Handbook of Natural Philosophy: Heat

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Crosby Lockwood and Company, 1877 - 450 стор.
 

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The construction of the mercurial thermometer
9
The graduation of the thermometer
12
Experimental determination of the fixed points
13
The barometrical correction of the boiling point
15
Different thermometric scales
16
Comparative table of the scales
17
Precautions in the construction of a thermometer
18
SECT r MVK 26 Change of zeropoint
19
Standard thermometers
20
Calibration _
21
Selfregistering thermometers
24
Rutherfords selfrecording thermometers
25
Negretti and Zambras maximum thermometer ib 33 Walferdins maximum thermometer
26
Baudins alcohol minimum thermometer
27
Negretti and Zambras mercurial minimum thermometer ib 36 Casellas mercurial minimum thermometer
28
Sixes selfregistering thermometer
29
Photographic mode of registering temperatures
30
Alcohol thermometers
31
The differential thermometer t
32
Breguets metallic thermometer
33
Pyrometers 74
34
Wedgewoods pyrometer
36
Brogniarts pyrometer
37
The weight thermometer
38
CHAPTER III
40
Measure of the force of dilatation
41
Compensators
50
Coefficient of expansion
51
Experimental determination of coefficients of expansion
52
Roy and Ramsdens method 54 Table of expansions 55 Influence of physical condition 56 Fizeaus experiments 57 Determination of cubical expansio...
53
53
54
THE EXPANSION OP LIQUIDS 61 The liquid state
57
Apparent and absolute expansion
58
Methods of determining the expansion of liquids
59
Determination of the absolute expansion of mercury
60
Regnaults determination
61
Results
64
Apparent expansion of mercury in glass vessels
66
The expansion of water
67
Experiments of Erman and Hope ib 72 Other methods of determining the maximum density
68
Importance of the phenomenon
69
Saline solutions
70
Strata of different density in the same liquid ib 76 Process of heating a liquid
71
Warming buildings by hot water
72
Oceanic currents
74
CHAPTER V
75
8l Dilatation of all gases uniform
76
S3 Rudbergs researches
77
Regnaults experiments
79
Expansion of gases at different pressures
83
Application of results
84
Increase of pressure due to increase of temperature
87
Practical applications of the expansion of gases
88
Warming buildings by heated air
91
Ventilation of mines
92
Argand lamp
94
92 Experiments ib 93 Absolute temperature Absolute zero
95
CHAPTER VI
96
Definition of specific heat
97
Calorimetric methods
98
SECT PAGF 98 Bunsens icecalorimeter
101
Method of mixtures
102
Regnaulta experiments
103
Regnaults tables of specific heat
104
Necessary precautions
110
Methodof cooling
111
Specific heat of liquids
112
Specific heat of water and ice
113
Relation between specific heat and atomic weight
114
Relation of specific heat to various phenomena
116
Specific heat of gases and vapours
117
no Formula for variation of specific heat with pressure
119
in Influence of difference in the physical condition ib 112 Summary of laws regulating the specific heat of bodies
121
CHAPTER VII
123
Heat latent in liquefaction
124
Latent heat rendered sensible by congelation
125
Liquefaction and congelation always gradual
126
Useful effects produced by latent heat
128
Alloys
132
Sulphur 133
133
Facility of liquefaction proportional to latent heat ib 126 Refractory bodies
134
Weldable metals
137
Table of freezing mixtures
138
Apparatus for producing artificial cold
141
Action of fluxes
142
Various experimental facts and practical consequences
143
Dutch tears
146
Retardation of solidification
147
Change of volume accompanying fusion and solidi fication
148
Influence of pressure on the temperature of fusion
150
Begelation
151
CHAPTER VIII
152
Vapour of a liquid an elastic fluid like air
154
Quantity of vapour in saturated space depends on temperature
156
Experiments on the relation between pressure and temperature
158
Water evaporates at all temperatures ib 149 The apparatus of GayLussac ib 150 Daltons apparatus
161
Regnaults apparatus ib 153 Mechanical force developed in evaporation
163
Regnaults tables for steam and other vapours
166
120
167
Specific gravities of vapours
170
GayLussacs apparatus
171
Dumas method jy
173
Mixture of gases and vapours
175
Exceptions to the general law
193
Ebullition
194
Influence of altitude
196
Laws of ebullition
198
Causes which modify the temperature of the boiling point
200
Rudbergs law
204
Babo and Wiillners experiments
206
Influence of vessel
209
Influence of dissolved air
211
Experiments on the retardation of ebullition
215
Ebullition at high pressures
217
Chemical relations of boiling points
218
Latent heat of vapour
219
Latent heat at different pressures and temperatures
220
Experimental determination of latent heat of vapours
221
Watts and Southerns laws Regnaults results
223
Latent heat of other vapours
225
Latent heat of alcohol
227
Distillation
228
Apparatus to distil volatile liquids
231
Crystallisation produced by distillation
233
Decomposition by evaporation
234
Some effects of steam The waterhammer
235
Reaction of steam The eolipyle
236
Freezing by evaporation 2 37
237
CHAPTER IX
239
Relative and absolute humidity
240
The dewpoint
241
DanielFs hygrometer ib 206 Regnaults hygrometer
243
Psychrometers
245
Leslies thermometric hygrometer
246
Formulae of reduction Glaishers factors
248
Precautions in using the dry and wet bulb hygrometer
252
Practical bearing of the dewpoint
253
Other hygrometric instruments
254
CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HEAT 215 Dissociation
255
Influence of temperature on chemical attraction
257
Influence of heat on chemical separation
258
Dissociation of gaseous compounds
259
Retardation of chemical action by lowering of tempe rature
260
General remarks on dissociation or thermolysis
261
CHAPTER XI
263
Compensation of pendulums for temperature
266
Grahams mercurial compensating pendulum
268
The barometercorrection
270
Superficial and cubical expansion
275
Illustrations of methods for determining expansion
278
Expansion of gases
285
Influence of expansion on the specific gravity of bodies
289
Determination of the density of vapours
291
Problems on temperaturecorrections
293
Expansion of alloys
296
Correction for fixed points of thermometers
297
Calibration of a thermometer
301
The airthermometer
304
Comparison of mercury and airthermometer
306
Siemens pyrometer
307
SOT pa as 241 Pyrometric use of specific heat
316
The two specific heats of air
317
Latent heat
318
Mixtures of vapours and gases
324
Problems on the tension and density of vapours
325
BOOK II
329
Table of conducting powers
331
Variations of conductivity in the same body
333
Conductivity of wood
334
Conductivity of organic substances
336
Rumfords experiments
337
Influence of mechanical state on conductivity
338
Transmission of heat along bars ib 255 Comparison of the conducting power of two rods 34
342
Conductivity of liquids Convection
343
Conducting power of water
344
Conductivity of gases
347
Causes which influence the conductivity 35
350
Examples ib 262 Numerical expression for conductivity
354
Most recent experiments on conductivity in gases
355
Summary of the results of experiments
356
CHAPTER XIII
357
Instruments for the study of radiant heat
359
Thermal analysis of solar light
360
Thermal equilibrium
367
Recent experiments and theories
377
Action of vapours
392
Absorption
398
Hirns experiment
404
Further consequences and theoretical considerations
406
Steamengines Loss of heat when work is done
411
Other physical processes
412
Melting of ice
413
BOOK III
414
Combustion
415
Carbon ib 312 Hydrogen
417
Flame
419
Products of combustion
422
Construction of grates
424
Temperaturo necessary for combustion
431
CHAPTER XVI
434
Temperature of blood
435
Results of observations
439
Chemical action accounts for total heat
440
Index
443
Practical determination of specific heat ib 240 Problems on specific heat 312
446

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