deacons. been removed from his own house into the Pretorium, or barrack of the Prætorian guards, attached to the palace, for strieter custody; and hence he writes with less hopeful anticipations as to the result of his trial (ch. 2. 17; & 11). Some of the Prætorian guards who had the custody of him before, would then naturally make known his "bonds," in accordance with ch. 1. 13; from the smaller Pretorian body-guard at the palace, the report would spread to the general per manent Prætorian camp, which Tiberius had established North of the city, outside of the walls. He had arrived in Kome, February, 61; the "two whole years (Acts, 28. 30) in his own hired house" ended February, 63, so that the date of this epistie, written shortly after, evidently whilst the danger was imminent, would be about spring or summer, 63. The providence of God averted the danger. He probably was thought beneath the notice of Tigellinus, who was more intent on court intrigues, The death of Nero's favourite, Pallas, the brother of Felix, this same year, also took out of the way another source of danger.

The STYLE is abrupt and discontinuous, his fervour of affection leading him to pass rapidly from one theme to another (ch. 2. 18. 19-24, 25-30; 3. 1-2, 3, 4.14, 15). In no epistle does he use so warm expressions of love, In ch.4.1, he seems at a Logs for words suficient to express all the extent and ardour of his affection for the Philippians, "My brethren dearly beloved and longed for, my joy and crown, 80 stand fast in the Lord, my dearly beloved." The mention of bishops and descons in ch. 1. 1, is due to the late ante of the epistle, at a time when the church had begun to assume that order which is laid down in the Pastoral Epistles, and which continued the prevalent one in the first and purest age of the church.


affairs of the church. The plural number shows there Ver. 1-30. INSCRIPTION. THANKSGIVING AND was more than one bishop or presbyter, and more than PRAYERS FOR THE FLOURISHING SPIRITUAL STATE one deacon in the church at Philippi. 2. Grace...peaceOF THE PAILIPPIANS. His Own STATE AT Rome, The very form of this salutation implies the union of ASD THE RESULT OF HIS IMPRISONMENT IS SPREAD Jew, Greek, and Roman. The Greek salutation was ING THE GOSPEL. EXHORTATION TO CHRISTIAN Cox "joy" (chairein), akin to the Greek for "grace" (charis. SISTENCY, 1. Timotheus - mentioned as being well The Roman was "health," the intermediate term beknown to the Philippians (Acts, 16. 3, 10-12), and now tween grace and peace. The Hebrew was "peace," present with Paul. Not that Timothy had any share in including both temporal and spiritual prosperity. writing the epistle; for St. Paul presently uses the first Grace must come first if we are to have true peace. person singular, "I." not "we" (v. 3). The mention of from...from-Omit the second "from;' as in the Greek, his name implies merely that Timothy joined in affec- "God our Father" and "the Lord Jesus Christ," are tionate remembrances to them. servants of Jesus most closely connected. 3. Translate, “In all my reCorist-The oldest MSS. read the order," Christ Jesus." membrance of you." 4. making request - translate, St. Paul does not call himself "an apostle," as in the "making my request." for you all-The frequent repetiinscriptions of other epistles; for the Philippians needed tion in this epistle of "all" with "you," marks that not to be reminded of his apostolic autbority. He Paul desires to declare his love for all alike, and will writes rather in a tone of affectionate familiarity. all not recomise any divisions among them. with joy-The

SO O. 4, 7, 8, 25; ch. 2. 17. 26. It implies comprehen. characteristic feature in this epistle, as love is in that sive affection which desired rot to forget any one among to the Ephesians (cf. v. 18; ch. 2, 2, 19. 28; 3. 1; 4, 1, 4). them "all." bishops-Synonymous with "presbyters" Love and joy are the two first fruits of the Spirit. Joy in the apostolical churches: As appears from the same gives especial animation to prayers. It marked his persons being called "elders of the church" at Ephesus high opinion of them, that there was almost every Lacts, 20. 17), and “overseers" (Acts. 20. 28, Greek, thing in them to give him joy, and almost nothing to "bishops." And Titus, 1. 6, cf, with u. 7. This is the give him pain. 5. Ground of his "thanking God" earliest letter of St. Paul where bishops and deacons are 1 (v. 3): "For your continued) fellowship (ie., real spiri. Inentioned, and the only one where they are separately tual participation) in lit., 'in regard to') the gospel from addressed in the salutation. This accords with the the first day (of your becoming partakers in it) until probable course of events, deduced alike from the now." Believers have the fellowship of the Son of God letters and history. Whilst the apostles were constantly 1 (1 Corinthians, 1. 9) and of the Father (1 John, 1. 3) in Visiting the churches in person or by messengers, the gospel, by becoming partakers of "the fellowship regular pastors would be less needed; but when some of the Holy Ghost" (2 Corinthians, 13, 14), and exercise were removed by various causes, provision for the that fellowship by acts of communion, not only the Termabent order of the churches would be needed. communion of the Lord's supper, but holy liberality to Hence the three pastoral letters, subsequent to this brethren and ministers (ch. 4. 10, 15, "communicated epistle, give instructions as to the due appointment ... concerning giving ;" 2 Corinthians, 9. 13; Galatians, of bishops and deacons. It agrees with this new want 16.6; Hebrews, 13. 16, "To communicate forget not"). of the church, wben other apostles were dead or far 6. confident-This confidence nerves prayers and thanks. away, and Paul long in prison, that bishops and deacons givings (v. 3, 4). this very thing-the very thing which should be prominent for the first time in the opening he prays for (v. 4, is the matter of his believing "consalutation. The Spirit thus intimated that the churches tidence" (Mark, 11. 24; 1 John, 6. 14, 15). Hence the were to look up to their own pastors, now that the result is sure. he which hath begun-God (ch. 2. 13). 2 miraculous gifts were passing into God's ordinary pro good work-Any work that God begins, He will surely vidence, and the presence of the inspired apostles, the finish 1 Samuel, 3. 12). Not even men begin a work at (lispensers of those gifts, was to be withdrawn. I random. Much more the fact of His beginning the (PALEY's Hore Paulince.) "Presbyter." implied the work is a pledge of its completion (Isaiah. 26. 12). So as rande: "bushop." the duties of the office. (NEANDER.) | to the particular work here meant, the perfecting of Naturally, when the apostles who had the chief super- their fellowoship in the gospel (v. 6; Psalm 37. 21; 8). 33, vision were no more, one among the presbyters pre- | 138. 8; John, 10. 28, 29; Romans, 8. 29. 36-69; 11. 1, 2; sided and received the name " Bishop," in the more Hebrews, 6. 17-19; James, 1. 17; Jude, 24). As God cast restricted and modern sense : just as in the Jewish | not off Israel for ever, though chastening them for a. synagogue one of the elders presided as "ruler of the I time. 80 He will not cast off the spiritual Israel synagogue." Observe, the apostle addresses the church (Deuteronomy, 33. 3; Isaiah, 27. 3; 1 Peter, 1. 6). per(i.e., the congregation) more directly than its presid form it untii-" perfect it up to." (ALFORD, ELLICOTT, in ministers (Colossians, 4. 17; 1 Thessalonians, 6. 12; 1 &c.] the day of...Carist-10. 10.) The Lord's coming. Hebrews. 13. 24: Revelation, 1. 4, 11). The bishops I designed by God in every age of the church to be more managed the internal, the deacons the external, I regarded as near, is to be the goal set before believers


er 6. confidences, 13. 16.

Paul's Prayer for the Phuippians.


Result of his Imprisonment. minds, rather than their own death. 7. meei-Greek, 'the things concerning me." rather-so far is my im" just." to think this-to have the prayerful confidence prisonment from hindering the gospel. Faith takes in I expressed tv. 4-6). of you-lit.. " in behalf of you." a favourable light even what seems adverse (BENGEL) Paui's confident prayer in their behalf was, that God (r. 19, 28; ch. 2. 17). 13. my bonds in Christ-rather as would perfect His own good work of grace in them. Greek, "So that my bonds have become manifest in because, &c. - Punctnate and translate, " Because I Christ," i.e., known, as endured in Christ's cause. have you in my heart (80 0.8; otherwise the Greek and palace-lit.. "Prætorium," he.. the barrack of the the words immediately following in the verse, favour | Prætorian guards attached to the palace of Nero, on the Margin, Ye have me in your heart...being partakers Palatine hill at Rome: not the general Prætorian camp of my grace' (both, in my bonds, and in my defence and outside the city; for this was not connected with confirmation of the gospel, you (I say) all being fellow-"Cesar's household," which ch. 4. 29 shows the Prae partakers of my grace." This last clause thus assigns torium here meant was. The Emperor was "Prator.* the reason why he has them in his heart li.e.. cherished or Commander-in-Chief, naturally then the barrack of in his love. 2 Corinthians. 3. 2: 7.3), even in his bonds, his body guard was called the Prætorium. Paul seems and in his defence and confirmation of the gospel (such now not to have been at large in his own hired house, as he was constantly making in private, Acts, 28. 17-23; though chained to a soldier, as in Acts, 28. 16, 20, 30, 31, his self-defence and confirmation of the gospel being | but in strict custody in the Prætorium: & change which necessarily conjoined, as the Greek implies, cf. 0. 17), probably took place on Tigellinus becoming Praetorian riz, "inasmuch as ye are fellow-partakers of my Prefect. See my Introduction, in all other places-So grace" inasmuch as ye share with me in "the fellow- CHRYSOSTOM. Or else, "To all the rest." ie, “maniship of the gospel" (v. 6), and have manifested this, both fest to all the other" Praetorian soldiers stationed elseby suffering as I do for the gospel's sake (v. 28-30, and where, through the instrumentality of the Pretorian by imparting to me of your substance (ch. 4. 16. It is household guards who might for the time be attached natural and right for me thus confidently to pray in to the Emperor's palace, and who relieved one another your behalf (ELLICOTT, &c, translate. "To be thus in succession. Paul had been now upwards of two minded for you all, because of my having you in my years a prisoner, so that there was time for his cause warmest remembrances even in my bonds, since you and the gospel having become widely known at Romne. are sharers with me in the gospel grace. Bonds do not 14. Translate as Greck." And that (v. 13) most of the bind love. 8. Confirmation of v.7. record-i.e., witness. brethren in the Lord," &c. "In the Lord.* distin. in the bowels of Jesus Christ-"Christ Jesus" is the guishes them from "brethren after the flesh," Jewisia order in the oldest MSS. My yearning lore (80 the fellow-countrymen. ELLICOTT, &c., translate, "TrustGreek implies) to you is not merely from natural affec-ing in the Lord," by my bonds-encouraged by my tion, but from devotedness to Christ Jesus. "Not patience in bearing my bonds, much more bold-trama Paul, but Jesus Christ lives in Paul; wherefore Paul is late as Greek, "are more abundantly bold." 15. "Some not moved in the bowels (i.e., the tender love, Jere- indeed are preaching Christ even for envy, i.e., to carry miah, 31. 20) of Paul, but of Jesus Christ." (BENGET, ) out the envy which they felt towards Paul, on account All real spiritual love is but a portion of Christ's love of the success of the goejel in the capital of the world, which yearns in all who are united to Him. (ALFORD.) owing to his stedfastness in his imprisonment: they 9. The subject of his prayer for them (v.4). your love-to wished through envy to transfer the credit of its proCbrist, producing love not only to Paul, Christ's mini-kress from him to themselves. Probably Judaizing ster, as it did, but also to one another, which it did not teacbers (Romans, 14.; 1 Corinthians, 3. 10-15; 9. 1. &c.: altogether as much as it ought (ch, 2.2; 4. 2. knowledge 2 Corinthians, 11. 1-4), some also of (rather, for goot

-of doctrinal and practical truth. judgment-rather, will-answering to "the brethren" (0.14): sobre being * perception :' " perceptive sense." Spiritual percep well-disposed to him. 16. 17. The oldest MSS. transpose tiveness: spiritual sight, spiritual bearing, spiritual these verses, and read, "These last) indeed out of love feeling. Spiritual taste. Caristianity is a vigorous (to Christ and me), knowing the opposite of thinking plant, not the hotbed growth of enthusiasm. “Know below) that I am set (t.e., appointed by God, 1 Thes. ledge" and "perception" guard love from being ill. salonians, 3.3) for the defence of the gospel (v. 7, not on judged. 10 Lit., * With a view to your proring (and my own account). But the others out of contention for

rather, 'a factious spirit:' *cabal; a spirit of intrigue, Romaus, 2. 18; not merely things not bad, but the using unscrupulous means to compass their end: things best among those that are good : the things of Note, Galatians, 6. 20; 'self-seeking' (ALFORDY promore advanced excellence. Ask as to things, not claim (the Greek is not the same as that for preacb, merely. Is there no harm, but is there any good, and but, announce') Christ, not sincerely answering to which is the best? sincere - from & Greek root, 'out of a spirit of intrigue,' or 'self-seeking. Lit.. not Examined in the sunlight and found pure. without purely: not with a pure intention: the Jewish les ven offence-Not stumbling: running the Christian race they tried to introduce, was in order to glorify theo without falling through any stumblingblock, i.e., selves, Galatians, 6. 12, 13: see, however, Note, c. 18. temptation in your way. till - rather, "unto," thinking (but in vain) to raise up (so the oldest MISS " against:" so that when the day of Christ comes. ye read) tribulation to my bonds." Their thought was, may be found pure and without offence. 11. The oldest tbat taking the opportunity of my being laid aside, they MSS. read the singular, "fruit." So Galatians, 6. 22 would exalt themselves by their Judaizing preaching. (see Note : regarding the works of righteousness, how and depreciate me and my preaching, and so cause mue ever manifold, as one harmonious whole," the fruit of trouble of spirit in my bonds; they thought that J.Like the Spirit" (Ephesians, 6. 9): James, 3. 18. "the fruit themselves, sought my own glory, and so would be of righteousness" (Hebrews. 12. 11); Romans, 6. 22, mortified at their success over mine. But they are ** fruit unto holiness." wpicb are," which is by (Greek, utterly mistaken: "I rejoice" at it v. 18), so far am I through) Jesus Christ." Through His sending to us from being troubled at it. 18." What then what the Spirit from the Father. "We are wild and useless follows from this? Does this trouble me as they olive trees till we are graffed into Christ, who, by His thought it would? "Notwithstanding" their unkind living root, makes us fruit-bearing branches." (CAL thought to me, and self-seeking intention, the catuse I VIN.) 12. understand-Greek, " know." The Philippians have at heart is furthered "every way of preaching. probably had feared that his imprisonment would "whether in pretence (with a by motive, e. 16) or in hinder the spread of the gospel; he therefore removes truth (out of trne 'love' to Christ, . 17). Christ is prothis fear. the things which happened unto me-Greek, I claimed; and therein I do rejo:ce, yea, and I will Result of his Imprisonment.


Echortation to Christian Unity. rejoice." From this it would seem that these self-seek this "fruit," viz., "labours" for Christ. GROTIUS exing teachers in the main "proclaimed Christ," not plains "the fruit of labour" as an idiom for “worth "another gospel," such as the Judaizers in Galatia while:" If I live in the flesh, this is worth my wbile, for taught (Galatians, 1. 6-8); though probably having some thus Christ's interests will be advanced, “For to me of the Jewish leaven (Note, v. 15, 16, 17), their chief | to live is Christ" (v. 21; cf. ch. 2. 30: Romans, 1. 13). error was their self-seeking envious motive, not so The second alternative, viz., dying, is taken up and much error of doctrine: had there been vital error, Paul handled. ch. 2. 17, "If I be offered." 23. For-The would not have rejoiced. The proclamation of CHRIST, oldest MSS. read," But." "I know not (v. 22) BUT am however done, roused attention, and so was sure to in a strait (am perplexed) betwixt the two (viz., 'to be of service. Paul could thus rejoice at the good | Live' and 'to die'), having the desire for departing (lit.. result of their bad intentions (Psalm 76. 10: Isaiah, I to loose anchor, 2 Timothy, 4. 6) and being with Christ; 10.6, 7), 19. turn to my salvation" turn out to me for FOR (so the oldest MSS.) it is by far better;" or as the (or unto) salvation." This proclamation of Christ every Greek, more forcibly. "by far the more preferable:" & way will turn out to my spiritual good. Christ, whose double comparative. This refutes the notion of the interests are my interests, being glorified thereby; and soul being dormant during its separation from the so the coming of His kingdom being furthered, which, body. It also shows that, whilst he regarded the Lord's when it does come, will bring completed "SALVATION" advent as at all times near, yet that his death before it (Hebrews, 9. 28) to me, and all whose "earnest expecta- was a very possible contingency. The partial life tion" (v. 20) is that Christ may be magnified in them. eternal is in the interval between death and Christ's So far is their preaching from causing me, as they second advent: the perfectional, at that advent. thought, tribulation in my bonds (v. 16). Paul plainly (BisHOP PEARSON.) To depart is better than to quotes and applies to himself the very words of the remain in the flesh; to be with Christ is far far better: LXX. (Job, 13, 16), "This shall turn out to my salva- a New Testament hope (Hebrews, 12. 24). [BEXGEL.) tion," which belong to all God's people of every age, in 24. to abide-to continue somewhat longer for youtheir tribulation (cf. Job, 13. 15). through your prayer Greek, "on your account;" "for your sake." In order to and the supply-The Greck intimately joins the two be of service to you, I am willing to forego my entrance noups together, by having but one preposition and one a little suoner into blessedness; beaven will not fail article: “ Through your prayer and the consequent) to be mine at last. 25. Translate,"And being confident supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ" (obtained for me of this." I know, &c.-by prophetical intimations of through your prayer). 20. According to my earnest ex- the Spirit. He did not yet know the issue, as far as pectation - The Greek expresses, "expectation with human appearances were concerned (ch. 2. 23). He uplifted head (Luke, 21. 28) and outstretched neck." | doubtless returned from his first captivity to Philippi Romans. 8. 19, the only other place in the New Testa- | (Hebrews, 13. 19: Philemon, 22). joy of faith-Greek, ment that the word occurs. TITTMANN says, in both “joy in your faith." 26. Translate," That your watter places it implies not mere expectation, but the anxious of glorying (or rejoicing) may abound in Christ Jesus in desire of an anticipated prosperous issue in afflictire me (i.e., in my case : in respect to me, or for me who circumstances. The subject of his earnest expectation have been granted to your prayers, o. 19) through my which follows, answers to "my salvation" (v. 19). in presence again among you." ALFORD makes the nothing I shall be ashamed-in nothing have reason to | "matter of glorying," the possession of the gospel, rebe ashamed of “my work for God, or His work in me." ceived from Panl, which would abound, be assured [ALFOPD.) Or, In nothing be disappointed in my and increased, by his presence among them; thus, "in hope, but that I may fully obtain it." (ESTIUS.) So | me," implies that Paul is the worker of the material Exkortation to Unity

ashamed" is used Romans, 9. 33. all boldness-"all" is of abounding in Christ Jesus. But "my rejoicing over opposed to "in nothing," as "boldness" is the opposite you" (ch, 2. 16), answers plainly to your rejoicing in to "ashamed." so pow also—when "my body" is "in respect to me" here. 27. Only-Whatever happens as bonds" (v. 17). Christ-not Paul," shall be magnified." to my coming to you, or not, make this your one only life, or by death-Whatever be the issue, I cannot lose, care. By supposing this or that future contingency, I must be the gainer by the event. Paul was not many persuade themselves they will be such as they omniscient: in the issue of things pertaining to them | ought to be, but it is better always without evasion selves, the apostles underwent the same probation of to perform present duties under present circumfaith and patience as we. 21. For-in either event | stances. (BENGEL.) let your conversation be-(cf. ch. (. 20) I must be the gainer, "For to me," &c. to live 3. 20.) The Greek implies, "Let your walk as citizens is Christ-whatever life, time, and strength, I have, is (viz., of the heavenly state: 'the city of the living God." Christ's: Christ is the sole object for which I live | Hebrews, 12. 22, 'the heavenly Jerusalem,' 'fellow(Galatians. 2. 20). to die is gain--Not the act of dying. I citizens of the saints.' Ephesians, 2. 19) be," &c. I... but as the Greek (" to have died") expresses, the state | see...hear-So v. 30. "Hear," in order to include both after death. Besides the glorification of Christ by my alternatives, must include the meaning know. your death, which is my primary object (v. 20), the change of affairs--your state. in one spirit--the fruit of partaking state caused by death, so far from teing a matter of of the Holy Spirit (Ephesians, 4, 3, 4). with one mind shame (v. 20) or loss, as my enemies suppose, will be a i-rather as Greek, “soul," the sphere of the affections; positive "gain" to me. 22. Rather as Greek, "But if | subordicate to the "Spirit,' man's higher and heavenly to live in the flesh, (if) tbis (I say, the continuance in | nature. There is sometimes natural antipathies life which I am undervaluing) be the fruit of my labour among believers; but these are overcorne, when there Cie., be the condition in which the fruit of my minis- is not only unity of spirit, but also of soul." (BENGEL.) terial labour is involved), then what I shall choose I striving together-with united effort. 28, terrified-lit., know pot" (I cannot determine witb myself, if the said of horses or other animals startled or suddenly choice were given me, both alternatives being great | scared: so of sudden consternation in general. which soods alike). SO ALFORD & ELLICOTT. BENGEL takes - your not being terrified. evident token of perditionit as English Version, which the Greck will bear by if they would only perceive it (2 Thessalonians, 1. 5). supposing an ellipsis. "If to live in the flesh (be my | It attests this, that in contending hopelessly against portion), this (continuing to live) is the fruit of my you, they are only rushing on their own perdition, not Labour.i.e., this continuance in life will be the occasion | shaking your united faith and constancy. to you of of my bringing in " the fruit of labour," i.e., will be the salvation-The oldest MSS, read, “Of your salvation;" occasion of " Labours" which are their own "fruit" or not merely your temporal safety. 29. For - rather, a reward: or, this my continuing "to live" will have | proof that this is an evident token from God of your


and Humbleness of Mind. salvation, " Because," &e. it is given-Grek, “It has on those points in which you excel, fix them on those been granted as a facour, or wilt of grace." Faith is in which your neighbour excels you: this is true the gift of God (Ephesians. 2. 8, not wrought in the "humility.* 4. The oldest MSS read. "Not looking soul by the will of man, but by the Holy Ghost John, each of you (plural, Greek) on his own things in, not 1. 12, 13. believe on him - "To believe Him," would haring regard solely to them), but each of you on the merely mean to believe He speaks the truth. "To things of others' also. C. 6. 21: also Paul's own er. believe on Him." is to believe in, and trust through, ample ich. 1. 24). 5. The oldest MSS. read, "Have this Him to obtain eternal salvation. Suffering for Christ mind in you," &c. He does not put forward himself is not only not a mark of God's anger, but a out of see Note, v. 4, and ch 1. 24) as an example, but Christ. His grace. 30. ye saw in me--(Acts, 16. 12, 19, &c. THE OXE pre-eminently who sought not His own, but 1 Thessalonians. 2. 2.) I am "in nothing terrified by humbled Himself" fr. 8), first in taking on Him our inine adversaries" (v. 29,, so ought not ye. The words nature, secondly, in humbling Himself further in that here, *ye saw...and .hear," answer to "I come and see nature Romans, 15. 3. 6. Translate." Who subsisting you, or else...hear" (c. 27).

(or existing. Ti., originally: the Greek is not the simple CHAPTER II.

substantive verb, to be in the form of God (the Divine Ver. 1-30. CONTINUED EXHORTATION: To t'SITY: essence is not meant; but the external self-manifesting TO HUMILITY AFTER CHRIST'EXAMPLE, WHOSE characteristics of God, the form shining forth from His GLORY FOLLOWED HIS HCMILIATION: TO EARNEST glorious essence. The Divine nature had infinite NESS IN SEEKING PERFECTION, THAT THEY MAY BE|BEAUTY in itsell, even without any creature contemHIS JOY IN TEE DAY OF CHRIST; His JOYFUL plating that beauty: that beauty was 'the form of God;' READINESS TO BE OFFERED NOW BY DEATII, 80 AS TO as 'the form of a servant (v.7), which is in contrasted PROMOTE THEIR FAITH. His INTENTION TO SEND opposition to it, takes for granted the existence of His TIMOTHY: His SENDING EPAPHRODITUS MEANTIME. human nature, so the form of God' takes for granted 1. Tne " therefore" implies that he is here expanding His Divine nature (BENGEL). cf. John, 6. 37; 17. 6; on the exhortation (ch. 1. 27). "In one Spirit, with one Colossians, 1. 15, 'Who is the IMAGE of the invisible mind" (soul.. He urges four influencing motires in God' at a time before every creature,' 2 Corinthians this verse, to inculcate the four Christian duties cor. 4. 4), esteemed (the same Greek verb as in t. 3, His being responding respectively to them (v. 2.." That ye be like-on an equality with God no lact of robbery or xlminded, having the same lore, of one accord, of one arrogatron, claiming to one's self what does not belong mind;" (1.) ** If there be with you any consolation in to him. ELLICOTT, WAHL, &c., have translated, A Christ," i.e. any consolation of which Christ is the source, thing to be grasped at," which would require the Grak leading you to wish to console me in my afllictions to be harpagma, whereas harpuginos means the act of borne for Christ's sake, ye owe it to me to grant my seizing. So harpagmos means in the only passage where request "that ye be like-minded” (CHRYSOSTOM & else it occurs, PLUTARCH de educatione puerorum, 120. Estics): (2.) "If there be any comfort of (ie., flowing The same insuperable objection lies against ALFORD's from love." the adjunct of "consolation in Christ:* (3.) | translation." He regarded not as sol-enrichment tie.. ** If any fellowship of (communion together as Chris an opportunity for sel-exaltation) His equality with tians, flowing from joint participation in the Spirit" | God." His argument is that the antithesis 0.7, regoires (2 Corinthians, 13. 14). As Pagans meant, lut., those it, “He used His equality with God as an opportunity. who were of one village, and drank of one fountain, not for self-exaltation, but for self-abasement, or empty how much greater is the union which conjoins those who ing Himself. But the antithesis is not between His drink of the same Spirit (1 Corinthians, 12. 4, 13) being on an equality rcith God, and His cmptying (GROTIUS): (4.) “If any bowels (tender emotions) and Himself: for He never emptied Himself of the futness inercies" compassions', the adjuncts of "fellowship of His Godhead, or His "BEING on an equality with of the Spirit." The opposites of the two pairs, into God;" but between His being "in the FOUM i.e., the which the four fall, are reprobated, t. 3, 4. 2. Fuifil- outward glorious sell-manifestation) of God," and His 1.€. Make full. I have joy in you, complete it by that "taking on Him the form of a serrant," whereby He in which is still wanting, riz., unuty (ch. 1. 9. like-minded a great deasure emptied Himsell of His precedent

lit., "tbat ye be of the same mind;" more general form," or outward selt manifesting lory as God. that the following " of one mind." having the same Not " looking on His own things" (v. 4). He, though, es love-equally disposed to love and be loved. being of isting in the form of God, He esteemed it no robbery one accord-lit.," with united souls." This pairs with to be on an equality with God, yet made Himself of the followinx clause, thus, " With united souls, being no reputation, "Being on an equality with God, of one mind;" as the former two also pair together, not identical with "subsisting in the form of God: the "That ye be like-minded, having the same love." 3. latter expresses the external characteristics. majesty, Let nothing be done-The italicised words are not in the and beauty of the Deity, which "He emptied Him(reek. Perhaps the ellipsis had better be supplied self of." to assume "the form of a servant;" the from the Greek (v. 2)." Thinking nothing in the way of former," His BKING." or NATURE, His already existing strife" (or rather, "factions intrigue," "self-seeking," STATE OF EQUALITY with God, both the Father and the Note,ch. 1. 10. It is the thought which characterises the Son having the same ESSENCE. A glimpse of Him * action as good or bad before God. lowliness of iniud- the form of God," previous to His incarnation was girea The direct relation of this grace is to God alone; it is the to Moses (Exodus, 24. 10, 11), Aaron, &c. 7. made sense of dependence of the creature on the Creator as bimself of no reputation, and..and-rather as the Greek such, and it places all created beings in this respect on "Emptied Himself, taking upon him the form of a ser a level. The man "lowly of mind" as to his spiritual vant, being made in the likeness of men." The two letter life, is independent of men, and free from all slavish clauses there being no conjunctions," and-and.in the feeling, while sensible of his continual dependence on 1 Greek expresses in that Christ's "emptying of Him God. Still it INDIRECTLY affects bis behaviour towards self" consists, viz., in "taking the form of a servant bis fellow-men; for, conscious of his entire dependence (Vote, Hebrews, 10. 6; cf. Exodus, 2L. 6, 6, and Psalm on God for all his abilities, even as they are dependent 40. 6. proving that it was at the time when He assumed a on God for theirs, he will not pride himself on his body. He took "the form of a serrant'), and in order abilities, or exalt sell in his conduct towards others to explain how He took "the form of a servant," there (Bobesians. 4. 2: Colossians, 3. 12). (NEANDER.] let is added, by being made in the likeness of men.' each es:e-m-translate as Greck,"esteeming each other His subjection to the law (Luke. 2. 21; Galatians, 4.4 superior to yourselves." Instead of fixing your eyes and to His parents Luke, 2. 61), H's low state as a

Echortation to Earnestness


in Secking Perfection. carpenter, and carpenter's reputed son (Matthew, 13. 55; 1 even they give homage, though one of fear, not love, Mark, 6. 3), His betrayal for the price of a bond ser- to Jesus (Mark, 3. 11; Luke, 8. 31; James, 2. 19, see vant (Exodus, 91, 32), and slave-like death to relieve Note, v. 11). 11. every tongue-C1. "every knee" (v. 10). us from the slavery of sin and death, finally and chiefly, in every way He shall be acknowledged as Lord (no His servant-like dependence as mun on God, whilst His longer as "servant," v. 7). As none can fully do so Divinity was not outwardly manifested (Isaiah, 49, 3, 7), "but by the Holy Ghost" (1 Corinthians, 12. 3), the are all marks of His "form as a servant." This proves spirits of good men who are dead, must be the class (L.) He was in the form of a servant, as soon as He was directly meant, v. 10, "under the earth." to the glory made man. (2.) He was in the form of God," before of God the Father-the grand end of Christ's mediaHe was " in the form of a servant." (3.) He did astorial office and kingdom, which shall cease when this really subsist in the Divine nature, as in the form of end shall have been fully realised (John, 6. 19-23, a servant, or in the nature of man. For He was as 30 ; 17. 1, 4-7; 1 Corinthians, 16. 24-28). 12. Wherefore much in the form of God," as in the form of a ser-Seeing that we have in Christ such a specimen of glory vant;" and was so in the form of God, as "to be on resulting from " cbedience" (v. 8) and humiliation, see an equality with God." lie therefore could have been that ye also be "obedient," and so "your salvation" none other than God; for God saith, "To whom will ye | shall follow your obedience. as ye have ... obeyed liken me and make me equal" Isaiah, 46, 5)? (BISHOP "even as ye have been obedient." viz., to God, as Jesus PEARSON. His emptying Himself pre-supposes His was "obedient" unto God (Note, v. 8). not as, &c. previons plenitude of Godhead (John, 1. 14; Colossians, "not as if it were a matter to be done "in niy pres1. 19: 2. 9). He remained full of this; yet He bore Him-ence only, but now as things are) much more (with sell as if He were empty. being found in fashiou as a more earnestness) in my absence" (because my help is hal-being already, by His" emptying Himself," in the withdrawn from you). (ALFORD.) work cut-carry TOTTA of a servant, or likeness of mau (Romans, 8. 31, 1 out to its full perfection. “Salvation" is "worked

He humbled Himself (still further by) becoming in" (v. 13; Ephesians, 1. 11) believers by the Spirit. obedient eren unto death not as English Version. He who enables them through faith to be justified oice for humbled Himsef and became,' &c.: the Greek has no all; but it needs, as a progressive work, to be "worked

aod' and has the participle, not the verb), and that out" by obedience, through the help of the same Spirit, the death of the cross," "Fashion" expresses that He unto perfection (2 Peter, 1. 6,3). The sound Christian had the outward guise, speech, and look. In v. 7, in neither, like the formalist, rests in the means, without tbe Greek, the emphasis is on Himsel (which stands looking to the end, and to the Holy Spirit who alone before the Greek verb). "He emptied flimsell." His can make the means effectual; nor, like the fanatic, Dirine self, viewed in respect to what He had hereto- | hopes to attain the end without the means. your own fore been : in v. 8, the empbasis is on "humbled" -The emphasis is on this. Now that I am not present (which stands before the Greek "Himsell"): He not to further the work of your salvation,"work out only emptied Himself" of His previous "form of your own salvation" yourselves the inore carefully. God." but submitted to positive HUMILIATIOX. He Do not think this work cannot go on because I am

became obedient," vis.. to God, as His "servant" | absent: "for (v. 13) it is God that worketh in you," &c. Romans. 5. 19; Hebrews, 6. 8). Therefore "God" is in this case adopt a rule different from the former said to "exalt" Him (v. 9). even as it was God to (v. 4), but resting on the same principle of "lowliness whom He became voluntarily" obedient." "Even unto of mind" (v. 3), viz., "look each on his own things." death" expresses the climax of His obedience (John, instead of "disputings" with others (v. 14). salvation 10. 18. 9. Wnerefore-As the just cousequence of His-which is in "Jesus" (v. 10), as His name (meaning sell-hamiliation and obedience (Psalm 8. 5, 6; 110, 1, 7; God Saviour) implies. with fear and trembling the Matthew, 28. 18; Luke, 24. 20; John, 6. 27; 10, 17; Rovery feeling enjoined on "servants," as to what ought inans, 14. 9; Ephesians, 1. 20-22; Hebrews, 2. 9). An into accompany their "obedience" (Ephesians, 6. 5). So timation, that if we would hereafter be exalted, we too | here. See that, as "servants" to God, after the example must, after His example, now humible ourselves (v. 3. 6: 1 of Christ, ye be so" with the fear and trembling" which ch. 3. 21; 1 Peter, 5. 6, 6). Christ emptied Christ: God | becomes servants : not slavish fear, but trembling exalted Christ as man to equality with God. (BENGEL.) I anxiety not to fall short of the coal (1 Corinthians. 9. higaly excited-Greek, "super-eminently exalted" (Ephe- 1 26. 27: Hebrews, 4.1, "Let us fear, lest a promise being sians. 4. 10). given him-Greek, "bestowed on Him." | left us of entering into His rest, any should come short

name-along with the corresponding reality, glory and of it"), resultingfrom a sense of our human insufficiency. majesty, which-translate, "(viz.) that which is above ! and from the consciousness that all depends on the every game." The name "JESUS" (V. 10), which is even power of God. "who worketh both to will and to do now in glory His name of honour (Acts, 3.6). "Above" (Romans, 11. 20). "Paul, though joyous, writes not only men, but angels (Ephesians, 1. 21). 10. at the seriously." (J, J. WOLF.) 13. For-Encouragement to rame-rather as Greck, "in the name." bow-rather, work : " For it is God who worketh in you," always ** bend," in token of worship. Referring to Isaiah, present with you, though I be absent. It is not said. 45. 23; quoted also in Romans, 14. 11. To worship "in * Work out your own salvation, though it is God," &c. the name of Jesus," is to worship Jesus Himself (ci. but. "because it is God who," &c. The will, and the 2. 11; Proverbs, 18. 10, or God in Christ (John, 16. 23; power to roorle, being first instalments of His grace, Eubesians, 3. 14). Cf. "Whosoever shall call upon the encourage us to make full proof of, and carry out to name of the Lord (i.e., whosoever shall call on the Lord the end, the "salvation" which He has first "worked,"

2. His rerealed character) shall be saved” (Romans, and is still "working in" us, enabling us to "work it 10. 13; 1 Corinthians, 1. 2; "all that call upon the name out." "Our will does nothing thereunto without grace: of Jesus Christ our Lord" (cf. 2 Timothy, 2.22 ; "call on but grace is inactive without our will." (ST. BERNARD the Lord." Acts, 7. 69,"calling upon...and saying. Manis, in different senses, entirely active, and entirely Lord Jesus* (Acts, 9. 14, 21; 22. 10). of things in heaven passive: God producing all, and we acting all. What

angels. They worship Him not only as God, but as | lle produced is our own acts. It is not tbat God does the ascended God-man, "Jesus" (Ephesians, 1. 21; Hesome, and we the rest. God does all, and we do all. brews. 1. 6: 1 Peter, 3. 22). in earth-nen; among whom God is the only proper author, we the only proper le tabernacled for a time. tinder the earth-the dead; actors. Thus the same things in Scripture are repreupong whom He was numbered once (Romans, 14, sented as from God, and from us. God makes a new 0.11: Ephesians. 4. 9, 10; Revelation, 6. 13). The heart, and we are commanded to make us a new heart; demons and the lost may be included indirectly, as not merely because we must use the means in onder to

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