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basket-work.' The common, or white folk. Mr. Pope was in company when willow, salix alba, takes its specific name the covering was taken off; he observed from the white silken surface of the leaves that the pieces of stick appeared as if on the under side. The bark is used to they had some vegetation; and added, tan leather, and to dye yarn of a cinna- ' Perhaps they may produce something mon colour. It is one of the trees to we have not in England. Under this which the necessitous Kamtschatdales are idea, he planted it in his garden, and it often obliged to recur for their daily produced the willow-tree that has given bread, which they make of the inner bark, birth to so many others." It is said, that ground into flour. The bark of this wilə the destruction of this tree was caused by low has in some cases been found a good the eager curiosity of the admirers of the substitute for the Peruvian bark. The poet, who, by their numbers, so disturbed grey willow, or sallow, salix cinerea, the quiet and fatigued the patience of the grows from six to twelve feet high. In possessor, with applications to be permany parts of England, children gather mitted to see this precious relic, thai to the flowering branches of this tree on put an end to the trouble at once and for Palm Sunday, and call them palms. ever, she gave orders that it should be With the bark, the inhabitants of the felled to the ground. . Highlands and the Hebrides tan leather. The weeping willow, in addition to The wood, which is soft, white, and flex- the pensive, drooping appearance of its ible, is made into handles for hatchets, branches, weeps little drops of water, spades, &c. It also furnishes shoemakers which stand like fallen tears upon the with their cutting-boards, and whetting- leaves. It will grow in any but a dry boards to smooth the edges of their knives soil, but most delights, and best thrives, in upon.

the immediate neighbourhood of water. The weeping willow, salix Babylonica, The willow, in poetical language, coma native of the Levant, was not cultivated monly introduces a stream, or a forsaken in this country till 1730. This tree, with lover :its long, slender, pendulous branches, is

“ We pass a gulph, in which the willows one of the most elegant ornaments of

dip English scenery. The situation which it Their pendent boughs, stooping as if to affects, also, on the margins of brooks drink."

Cowper. or rivers, increases its beauty ; like Nar

Chatterton describes cissus, it often seems to bend over the water for the purpose of admiring the “ The willow, shadowing the bubbling reflection

brook." -“Shadowy trees, that lean

Churchill mentions, among other trees, So elegantly o'er the water's brim." “ The willow weeping o'er the fatal ware,

Where many a lover finds a watery grave; There is a fine weeping willow in a

The cypress, sacred held when lovers garden near the Paddington end of the New Road, and a most magnificent one, Their true love snatched away." also, in a garden on the banks of the Thames, just before Richmond-bridge, on

Besides Shakspeare's beautiful mention the Richmond side of the river. Several of the willow on the death of Ophelia, of the arms of this tree are so large, that and notices of it by various other poets, one of them would in itself form a fine there are several songs in which despairtree. They are propped by a number of ing lovers call upon the willow-tree : stout poles; and the tree appears in a Ah, willow ! willow flourishing condition. If that tree be, as

The willow shall be it is said, no more than ninety-five years

A garland for me, old, the quickness of its growth is indeed

Ah, willow ! willow !" astonishing. Martyn relates an interesting anecdote, then runs

Chatterton has one, of which the burwhich he gives on the authority of the St. James's Chronicle, for August, 1801 :

" Mie love ys dedde, “ The famous and admired weeping

Gon to hys deathe-bedde,

Al under the wyllowe tree." willow planted by Pope, which has lately been felled to the ground, came from In the “Two Noble Kinsmen," said to Spain, enclosing a present for lady Suf- have been written by Shakspeare and

No. 35.


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Fletcher, a young girl, who loses her wit lows; nay, the smallest tree known, with-
with hopeless love for Palamon-

out any exception,

The herbaceous

willow, salix herbacea, is seldom higher Nothing but · Willow! willow! willow ! than three inches, sometimes not more and between

than two; and yet it is in every respect Ever was • Palamon, fair Palamon !'" a tree, notwithstanding the name herba

ceous, which, as it has been observed, is Herrick thus addresses the willow-tree: inappropriate. Dr. Clarke says, in his “ Thou art to all lost love the best,

“ Travels in Norway,” “ We soon recogThe only true plant found;

nised some of our old Lapland acquaintWherewith young men and maids distrest, ances, such as Betula nana, with its And left of love, are crowned.

minute leaves, like silver pennies; moun« When once the lover's rose is dead,

tain-birch; and the dwarf alpine species Or laid aside forlorn,

of willow: of which half a dozen trees, Then willow garlands 'bout the head,

with all their branches, leaves, flowers, Bedewed with tears, are worn.

and roots, might be compressed within two « When with neglect, the lover's bane,

of the pages of a lady's pocket-book, withPoor maids rewarded be

out coming into contact with each other.
For their love lost, their only gain

After our return to England, specimens
Is but a wreath from thee.

of the salir herbacea were given to our

friends, which, when framed and glazed, “ And underneath thy cooling shade, had the appearance of miniature draw. When weary of the light,

ings. The author, in collecting them for The love-spent youth and love-sick maid

his herbiary, has frequently compressed Come to weep out the night.”

twenty of these trees between two of the This poet has some lines addressed to pages of a duodecimo volume." Yet in a willow garland also :

the great northern forests, Dr. Clarke

found “ A willow garland thou didst send

species of willow “ that would Perfumed, last day, to me;

make a splendid ornament in our English Which did but only this porteod,

shrubberies, owing to its quick growth, I was forsook by thee,

and beautiful appearance. It had much

more the appearance of an orange than “ Since it is so, I'll tell thee what;

of a willow-tree, its large luxuriant leaves To-morrow thou shalt see

being of the most vivid green colour, Me wear the willow, after that To die upon the tree.

splendidly shining. We believed it to be

a variety of salix amygdalina, but it may “ As beasts unto the altars go

be a distinct species : it principally fiouWith garlands dressed, so I

rishes in Westro Bothnia, and we nerer Will with my willow-wreath also

saw it elsewhere." Come forth, and sweetly die.”

So much, and more than is here quoted, The willow seems, from the oldest respecting the willow, has been gathered times, to have been dedicated to grief; by the fair authoress of Sylran Sketches under them the children of Israel lamented

In conclusion, be it observed, that the their captivity:—“By the rivers of Baby- common willow is in common language lon, there we sat down, yea, we wept sometimes called the sallow, and under when we remembered Zion: we hanged that name it is mentioned by Chaucer :our harps upon the willows in the midst “ Whoso buildeth his hous all of salowes. thereof.''

And pricketh his blind hors over the

falowes, The wicker-baskets made by our fore

And suffreth his wife for to secbe hat fathers are the subject of an epigram by

lowes, Martial :

He is worthy to be honged on the gala “ From Britain's painted sons I came,


And basket is my barbarous name;
Yet now I am so modish grown,
That Rome would claim me for her own.'

August 10.
It is worthy to be recollected, that
some vi the smallest trees known are wil- St. Lawrence, A. D. 258. $t Deusdedit.

St. Blaan, Bp. of Kinngaradha, a * The Psalms,



St. Lawrence. a single penny, enchased in a ring with

borders of gold, and covered with a crysHis name stands in the church of Eng- tal, so accurately wrought, as to be plainly land calendar. He suffered martyrdom legible, to the great admiration of her at Rome, under Valerian. Mr. Audley majesty, her ministers, and several amrelates of St. Lawrence, “ that being pecu- bassadors at court. liarly obnoxious, the order for his punish. In 1590, Bales kept a school at the ment was, ' Bring out the grate of iron; úpper end of the Old Bailey, and the and when it is red hot, on with him, roast same year published his “Writing Schoolhim, broil him, turn him: upon pain of Master.” *In 1595, he had a trial of skill our high displeasure, do every man his in writing with a Mr. Daniel (David) office, 0 ye tormentors.' These orders Johnson, for a • golden pen

" of £20 were obeyed, and after Lawrence had value, and won it. Upon this victory, been pressed down with fire-forks for a his contemporary and rival in penmanlong time, he said to the tyrant, “ This ship, John Davies, made a satirical, illside is now roasted enough; tyrant, do natured epigram, intimating that penury you think roasted meat or raw the best? continually compelled Bales to remove Soon after he had said this he expired. himself and his « golden pen,” to elude The church of St. Lawrence Jewry, in the pursuit of his creditors. The particuLondon, is dedicated to him, and has a lars of the contest for the pen, supposed gridiron on the steeple for a vane, that to be written by Bales himself

, are in the being generally supposed the instrument British Museum, dated January 1, 1596. of his torture. The ingenious Mr. Robin- So much concerning Peter Bales is gon, in his “ Ecclesiastical Researches,' derived from the late Mr. Butler's “Chrospeaking about this saint, says, “Philip II. nological Exercises,” an excellent arrangeof Spain, having won a battle on the ioth ment of biographical, historical, and misof August, the festival of St. Lawrence, cellaneous facts for the daily use of young vowed to consecrate a Palace, a Church, ladies. and a MONASTERY to his honour. He Peter Bales according to Mr. D' did erect the Escurial, which is the Israeli," astonished the eyes of beholders largest Palace in Europe. This immense by showing them what they could not quarry consists of several courts and see.” He cites a narrative, among the quadrangles, all disposed in the shape of Harleian MSS., of “ a rare piece of work

The bars form several brought to pass by Peter Bales, an Enga courts; and the Royal Family occupy the hishman, and a clerk of the chancery." HANDLE.' Gridirons,' says one, who Mr. D’Israeli presumes this to have examined it,' are met with in every part been the whole Bible, “ in an English of the building. There are sculptured walnut no bigger than a hen's egg. The gridirons, iron gridirons, painted grid- nut holdeth the book : there are as many irons, marble gridirons, &c. &c. There leaves in his little book as the great Bible, are gridirons over the doors, gridirons in and he hath written as much in one of the yards, gridirons in the windows, grid- his little_ leaves, as a great leaf of the irons in the galleries. Never was an in- Bible.” This wonderfully unreadable copy strument of martyrdom so multiplied, so of the Bible was seen by many thouhonoured, so celebrated : and thus much sands." for gridirons.'"*

Peter Huet, the celebrated bishop of

Avranches, long doubted the story of an CHRONOLOGY.

eminent writing-master having comprised On the 10th of August, 1575, Peter « the Iliad in a nut-shell,” but, after triBales, one of our earliest and most emi- fling half an hour in examining the matter, pent writing-masters, finished a perfor- he thought it possible. One day, in commance which contained the Lord's prayer, pany at the dauphin's, with a piece of the creed, the decalogue, with two short paper and a common pen, he demonstraprayers in Latin, his own name, motto, ted, that a piece of vellum, about ten ihe day of the month, year of our Lord, inches in length, and eight in width, and reign of the queen, (Elizabeth,) to pliant and firm, can be folded up and whom he afterwards presented it at enclosed in the shell of a large walnut ; Hampton-court, all within the circle of that in breadth it can contain one line of

thirty verses, perfectly written with a • Companion to the Almanac. crow-quill, and in length two hundred



6 the


and fifty lines; that one side will then of Latin to cast at a dog, or say 'Bo !' to contain seven thousand five hundred a goose !" The goose was mentioned, verses, the other side as much, and that perhaps, in allusion to Michaelmas-day, therefore the piece of vellum will hold the 1595, when the trial commenced before whole fifteen thousand verses of the Iliad. five judges; an “ ancient gentleman" The writing match between Peter Bales was intrusted with

golden and David Johnson, mentioned by Mr. pen." The first trial was for the manner Butler, " was only traditionally known, of teaching scholars; this terminated in till, with my own eyes,” says Mr. D'favour of Bales. The second, for secretary Israeli,“ I pondered on this whole trial and clerk-like writing, dictated in Enga of skill in the precious manuscript of the lish and in Latin, was also awarded to champion hinıself; who, like Cæsar, not Bales; Johnson confessing that he wanted only knew how to win victories, but also the Latin tongue, and was no clerk. On to record them.” Johnson for a whole the third and last trial, for fair writing in year gave a public challenge, “ To any sundry kinds of hands, Johnson prevailed one who should take exceptions to this in beauty and most authentic propormy writing and teaching.' Bales was tion,” and for superior variety of the inagnanimously silent, till he discovered Roman hand; but in court-hand, and that since this challenge was proclaimed, set-text, Bales exceeded, and in bastard he “ was doing much less in writing and secretary was somewhat perfecter than teaching." Bales then sent forth a chale Johnson. For a finishing blow, Bales lenge, "To all Englishmen and strangers," drew forth his “master-piece," and, offer. to write for a gold pen of twenty pounds ing to forego his previous advantages of value, in all kinds of hands, best, Johnson could better this specimen, his straightest, and fastest," and most kind antagonist was struck dumb. In comof

ways; a full, a mean, a small, with passion to the youth of Johnson, some of line and without line; in a slow-set the judges urged the others not to give hand, a mean facile hand, and a fast run- judgment in public. Bales remonstrated ning hand;" and further, “ to write against a private decision in vain, but he truest and speediest, most secretary and obtained the verdict and secured the prize. clerk-like, from a man's mouth, reading Johnson, however, reported that he had or pronouncing, either English or Latin. won the golden pen, and issued an ApWithin an hour, Johnson, though a young peal to all impartial Penmen," wherein friend of Bales, accepted the challenge, he affirmed, that the judges, though his and accused the veteran of arrogance. own friends, and honest gentlemen, were “ Such an absolute challenge," says he, unskilled in judging of most hands, and

was never witnessed by man, without ex. again offered forty pounds to be allowed ception of any in the world !" Johnson, six months to equal Bales's “mastera few days after, met Bales, and showed piece." Finally, he alleged, that the him a piece of " secretary's hand,” which judges did not deny that Bales possessed he had written on fine parchment, and himself of the golden pen by a trick: he said, " Mr. Bales, give me one shilling relates, that Bales having pretended that out of your purse, and, if within six his wife was in extreme sickness, he de months you better or equal this piece of sired that she might have a sight of the writing, I will give you forty pounds for golden pen, to comfort her, that the “ an. it.” Bales accepted the shilling, and the cient gentleman," relying upon the kind parties were thereby bound over to the husband's word, allowed the golden pen trial of skill. The day before it took to be carried to her, and that thereupon place, a printed paper posted through the Bales immediately pawned it, and aftercity taunted Bales's “ proud poverty," wards, to make sure work, sold it at a and his pecuniary motives as “ ungentle, great loss, so that the judges, ashamed of base, and mercenary, not answerable to their own conduct, were compelled to the dignity of the golden pen!" Johnson give such a verdict as suited the occasion. declared that he would maintain his chal. Bales rejoined, by publishing to the unilenge for a thousand pounds more, but verse the day and hour when the jodges that Bales was unable to make good a brought the golden pen to his house, and thousand groats. Bales retorted by af- painted it with a hand over his door for a Sirming the paper a sign of his rival's sign.* This is shortly the history of a weakness, “yet who so bold," says Bales, " as blind Bayard, that hath not a word • Mr. D'lsraeli's Curiosities of Literature


long contest, which, if it has not been The edifice was erected by order of king paralleled in our own time, we have been Charles II., at the instance of sir Jonas reminded of by the open challenges of Moor, under the direction of sir Christoliving calligraphers.

pher Wren; and it is worthy of record here, that the celebrated Flamsteed, con

structed a “ Scheme of the Heavens," at John Flamsteed.

the very minute when the foundation On the 10th of August, 1675, the foun- stone was laid. It has never appeared in dation stone of the Royal Observatory, any work, and as the public are wholly for watching and noting the motions of unacquainted with its existence, it is the celestial bodies, was laid on the hill subjoined exactly as Flamsteed drew it where it now stands, in Greenwich Park. with his own hand.

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Few men rightly temper with the stars."-Shakspeare. Flamsteed was the first astronomer- ground plan of the Observatory. On the royal, and from him the Observatory at following, being the fourth page, is a list Greenwich derives its popular name, of “ Angles, betwixt eminent places ob“ Flamsteed-house." His * Scheme of served with the sextant in the months of the Heavens," may be found there in a February and March, 1679–80." The refolio vellum-bound manuscript on the mainder of the book consists of about one second page. Opposite to it, also drawn hundred and seventy pages of “ Observaby himself, with great exactness, and tions," also in Flamsteed's hand-writing. signed by his own name within it, is a Whatever astrological judgment be may

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