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August 31.

cles and prophecies of him. His cart and

Iwo oxen laden with wood as he drove St. Raymund Nonnatus, A. D. 1240. St. "them, falling down a high rock into the

Isabel, 1. D. 1270. St. Cuthburge, sea, he only made the sign of the cross as 8th Cent. St. Aidan, or Ægan, A. D. 651. they fell, and received all safe and sound

out of the waters, &c. St. Aidan.


He was born in Ireland, and was bishop Autumnal Pheasant's Eye. Adonis an of Lindisfarne, which from the number of

tumnalis. reputed saints there buried, is called the Dedicated to St. Raymund Holy Island. Bede relates many mira


Next him September marched eke on foot ;

Yet was he heavy laden with the spoyle
Of harvest's riches, which he made his boot,

And him enriched with bounty of the soyle ;

In his one hand, as fit for harvest's toyle,
He held a knife-hook; and in th' other hand

A paire of weights, with wbich he did assoyle
Both more and losse, where it in doubt did stand,
And equal gave to each as justice duly scanned,


This is the ninth month of the year: and sober-coloured cup, and dropping it anciently it was the seventh, as its name in a most elegant manner beside the sunny imports, which is compounded of septem, and jagged leaf. We have seen a few of seven, and imber, a shower of rain, from them, with their stems in water, make a the rainy season usually commencing at handsome ornament to a mantle-piece, in this period of the year.

this season of departing flowers.

The few Our Saxon ancestors called this month additional flowers this month are cord“ Gerst-monat, for that barley which that flowers, Guernsey-lilies, starwort, and moneth commonly yeelded was antiently saffron, a species of crocus, which is culcalled gerst, the name of barley being tivated in separate grounds. The stagiven unto it by reason of the drinke mens of this flower are pulled, and dried therewith made, called beere, and from into flat square cakes for medicinal purbeerlegh it come to be berlegh, and from poses. It was formerly much esteemed berleg to barley. So in like manner in cookery. The clown in the Winter's beereheym, to wit, the overdecking or co- Tale, reckoning up what he is to buy for vering of beere, came to be called berham, the sheepshearing feast, mentions saffron and afterwards barme, having since got to colour the warden-pies.' The fresh ten I wot not how many names besids.- trees and shrubs in flower are bramble, This excellent and healthsome liquor, chaste-tree, laurustinus, ivy, wild boneybeere, antiently also called ael, as of the suckle, spirea, and arbutus, or stra'Danes it yet is (beere and ale being in berry-tree, a favourite of Virgil, which, lke effect all one,) was first of the Germans the garden of Alcinous, in Homer, proinvented, and brought in use."'* duces flower and fruit at once. Hardy

Mr. Leigh Hunt notices, that Spenser annuals, intended to flower in the spring, takes advantage of the exuberance of should now be sown; annuals of curious harvest, and the sign of the zodiac, libra, sorts, from which seed is to be raised, in this month, to read another lesson on should be sheltered till ripened ; and aujustice. “This is the month,” Mr. Hunt riculas in pots, which were shifted last continues, “ of the migration of birds, of month, moderately watered. The stonethe finished harvest, of nut-gathering, of curlew clamours at the beginning of this cyder and perry-making, and, towards the month, wood-owls hoot, the ring-ouzel conclusion, of the change of colour in reappears, the saffron butterfly is seen, trees. The swallows and many other soft- hares congregate; and, at the end of in billed birds that feed on insects

, disap- the woodlark, thrush, and black bird, are pear for the warmer climates, leaving only heard.” a few stragglers behind, probably from Mr. Hunt further observes that, Sepweakness or sickness, who hide themselves tember, though its mornings and evenings in caverns and other sheltered places, and are apt to be chill and foggy, and therefore occasionally appear upon warm days. The not wholesome to those who either do not, or remainder of harvest is got in; and no cannot, guard against them, is generally a sooner is this done, than the husbandman serene and pleasant month, partaking of ploughs up his land again, and prepares the warmth of summer and the vigour of it for the winter grain. The oaks and autumn. But its noblest feature is a cerbeeches shed their nuts, which in the fo- tain festive abundance for the supply of rest that still remain, particularly the New all the creation. There is grain for men, Forest in Hampshire, furnish a luxurious birds, and horses, hay for the cattle, loads repast for the swine, who feast of an even- of fruit on the trees, and swarms of tisk ing in as pompous a manner as any alder- in the ocean. If the soft-billed burds man, to the sound of the herdsman's horn. which feed on insects miss their usual But the acorn must not be undervalued supply, they find it in the southern counbecause it is food for swine, nor thought tries, and leave one's sympathy to be only robustly of, because it furnishes our pleased with an idea, that repasts appeships with timber. It is also one of the rently more harmless are alone offered to most beautiful objects of its species, pro- the creation upon our temperate sot. The truding its glossy green nut from its rough feast, as the philosophic poet says on a The feast is such as earth, the general mother,

higher occasionVerstegan.

Pours from her fairest bosom, when she smiles
In the embrace of Autumn. To each other

As some fond parent fondly reconciles
Her warring children, she their wrath beguiles

With their own sustenance; they, relenting, weep.
Such is this festival, which from their isles,

And continents, and winds, and oceans deep,
All shapes may tbrong to share, that fly, or walk, or creep.



September 1. them up as the doors of his own church.

These are some only of the marvels graveSt. Giles, Abbot, 7th Cent. Twelve Bro- ly told of him,“ many wytnisse that they

thers, Martyrs, A. D. 258. St. Lupus, herde the company of aungelles berynge or Leu, Abp. A. D. 623. St. Firminus the soule of hym into heven."* II., Bp. of Amiens, A. D. 347. St. Giles.

Great Sedum. Sedum Telephium. This saint is in the church of England

Dedicated to St. Giles. calendar. He was born at Athens, and came into France in 715, having first disposed of his patrimony to charitable uses. After living two years with Cæsarius, St. Stephen, king of Hungary, a. D. 1038.

September 2. bishop of Arles, he commenced hermit, and so continued till he was made abbot

St. Justus, Abp. of Lyons, A. D. 390. of an abbey at Nismes, which the king

St. William, Bp. of Roschild, A. D. built for his sake. He died in 750.*

1067. B. Margaret, 13th Cent. St. Giles is the patron of beggars. Going to church in his youth, he gave his

London Burnt, 1666. coat to a sick beggar who asked alms of The “Great Fire" of London is dehim, the mendicant was clothed, and the noted as above in our almanacs on this garment miraculously cured his disorder. day. It broke out at Pudding-lane and He was also the patron of cripples. Af- ended at Pie-corner. The monument or ter he had retired to a cave in a solitary Fish-street-hill to commemorate the caladesert, the French king was hunting near mity, bears the following inscription on his thicket, and Giles was wounded by the north side :an arrow from a huntsman's bow while “In the year of Christ, 1666, the 2d day at prayers; whereupon being found un- of September, eastward from hence, at moved from his position, the king fell at the distance of 202 feet, the height of this his feet, craved his pardon, and gave column, a terrible fire broke out about orders for the cure of his wound, but this midnight; which, driven on by a strong the saint would not permit, because he wind, not only wasted the adjacent parts, desired to suffer pain and increase his but also very remote places, with incredimerits thereby, and so he remained a ble noise and fury. It consumed eightycripple, and received reverence from the nine churches, the city gates, Guildhall, king whom he counselled to build a mo- many public structures, hospitals, schools, nastery; and the king did so, and Giles be- libraries, a vast number of stately edifices, came abbot thereof," and led the life of 13,200 dwelling-houses, and 430 streets; an angel incarnate," and converted the of the twenty-six wards it utterly destroyking. It is related of him that he rais- ed fifteen, and left eight others shattered ed the dead son of a prince to life, and and half burnt. The ruins of the city raade a lame man walk : our church of were 436 acres, from the Tower by the St. Giles, Cripplegate, is dedicated to him. Thames side to the Temple church, and It is further told, that at Rome he cast from the north-east along the City-wall two doors of cypress into the Tiber, and to Holborn-bridge. To the estates and recommended them to heavenly guid- fortunes of the citizens it was merciless, ance, and on his return to France found but to their lives very favourable, that it them at the gates of his monastery, and set might in all things resemble the conflawas sudden; for in a small space of time . was the subject of parliamentary investithe city was seen most flourishing, and gation. It is imputed to the Roman Careduced to nothing. Three days after, tholics, but a dispassionate considerwhen this fatal fire had baffled all human ation of all the circumstances by impartial counsels and endeavours, in the opinion men tends to acquit them of the crime, of all, it stopped, as it were, by a com- and most persons at this time believe mand from heaven, and was on every side that, extinguished. But papistical malice,

gration of the world. The destruction * Audley's Companion to the Almanac. | Ribadeneira,

* Golden Legend,

London's column pointing to the which perpetrated such mischiefs, is not

skies, yet restrained.

Like a tań bully, rears its head and lies." A line, beginning on the west side, contains the following words; on James II. coming to the crown, they were eras

Thomas Vincent, a non-conformist ed, but restored under William III. :

minister, who was ejected from the living “This pillar was set up in perpetual of St. Mary Magdalen, in Milk-street, and remembrance of the most dreadful burn- during the great plague remained in the ing of this protestant city, begun and car- city, and preached regularly to the great ried on by the treachery and malice of the comfort of the inhabitants under the afficpopish faction, in the beginning of Sep- witness of the subsequent conflagration.

tion of the raging pestilence, was an eyetember, in the year of our Lord,1666, in He wrote « God's terrible Judgments in order to the carrying on their horrid plot the City by Plague and Fire," and has for extirpating the protestant religion, and old English liberty, and introducing of the progress made by the flames, and

left a circumstantial relation in that work popery and slavery.".

The south side is thus inscribed :— their effects on the people. “Charles the Second, son of Charles the

Vincent's Narrative. Martyr, king of Great Britain, France and It was the 2d of September, 1666, that Ireland, defender of the faith, a most gra- the anger of the Lord was kindled against cious prince, commiserating the deplora- London, and the fire began: it began in ble state of things, whilst the ruins were a baker's house, in Pudding-lane, by Fishyet smoaking, provided for the comfort street-hill; and now the Lord is making of his citizens, and the ornament of his London like a fiery oven in the time of city; remitted their taxes, and referred his anger, and in his wrath doth devour the petitions of the magistrates and inhab- and swallow up our habitations. It was itants to the parliament; who immedi- in the depth and dead of the night, when ately passed an act, that public works most doors and fences were locked up in should be restored to greater beauty, with the city, that the fire doth break forth and public money, to be raised by an imposi- appear abroad; and, like a mighty grant tion on coals ; that churches, and the ca- refreshed with wine, doth awake and arm thedral of St. Paul's, should be rebuilt itself, quickly gathers strength, when it from their foundations, with all magnifi- had made havoc of some houses; rusheth cence; that the bridges, gates, and pri- down the hill towards the bridge; crosseth sons should be new made, the sewers Thames-street, invadeth Magnus church, cleansed, the streets made straight and at the bridge foot; and, though that church regular, such as were steep levelled, and were so great, yet it was not a sufficient those too narrow made wider, markets barricado against this conqueror; but, and shambles removed to separate places. having scaled and taken this fort, it shoot. They also enacted, that every house should eth flames with so much the greater adbe built with party walls, and all in front vantage into all places round about; and raised of an equal height, and those walls a great building of houses upon the bridge all of square stone or brick; and that no is quickly thrown to the ground: then man should delay building beyond the the conqueror, being stayed in his course space of seven years."

at the bridge, marcheth back to the city An estimate of the value of property again, and runs along with great noise consumed by the fire amounted to ten and violence through Thames-street, westmillions six hundred and eighty-nine ward; where, having such combustible thousand pounds, wherein was included matter in its teeth, and such a fierce wind the value of St. Paul's cathedral, which upon its back, it prevails with linie was set down at nearly one-fifth of the resistance, unto the astonishment of the total. The occasion of the conflagration beholders.

Fire! fire! fire! doth resound the furious flames. Now goods are hastily streets; many citizens start out of their removed from the lower parts of the city; sleep, look out of their windows; some and the body of the people begin to retire, dress themselves and run to the place. and draw upwards, as the people did The lord mayor of the city comes with from the tabernacles of Korah, Datban, his officers; a confusion there is; counsel and Abiram, when the earth did cleave is taken away; and London, so famous asunder and swallow them up: or rather for wisdom and dexterity, can now find

as Lot drew out from his house in Sodom neither brains nor hands to prevent its before it was consumed by fire from ruin. The hand of God was in it; the heaven. Yet some hopes were retained decree was come forth; London must on the Lord's-day that the fire would be now fall, and who could prevent it? No extinguished, especially by them who wonder, when so many pillars are re- lived in the remote parts; they could moved, if the building tumbles; the pray- scarcely imagine that the fire a mile off ers, tears, and faith, which sometimes should be able to reach their houses. London hath had, might have quenched But the evening draws on, and now the violence of the fire; might have opened the fire is more visible and dreadful : heaven for rain, and driven back the wind: instead of the black curtains of the night, but now the fire gets mastery, and burns which used to be spread over the city, dreadfully.

now the curtains are yellow; the smoke That night most of the Londoners had that arose from the burning parts seemed taken their last sleep in their houses; like so much flame in the night, which they little thought it would be so when being blown upon the other parts by the they went into their beds; they did not wind, the whole city, at some distance, in the least suspect, when the doors of seemed to be on fire. Now hopes begin their ears were unlocked, and the case- to sink, and a general consternation seizments of their eyes were opened in the eth upon the spirits of people; little morning, to hear of such an enemy invad- sleep is taken in London this night; the ing the city, and that they should see amazement which the eye and ear doth him, with such fury, enter the doors of effect upon the spirit, doch either dry up their houses, break into every room, and or drive away the vapour which used to look out of their casements with such a bind up the senses. Some are at work threatening countenance.

to quench the fire with water; others enThat which made the ruin the more deavour to stop its course, by pulling dismal, was, that it was begun on the down of houses ; but all to no purpose. Lord's-day morning : never was there the if it be a little allayed, or beaten down, like sabbath in London; some churches or put to a stand in some places, it is but were in flames that day; and God seems a very little while; it quickly recruits, to come down, and to preach himself in and recovers its force; it leaps and them, as he did in Mount Sinai, when mounts, and makes the more furious the mount burned with fire; such warm onset, drives back its opposers, snatcheth preaching those churches never had ; such their weapons out of their hands, seizeth lightning dreadful sermons never were upon the water-houses and engines, burns before delivered in London. In other them, spoils them, and makes them unfit churches ministers were preaching their for service. farewell sermons, and people were hearing On the Lord's-day night the fire had with quaking and astonishment: instead run as far as Garlick-bithe, in Thamesof a holy rest which christians have taken street, and had crept up into Cannonon this day, there is a tumultuous hurry. street, and levelled it with the ground; ing about the streets towards the place and still is making forward by the waterthat burned, and more tumultuous hurry- side, and upward to the brow of the hill, ing upon the spirits of those that sat still, on which the city was built. and had only the notice of the ear of the On Monday, (the 3d) Gracechurchquick and strange spreading of the fire. street is all in fames, with Lombard-street,

Now the train-bands are up in arms on the left hand, and part of Fenchurch watching at every quarter for outlandish- street, on the right, the fire working men, because of the general fear and (though not so fast) against the wind that ealousies, and rumours, that fire-balls way: before it were pleasant and stately were thrown into houses by several of houses, behind it ruinous and desolate them to help on and provoke the too heaps. The burning then was in fashion

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