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In this old print we see the compositor which the offending workmen may wash seated at his work, the reader engaged away the stain that his misconduct has with his copy or proof, and the pressmen laid upon the body at large. Should the at their labours. "It exhibits the form of plaintiff not be able to substantiate his the early press better, perhaps, than any charge, the fine then falls upon himself other engraving that has been produced for having maliciously arraigned his comfor that purpose ; and it is to be noted, panion; a mode of practice which is as a “custom of the chapel,” that papers marked with the features of sound policy, are stuck on it, as we still see practised as it never loses sight of the good of the by modern pressmen.
Note, too, the chapel.” ample flagon, a vessel doubtless in use ad Returning to Randle Holme once more, libitum, by that beer-drinking people with we find the good of the chappel" couwhom printing originated, and therefore sists of " forfeitures and other chappel not forgotten in their printing-houses; it dues, collected for the good of the chap is wisely restricted here, by the interest of pel, viz. to be spent as the chappel apemployers, and the growing sense of pro- proves." This indefatigable and accurate priety in press-men, who are becoming collector and describer of every thing be as respectable and intelligent a class of could lay his hands on and press into he“ operatives” as they were, within recol- raldry, has happily preserved the ancient lection, degraded and sottish.
rules of government instituted by the
worshipful fraternity of printers. This The Chapel
book is very rare, and this perhaps may
have been the reason that the following Every printing-house," says Randle document essentially connected with the Holme, is termed a chappel.” Mr. history of printing, has never appeared in John M'Creery in one of the notes to one of the many works so entitled. “ The Press," an elegant poem, of which
Customs of the Chappel. he is the author, and
which he beautifully printed, with elaborate engravings on Every printing-house is called a chap wood, as a specimen of his typography, pel, in which there are these laws and says, that “ The title of chapel to the in- customs, for the well and good governternal regulations of a printing-house ment of the chappel, and for the orderly originated in Caxton's exercising the pro- deportment of all its members while in fession in one of the chapels in West- the chappel. minster Abbey; and may be considered Every workman belonging to it are as an additional proof, from the antiquity members of the chappel, and the eldest of the custom, of his being the first Eng- freeman is father of the chappel; and the lish printer. In extensive houses, where penalty for the breach of any law or cusmany workmen are employed, the calling tom is in printers' language called a solace. a chapel is a business of great importance, 1. Swearing in the chappel, a solace. and generally takes place when a member 2. Fighting in the chappel, a solace. of the office has a complaint to allege 3. Abusive language, or giving the le against any of his fellow workmen; the in the chappel, a solace. first intimation of which he makes to the 4. To be drunk in the chappel, a solace. father of the chapel, usually the oldest 5. For any of the workmen to leave his printer in the house : who, should he con- candle burning at night, a solace. ceive that the charge can be substantiated, 6. If a compositor fall his composing and the injury, supposed to have been stick and another take it up, a solace. received, is of such magnitude as to call 7. For three letters and a space to lie for the interference of the law, summon- under the compositor's case, a solace. ses the members of the chapel before him 8. If a pressman let fall his ball or at the imposing stone, and there receives balls, and another take them up, a solace. the allegation and the defence, in solemn 9. If a pressman leave his blankets in assembly, and dispenses justice with ty- the timpan at noon or night, a solace. pographical rigour and impartiality. 10. For any workman to mention These trials, though they are sources of joyning their penny or more a piece to neglect of business and other irregulari- send for drink, a solace. ties, often afford scenes of genuine hu- 11. To mention spending chappel mo mour. The punishment generally consists ney till Saturday night, or any other before in the criminal providing a libation, by agreed time, a solace.
12. To play at quadrats, or excite joyn their 2d. a piece to make her drink, others in the chappel to play for money and to welcome her. or drink, a solace.
If a journeytaan have a son born, he 13. A stranger to come to the king's pays 13., if a daughter 6d. printing-house, and ask for a ballad, a If a master-printer have a son born, he solace.
pays 28. 6d., if a daughter 18. 5d. 14. For a stranger to come to a com- An apprentice, when he is bound, pays positor and inquire if he had news of half a crown to the chappel, and when he such a galley at sea, a solace.
is made free, another half crown: and if 15. For any to bring a wisp of hay be continues to work journeywork ir: the directed to a pressman, is a solace. same house he pays another, and then is a
16. To call metile lead in a founding- member of the chappel. house, is a forfeiture.
17. A workman to let fall his mould, a Probably there will many a conference forfeiture.
be held at imposing-stones upon the pre18. A workman to leave his ladle in sent promulgation of these ancient rules the mettle at noon, or at night, a forfeiture. and customs; yet, until a general assem
And the judges of these solaces, or for- bly, there will be difficulty in determining feitures, and other controversies in the how far they are conformed to, or departed chappel, or any of its members, was by from, by different chapels. Synods have plurality of votes in the chappel ; it being been called on less frivolous occasions, asserted as a maxime, that the chappel and have issued decrees more“ frivolous cannot err. Now these solaces, or fines, and vexatious," than the one contemwere to be bought off for the good of the plated. chappel, which never exceeded 18., 6d.; 4d., 2d., 1d., ob., according to the nature
In a work on the origin and present and quality thereof.
state of printing, entitled “ Typographia, But if the delinquent proved obstinate or the Printer's Instructor, by J. Johnson, and will not pay, the workmen takes him Printer, 1824, 2 vols.," there is a list of by force, and lays him on his belly, over“ technical terms made use of by the prothe correcting stone, and holds him therefession,” which Mr. Johnson prefaces by whilest another with a paper board gives saying, “ we have here introduced the him 101. in a purse, viz., eleven blows on
whole of the technical terms, that poshis buttocks, which he lays on according terity may know the phrases used by the to his own mercy.
early nursers and improvers of our art." Customs for Payments of Money.
However, they are not “ the whole," nor
will it detract from the general merit of Every new workman to pay for his Mr. Johnson's curious and useful work, entrance half a crown, which is called his
nor will he conceive offence, if the Editor benvenue, till then he is no member, nor of the Every-Day Book adds a few enjoys any benefit of chappel money. from Holme's “ Academy of Armory, Every journeyman that formerly worked
a rare store-house of “ Created Beings, at the chappel, and goes away, and after with the terms and instruments used in wards comes again to work, pays but half all trades and arts," and printers are esbenvenue. If journeymen smout
one another, hey pay half a benvenue.
Additions to Mr. Johnson's List of Prin
ters' Terms. All journeymen are paid by their maser-printer for all church holidays that
Bad Copy. Manuscript sent to be not on a Sunday, whether they work printed, badly or imperfectly written
Bad Work. Faults by the compositor Do, what they can earn every working
or pressman. ay be it 2, 3, or 48, 18 a journeyman marries, he pays half
Broken Letter. The breaking of the crown to the chappel.
orderly succession the letters stood in, When his wife comes to the chappel, either in a line, page, or form ; also the se pays 6d., and then all the journeymen mingling of the letters, technically called
Case is Low. Compositors say this Saan. Workmen when they are out of con
when the boxes, or holes of the case, have ork, sometimes accept of a day or two's few letters in them.
or a week's work at another printing houre; by work they cali smouting.-Holme.
Case is full. When no sorts are wanting.
Case stands still. When the compo- froze out. (Such accidents never occur sitor is not at his case.
in good printing-houses. Cassie Paper. Quires made up of torn, Going up the form. A pressman's wrinkled, stained, or otherwise faulty phrase when he beats over the first and sheets.
third rows or columns of the form with his Cassie Quires. The two outside quires ink-balls. of the ream, also called cording quires.
Great bodies. Letter termed“ English, ** Charge. To fill the sheet with large long primer, and all smaller letter.
and all above that size: small bodies are or heavy pages.
Great numbers. Above two thousand Companions. The two press-men work- printed of one sheet. ing at one press : the one first named has
Hard work, with compositors, is copy his choice to pull or beat; the second badly written and difficuli; (such as tlity takes the refuse office.
too frequently receive from the Editor of Comes off. When the letter in the the Every-Day Book, who alters, and form delivers a good impression, it is said interlines, and never makes a fair copy, to come off well; if an ill impression, it is hard work, with pressmen, is small letter said to come off bad.
and a large form. Dance. When the form is locked up, Hole. À place where private printing if, upon its rising from the composing- is used, viz. the printing of unlicensed stone, letters do not rise with it, or any books, or other men's copies. drop out, the form is said to dance.
[Observe, that this was in Holme's time; Distribute. Is to put the letters into now, licensing is not insisted on, bar their several places in the case after the could it be enforced; but the printing form is printed off.
“ other men's copies" is no longer conDevil. Mr. Johnson merely calls him fined to a hole. Invasion of copyright us the errand-boy of a printing-house; but perpetrated openly, because legal reme though he has that office, Holme properly dies are circuitous, expensive, and eacz. says, that he is the boy that takes the evaded. So long as the law remains niin sheets from the tympan, as they are print- altered, and people will buy stolen prun ed off. “These boys," adds Holme,“ do perty, criminals will rob. The pirate's in a printing-house commonly black and « fence" is the public. The receiver u dawb' themselves, whence the workmen as bad as the thief: if there were no se do jocosely call them devils, and some- ceivers, there would be no thieves. La times spirits, and sometimes flies." the public look to this.]
Drive out. “ When a compositor sets Imperfections of books. Odd sber wide," says Mr. Johnson. Whereto over the number of books made perten Holme adds, if letter be cast thick in the They are also, and more generally at i'm shank it is said to drive out, &c.
time, called the waste of the book. Easy Work. Printed, or fairly written, M thick. An m quadrat thick. copy, or full of breaks, or a great letter N thick. An n quadrat thick. and small form “ pleaseth a compositor," Open matter, or open work. Par and is so called by him.
with several breaks, or with white spa Empty Press. A press not in work: between the paragraphs or sections. most commonly every printing-office has Over-run. Is the getting in of we one for a proof-press : viz., to make by putting out so much of the forepart proofs on.
the line into the line above, or so Even Page. The second, fourth, sixth, of the latter part of the line into the
below, as will make room for the word Odd Page. The first, third, fifth, &c. words to be inserted: also the deranger. pages.
and re-arrangement of the whole sb. Folio. Is, in printer's language, the in order to get in over-matter. (Y two pages of a leaf of any size.
and after-thought writers are ape Form rises. When the form is so well occasion much over-running, a prin locked up in the chase, that in the raising distressing to the compositor, and a of it up neither a letter nor a space drops end to the author himself, who he out, it is said that the form rises.
pay for the extra-labour he occasions Froze out. In winter, when the paper Pigeon holes. Whites between is frozen, and the letter frozen, so as the as large, or greater than between lice workmen cannot work, they say they areļine The term is used to scan
such composition; it is never suffered to is now disputed whether typography and remain in good work.
architecture may not be accounted Liberal Printing-house. The house wherein Sciences, being so famous Arts!" Seriousprinting is carried on; but it is more ly, however, communications respecting peculiarly used for the printing, imple- printing are earnestly desired. ments. Such an one, it is said, hath rem moved his printing-house; meaning the
FLORAL DIRECTORY. implements used in his former house. Perennial Sunflower Helianthus multiRevise. A proof sheet taken off after
florus. the first
or second proof has been cor. Dedicated to St. Lewis. rected. The corrector examines the faults, marked in the last proof sheet, fault by fault, and carefully marks omissions on
August 26. the revise.
St. Zephyrinus, Pope, a. D. 219. St. GeShort page. Having but little printed nesius, a Comedian, A. D. 303. St. in it; (or relatively, when shorter than Gelasinus, a Comedian at Heliopolis, another page of the work.]
A, D. 297.
St. Genesius, of Arles, Stick-full
. The composing-stick filled about the 4th Cent. with so many lines that it can contain no Token. An hour's work for half a press,
“ Il cantar, che nel animosi sente." viz. a single pressman; this consists of Nay, tell me not of lordly halls ! five quires. An hour's work for a whole The moss and the rock are my tapestried
My minstrels are the trees, press is a token of ten quires.
walls, Turn for it. Used jocosely in the
Earth's sounds my symphonies, chapel : when any of the workmen complain of want of money, or any thing There's music sweeter to my soul else, he shall by another be answered
In the weed by the wild wind fanned* turn for it," viz. make shift for it.
In the heave of the surge, than ever stole
From mortal minstrel's hand. [This is derived from the term turn for a letter, which is thus :—when a There's mighty music in the roar compositor has not letters at hand of the
Of the oaks on the mountain's side, sort he wants while composing, and finds When the whirlwind bursts on their foreit inconvenient to distribute letter for it,
And the lightnings flash blue and wide. he turns a letter of the same thickness, face downwards, which turned letter he There's mighty music in the swell takes out when he can accommodate him
Of winter's midnight wave-
And all below is the grave.
Heard in the noontide glare,
When its thousand mingling voices come Thus much has grown out of the notice, On the breast of the sultry air. that printers formerly papered their There's music in the mournful swing windows about “ Bartlemy-tide," and Of the lonely village bellmore remains behind. But before farther is And think of the spirit upon the wing, stated, if chapels, or individuals belonging Releas'd by its solemn knell. Lo them, will bave the goodness to commu- There's music in the forest-stream, nicate any thing to the Editor of the As it plays thro' the deep ravine, Every-Day Book respecting any old of Where never summer's breath or beam present laws, or usages, or other mat- Has pierced its woodland screen. iers of interest connected with print- There's music in the thundering sweep ing, he will make good use of it. Notices Of the mountain waterfall, ut anecdotes of this kind will be accept- As its torrents struggle, and foam and leap able when authenticated by the name and From the brow of its marble wall. address of the contributor. If there are There's music in the dawning morn, mny who doubt the importance of printing, Ere the lark his pinion drieshey may be reminded that old Holme, a
"Tis the rush of the breeze thro' the dewy was seldom moved to praise any thing cornut for its use in heraldry, says, that " it Thro' the garden's perfumed dyes.
There s music on the twilight cloud
FLORAL DIRECTORY. As the clanging wild swans spring, Hedge Hawkweed. Hieracium umbellatum, As homewards the screaming ravens crowd, Dedicated to St. Cæsarius.
Like squadrons upon the wing. There's music in the depth of night,
August 28. When the world is still and dim, And the stars flame out in their pomp of St. Augustine, Bp. and Doctor of the
Church, A. D. 430. St. Hermes, about light, Like thrones of the cherubim !
A. D. 132. St. Julian, Martyr.
St. Augustine. His name is in the church of England calendar. He was born at Tagasta, in
Numidia, in 354. Lardner awards to him Banded Amaryllis. Amaryllis vittata. the character of an illustrious man, and Dedicated to St. Zephyrinus.
says, that " a sublime genius, an uninterrupted and zealous pursuit of truth, an indefatigable application, and invincible
patience, a sincere piety, and a subtle August 27.
and lively wit, conspired to establish his
fame upon the most lasting foundation" St. Cæsarius, Abp. of Arles, A. D. 542. yet he adds, that “the accuracy and sa
St. Pæmen, or Pastor, Abbot about lidity of his judgment were not proporA. D. 385.
St. Hugh of Lincoln, A, D. tionable to his eminent talents; and that 1255. St. Joseph Calasanctius, A. D. upon many occasions he was more guided 1648. St. Malrubius, about A, D. 1040. by the violent impulse of a warm image St. Syagrius, Bp. of Autun, A. D. 600. nation than by the cool dictates of reason
and prudence.” He pronounced that wil The Glowworm.
infants dying before baptism were deDr. Forster in his “Perennial Calendar" prived of the sight of God; wherein be quotes the mention of this and other lumin, Arminiensis
, a famous theological ducit,
is followed, says Daille, by Gregorias ous insects from “ a late entomological who from thence was called Tormentus work," in the following passage :-“ This little planet of the rural scene may
be observed in abundance in the month of
FLORAL DIRECTORY. August, when the earth is almost as
Goldenrod. Solidago Virgaurea. thickly spangled with them as the cope
Dedicated to St. Augustine. of heaven is with stars. It is not only the glowworm that will not bear inspection when its lustre is lost by the
August 29. light of day; but all those luminous The Decollation of St. John Baptist. S. insects that bear the same phosphoric fire
Sabina. St. Sebbi, or Sebba, King, ali about them, such as the lanthorn fly of
A. D. 697. St. Merri, in Latiu, Video the West Indies and of China, of which
ricus, Abbot, about A. D. 700. there are several sorts; some of which carry their light in a sort of snout, so that
FLORAL DIRECTORY. when they are seen in a collection, they
Yellow Hollyhock. Althea flars. are remarkably ugly. There is also an
Dedicated to St. Sabina. insect of this luminous sort common in Italy, called the lucciola. An intelligent
August 30. traveller relates, that some Moorish ladies St. Rose of Lima, Virgin, A. D. 1617. & having been made prisoners by the Ge- Felix and Adauctus, about A. D. 303 noese, lived in a house near Genoa till St Fiaker, Anchoret, called by the they could be exchanged, and, on seeing French, Fiacre, and anciently, Fefra, some of the lucciola, or Aying glowworms, about A.D. 670. St. Pammachius, a darting about in the evening in the gar- 410. St. Agilus, commonly called S den near them, they caused the windows Aile, about A.D. 650. to be shut in a great alarm, from a strange idea which seized them, that these shining
FLORAL DIRECTORY. flies were the souls of their deceased re
Guernsey Lily. Amaryllis Sarniere lations."
Dedicated to St. Rose.