« НазадПродовжити »
introduced the practice there. The pillar was designed by Messrs. Mathew and Chaplin, and executed by Mr. Turner of Dorset-street, Fleet-street, the well known manufacturer of the cast iron pumps; and not to withhold from him any of his blushing honours,” be it noted that he was till lately a common-councilman of the ward of Farringdon Without, where he still maintains his reputation as a "cunning workman in iron," and his good name as a good pump-maker, and as a worthy and respectable man. Public spirit should rise to the height of giving him, and others of the worshipful company of pump-makers, more orders. Many places are sadly deficient of pumps for
raising spring-water where it is most 1821
wanted. Every body cries out for it in hot weather, but in cool weather they all forget their former want; and hot weather comes again and they call out for it again in vain, and again forget to put up a public pump. At Pentonville, a place abounding in springs, and formerly aboundiug in conduits, all the conduits are destroyed, and the pumps there, in the midst of that healthy and largely growing suburb, during the hot days of July, 1825, were not equal to supply a tenth of the demand for water; they were mostly dry and chained up during the half of each day without notice, and persons who came perhaps a mile, went back with empty vessels. So it was in other neighbourhoods. Well may we account for ill.
Mischievous liquors sold, in large quanWATER IN WARM WEATHER.
tities, at some places, for soda water and Fountains and Pumps.
ginger beer were drank to the great comfort By the process of boring, springs may of the unprincipled manufacturers, the be reached more expeditiously and eco- great discomfort of the consumers' bowels, Domically than by the old method of well and the great gain of the apothecary. digging. The expense of boring from one Were the doings in the New River to two hundred feet deep is little more during summer, or one half of the than one-fourth of digging, seventy feet is wholesale nuisances permitted in the less than a fourth, thirty feet is less than a Thames described, the inhabitants of Lonfifth, and from ten to twenty feet it is not don would give up their tea-kettles. so much as a sixth. In 1821, the water Health requires that these practices shou!d for the fountain at Tottenham High Cross, be abated, and, above all, a good supply of represented in the engraving, was obtained spring-water. The water from pumps and by boring to a depth of one hundred and fountains would not only adorn our pubfive feet, at the expense of the parish, for lic streets and squares, but cool the heated public accommodation. The water rises atmosphere, by the surplus water being six feet above the surface, and flowing diverted into the gutters and open chanover a vase at the top of the column into nels. Besides, if we are to have dogs, and a basin, as represented in the engraving, a beast market in the heart of the metroit pours from beneath. The boring for polis, the poor overheated animals might this spring and the fountain were suggested by such means slake their thirst from pure by Mr. Mathew, who first obtained water and refreshing streams. The condition iá Tottenbam, by that method, and wherein sheep and cattle are driven for many miles before they reach the metro- elevated source or reservoir of supply for polis, is a disgrace to the appellation as- the jets, or projected spouts, or threads of sumed by men who see the cruelty, and water. Some are contrived to throw the have power to remedy it; "a merci- water in the form of sheaves, fans, and ful man is merciful to his beast,” and he showers, or to support balls; others to is not a really merciful man who is not throw it horizontally or in curved lines, merciful to his neighbours' beasts.
but the most usual form is a simple openMay these wants be quickly supplied. ing to throw the jet or spout upright. Mr. Give us spring water in summer; and no L. judiciously rejects a jet from a naked more let
tube falling from the middle of a basin or "Maids with bottles cry aloud for pumps."
canal on a smooth surface as unnatural,
without being artificially grand. GranLondon has but one fountain ; it is in deur was the aim of the ancient” garthe Temple : you pass it on the way from dener, and hence he made a garden“ after Essex-street, or “ the Grecian” to Garden nature,” look as a garden of nature never court. It is in the space at the bottom did look. Mr. L. suggests that “the of the first flight of stone steps, within the grandest "jet of any is a perpendicular railings enclosing a small, and sometimes column, issuing from a rocky base on “ smooth shaven green, the middle which the water falling produces a double whereof it adorns, surrounded, not too effect both of sound and visual display. thickly, by goodly trees and pleasant In the “Century of Inventions of the shrubs. The jet proceeds from a copper Marquis of Worcester,” explained and pipe in the middle of a stone-edged basin, illustrated by Mr. Partington, there is and rises to its full height of at least mention by the marquis of “ an artificial nine feet, if water from the cock by the fountain, to be turned like an hour glass hall with which it communicates is not by a child, in the twinkling of an eye, it drawing; when that process is going on yet holding great quantities of water, and the jet droops, and seems dying away till of force sufficient to make snow, ice, and the drawing ceases, and then the "Temple thunder, with the chirping and singing of Fountain" goes up again“ famously." birds, and showing of several shapes and
There was a fountain in the great square effects usual to fountains of pleasure." of Lincolns Inn, but it had ceased to play Mr. Partington observes on this, that “in my time." I only remember the co- “how a fountain of water can produce lumn itself standing there
snow, ice, thunder, and the singing of “ For ornament, not use,"
birds, is not easy to comprehend." with its four boys blowing through shells. Sir Henry Wotton discoursing on archi
In the Kent-road, on the left hand from tecture remarks thus :-“ Fountains are the Elephant and Castle towards the figured, or only plain watered works; of Bricklayers Arms, there is a fountain in a either of which I will describe a matchless piece of water opposite a recently built pattern. The first, done by the famous terrace. A kneeling figure, the size of hand of Michael Angelo da Buonaroti, is life, blows water through a shell; it is the figure of a sturdy woman, washing and well conceived, and would be a good or- winding linen clothes ; in which act nament were it kept clean and relieved by she wrings out the water that made the trees.
fountain ; which was a graceful and natuA «
professional” gentleman who to ral conceit in the artificer, implying this the“ delightful task” of improving country rule, that all designs of this kind should residences by laying out grounds in beau- be proper.* The other doth merit some tiful forms, has added the less “ cheerful larger expression : there went a long, labour” of embodying others' theories and straight, mossie walk of competent breadth, practice in an “ Encyclopædia of Garden- green and soft under foot, listed on both ing," views a fountain as an essential de- sides with an aqueduct of white stone, coration where the “ancient" style of land- breast-high, which had a hollow channel on scape is introduced in any degree of per- the top, where ran a pretty trickling stream; fection. As the first requisite, he directs on the edge whereof were couched very attention to the obtaining a sufficiently thick, all along, certain small pipes of lead • Mr. Loudon's "Encyclopædia of Gardening," a
* Any one possessing a figure of this fenntar
designed by Michael Angelo, and probably sera book of practical and curious facts, with hundreds of interesting engravings, is a most useful volume to
Wotton during his travels in Italy, will mechoka
the editor by lending it to him for the purpose od any one who has a garden, or wishes to form one, being copied and inserted in the Every Day Bout,
in little holes ; so neatly, that they could rage, and believing them to be very honest not be well perceived, till by the turning of people, sent them into the workhouse. a cock, they did sprout over interchange On the Monday, a large mob of 5,000 ably, from side to side, above man's height, people and more, assembled at Tring; in forms of arches, without any intersec- but Jonathan Tomkins, master of the tion or meeting aloft, because the pipes workhouse, in the middle of the night, were not exactly opposite; so as the had removed them into the vestry-room beholder, besides that wbich was fluent adjoining the church. The mob rushed in in the aqueduct on both hands in his view and ransacked the workhouse, and all the did walk as it were under a continual closets, boxes, and trunks; they pulled bower and hemisphere of water, with- down a wall, and also pulled out the out any drop falling on him; "an in- windows and window-frames. Some of vention for refreshment, surely far excel- the mob perceiving straw near at hand ling all the Alexandrian delicacies, and said, let us get the straw, and set fire to pnuematicks of Hero."* An invention of the house, and burn it down. Some cried greater solace could not have been desired out and swore, that they would not only in the canicular days, by those who sought burn the workhouse down, but the whole shelter from the heat; nor more coveted town of Tring to ashes. Tomkins being by any than by him, who is constrained apprehensive that they would do so told to supply the “ every-day” demand of them where the two unhappy people were, "warm" friends for this little work—10 they immediately went to the vestry-room, "cool" task!
broke it open, and took the two people away in great triumph.
John Holmes deposed, that the man and FLORAL DIRECTORY.
woman were separately tied up in a cloth Red Chironia. Chironia Centaureum. or sheet; that a rope was tied under the Dedicated to St. Martha.
arm-pits of the deceased, and two men dragged her into the pond; that the men were one on one side of the pond, and the
other on the other; and they dragged her July 30.
sheer through the pond several times; and Sts. Alden and Sennen, A. D. 250. St. that Colley, having a stick in his hand, Julitta, A. D. 303.
went into the pond, and turned the de
ceased up and down several times. Witchcraft.
John Humphries deposed, that Colley On Tuesday, the 30th of July, 1751, turned her over and over several times Thomas Colley, William Humbles, and with the stick; that after the mob bad Charles Young, otherwise Lee, otherwise ducked her several times, they brought Red Beard, were tried at Hertford for the her to the shore, and set her by the pond inurder of Ruth Osborne, by drowning her side, and then dragged the old man in in a pond at Marlston-green, in the and ducked him; that after they had parish of Tring. The trial is exceedingly brought him to shore, and set him by the curious. It appeared that William Deli, pond side, they dragged the deceased in the town crier of Hamel-Hempstead, on
a second time; and that Colley went again the 18th of April preceding, was desired into the pond, and turned and pushed by one Nichols, who gave him a piece of the deceased about with his stick as paper and fourpence, to cry the words at before; that then she being brought to the market-place that were wrote thereon, shore again, the man was also a second which he accordingly did. The paper time dragged in, and underwent the same was as follows :-" This is to give notice, discipline as he had before ; and being that on Monday next, a man and woman brought to shore, the deceased was a are to be publicly ducked at Tring, in this third time dragged into the pond; that county, for their wicked crimes." Colley went into the pond again, and
Matthew Barton, the overseer of Tring, took hold of the cloth or sheet in which on hearing that this had been cried at she was wrapt, and pulled her up and Winslow, Leightou-Buzzard, and Hamel. down the pond till the same came from Hempstead, in order to prevent the out- off her, and then she appeared naked;
that then Colley pushed her on the breast
with his stick, which she endeavoured • Relig. Wotton.
with her left hand to catch hold of, but
be pulled it away, and that was the last deceased wife had bewitched them. And time life was in her. He also deposed, even after the trial, a great number of that after Colley came out of the pond, he people in that part of the country thought Went round among the people who were the man a vizard, and that he could cast the spectators of this tragedy, and col- up pins as fast as he pleased. Though lected money of them as a reward for the a stout able man of his age, and ready great pains he had taken in showing them and willing to work, yet none of the sport in ducking the old witch, as he then farmers thereabouts would employ him, called the deceased.
ridiculously believing him to be a vizard, The jury found the prisoner Colley so that the parish of Tring were obliged -guilty.
to support him in their workhouse after his wife's death.
So far is reported by the editor of the
trial. The reporter of the trial states, from the mouth of John Osborne, the following particulars not deposed to in court,
On the 24th of August, 1751, Colley namely: that as soon as the mob entered was hung at Gubblecut-cross, and afterthe vestry-room, they seized him and his wards in chains. Multitudes would not wife, and Red Beard carried her across be spectators of his death; yet“ many his shoulders, like a calf, upwards of two thousands stood at a distance to see him miles, to a place called Gubblecut; where die, muttering that it was a hard case to not finding a pond they thought conve. hang a man for destroying an old wicked nient, they then carried them to Marlston- woman that had done so much mischief green, and put them into separate rooms by, her withcraft." Yet Colley himself in a house there; that they there stripped had signed a public declaration the day him naked, and crossed his legs and arms, before, wherein he affirmed his conviction and bent his body so, that his right as a dying man, that there was no such thumb came down to his right great toe, a thing as a witch, and prayed that the and his left thumb to his left great toe, good people” might refrain from thinkand then tied each thumb and great toé ing that they had any right to persecute a together ; that after they had so done, fellow-creature, as he had done, through they got a cloth, or an old sheet, and a vain imagination, and under the intiewrapped round him, and then carried him ence of liquor: he acknowledged his crto the Mere on the green, where he un- elty, and the justice of his sentence.• derwent the discipline as has been related The pond wherein this poor creature in the course of the trial. What they did lost her life was in mud and water togewith his wife he could not say, but he ther not quite two feet and a half in supposed they had stripped her, and tied depth, and yet her not sinking was deemher in the same manner as himself, as she ed confirmation strong as proof of holy appeared naked in the pond when the writ” that she was a witch. Ignorance is sheet was drawn from off her, and her mental blindness. thumbs and toes tied as his were. After the mob found the woman was dead, they carried him to a house, and put him into
FLORAL DIRECTORY. a bed, and laid his dead wife by his side; all which he said he was insensible of,
White Mullen. Verbuscum Lycảnitis. having been so ill-used in the pond, as
Dedicated to St. Julitta. not to have any sense of the world for some time; but that he was well assured it was so, a number of people since informing him of it who were present. His
July 31. wife, if she had lived till 'Michaelmas, St. Ignatius, of Loyola, a. D. 1556. St. would have been seventy years of age ; John Columbini, A. D. 1367. St. Hela, he himself was but fifty-six.
of Sweden, A. D. 1160. The infatuation of the people in those parts of Hertfordshire was so great, in thinking that these people were a witch and a vizard, that when any cattle died, it was always said that Osborne and his
• Gent. Mag. xxi. 878.
St. Iguatius Loyola-founder of the Jesuits. Ignatius was born in 1495, in the case and a taste for poetry; he at that time tle of Loyola in Guipuscoa, a part of composed a poem in praise of St. Peter. Biscay adjoining the Pyrenees. In his In 1521, he served in the garrison of childhood he was pregnant of wit, dis- Pampeluna, against the French who becreet above his years, affable and obliging, sieged it: in resisting an attack, he with a choleric disposition, and an ardent mounted the breach sword-in-hand; a passion for glory Bred in the court piece of stone struck off by a cannon of Ferdinand V., under the duke of ball from the ramparts bruised his left Najara, his kinsman and patron, as page leg, while the ball in its rebound broke to the king, he was introduced into the his right. * army, wherein he signalized himself by Dr. Southey in a note to his recently dexterous talent, personal courage, addiction to licentions vices and pleasures,
• Butler's Saints.