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THE TREES OF THE BIBLE.

153

THE TREES OF THE BIBLE.

NO. V.-CASSIA.

BY THE EDITOR.
The scented aloe, and each shrub that showers

Gum from its veins, and odors from its flowers. This tree, called in Hebrew, KIDDAH, is three times referred to in the English Bible. It grows in oriental countries; but is said to be most common in Arabia and India. The bark of this tree is very fragrant, like sassafras and cinnamon. It was one of the ingredients used in making the holy oil of the sanctuary used in anointing the sacred vessels, as we learn from Ex. xxx. 24. It was procured by the ancients from Tyre; and is mentioned by the Prophet Ezekiel as an article of trade in that noted sea-port. The Psalmist, in that beautiful song to the praise of the Messiah, the anointed of the Lord, very appropriately says: “All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.” Ps. 45. 8.

NO. VI.-CINNAMON. The cinnamon, like the cassia, is an aromatic tree. It is a small tree about the height of the willow, and is valuable chiefly for its spicy and fragrant bark. The finest quality of it is at present procured from Ceylon. Anciently, according to Pliny, it grew in Syria. The Jews, it is supposed, procured it for sacred uses from Arabia. It is mentioned in Rev. 18. 13, as among the merchandise of mystic Babylon. It was used, like the cassia, in preparing the holy anointing oil, and generally as an article of perfumery. Prov. 7. 17: Cant. 4. 14: “I gave a sweet smell like cinnamon, says the author of Ecclesiasticus. Eccl. 24. 15. It is not easy to find a metaphor more appropriate and beautiful than that which sets forth a christian's influence as perfume.

NO. VII.- ALOE. This tree, or shrub, grows in the East Indies, and attains the height of from eight to ten feet. “At the head of it is a large bundle of leaves, thick and indented, broad at bottom, but narrowa ing towards the point, and about four feet in length.” It bears a red blossom intermixed with yellow, and double like a pink; from this blossom comes fruit, or pod, which is oblong and triangular, with three apartments filled with seed.

It is said to be a very beautiful tree. It is regarded as sacred by the inhabitants, and they never fell it except with certain reli

Paradise, and and agreeablerant, though itwood. The fir

Cantined to "A tre foregoind all toys

gious ceremonies. They think it is one of the trees which grew in Paradise, and ought to be venerated on that account, as well as its many virtues and agreeable qualities.

The aloe tree is very fragrant, though it is bitter to the taste. “It contains under the bark three sorts of wood. The first is black, solid, and weighty; the second is of a tawny color, of a light, spongy texture, very porous, and filled with a resin extremely fragrant and agreeable; the third kind of wood, which is the heart, has a strong aromatic odor, and is esteemed in the East more precious than gold itself.” It is used for perfuming habits and apartments, and is administered as a cordial in fainting and epileptic fits."

There are frequent allusions in Scripture to the perfume of the aloe. Ps. 45. 8. Prov. 7. 17. Cant. 4. 14.

The fragrance of the aloe is not confined to its wood, but delightful odors are also emitted from its fiowers. A traveler refers to this fact thus : “ This morning, like many of the foregoing ones, was delicious. The sun rose gloriously out of the sea, and all the air around was perfumed with the effluvia of the aloe, as its rays sucked up the dew from its leaves."

The aloe was used anciently in embalming bodies. Herodotus says that its virtues in this way were known to the Egyptians. We are told that Nicodemus“ brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundreil pounds weight,” to embalm the body of Jesus. Joh. 19. 39. When we consider that this perfumery of aloes was more valuable than gold, and that there was in this mixture one hundred pound weight, we have a very touching exhibition of the fond affection which was entertained for his sacred body. This was right and highly appropriate. The richest odor and the sweetest perfume are but faint emblems to show forth the gracious influence of his death and resurrection upon the world. His name is fragrant to the unbeliever's heart—it is “like ointment poured forth.” His burial has perfumed the grave of every saint; and he is to all who sleep in him a sweet savor of life unto life.

A SISTER'S INFLUENCE. "I was drunk once," said a young man to us, the other day, “and I never shall forget it. In company with several jovial fellows, I was induced to drink pretty freely, and by the time I got home, I scarcely knew where I was or what I was doing. I was put to bed, and how long I laid there I do not know; but when I awoke, my sister was sitting beside the bed, engaged in sewing. The moment her eyes fell on my face, she burst into a flood of tears, and wept as if her heart would break. Overwhelmed with shame for my conduct, I then formed a resolution that I would never get drunk again; I have adhered to it for some years, and I mean it."

TIK INVENTOR OF RAILROADS.

155

THE INVENTOR OF RAILROADS. We hear the question asked, who was the inventor of the railway? and have never heard it satisfactorily answered; and we believe there are very few persons in this country who know any thing on the subject. Some few years ago, Howitt, of the “ People's Journal," gave a somewhat lengthy sketch of the alleged inventor, who, up to May, 1836, had been neglected in England. While thousands had been enriched by his brilliant scheme, he had remained forgotten-forced by poverty to sell glass on commission for a living. How many of the railway projectors, agitators, stockholders, etc., have heard of the subject of these remarks ?

“About half a century ago—the exact year is not known-there was born in Leeds, England, a man named Thomas Gray. Scarcely any thing is known of his early history. He was, we believe, s poor collier; and being very ingenious, he conceived the idea of facilitating the transportation of coal from the middle-town colliery of Leeds, a distance of three miles, by means of a sort of a railway which he constructed of wood. Upon this his cars moved at the rate of three and a half miles aa hour, to the great merriment of a wise and discriminating public, who laughed at the idea of a rail. way as something very visionary, and as the mere suggestion of laziness. Poor Gray thought otherwise. Magnificent visions of future railways, such as are now stupendous realities, loomed up before him, and he began to talk in public of a general system of iron railroads. He was, of course, laughed at, and declared a visionary, moon-struck fool. But the more Gray contemplated his little railway for coal, the more firmly did he believe in the practicability and immense usefulness of his scheme. He saw in it all that is now realized, and he resolved, in spite of the ridicule, the speers, and rebuffs, that were heaped upon him, to prosecute his undertaking. He petitioned the British Parliament, and sought interviews with all the great men of the kingdom; but all this had no effect but to bring down upon him, wherever he went, the loud sneers and ridicule of all classes. Still he persevered, and at length engaged the attention of men of intelligence and influence, who finally embraced his views, urged his plans, and the result is now before the world. Thomas Gray, the inventor of railroads, who, no longer than 1820, was laughed at for even mentioning the idea, still lives in Exeter, England, in the full realization of his grand and noble railroad schemes, for which he was declared insane. Hoy much has the world been benefited by his insanity ?"

NOBLE REPLY.-"Boy, what will you take to tell a lie for me?" asked a mate of the cabin-boy. "Not all the gold of California,".. was the prompt answer of the lad.

DEATH-BED SCENES. The rich cardinal Beaufort said: And must I die? Will not all my riches save me? I could purchase the kingdom if that would prolong my life. Alas! there is no bribing death.

An English nobleman said: I have a splendid passage to the grave, die in state, and languish under a gilded canopy; I am expiring on soft and downy pillows, and am respectably attended by my servants and physicians; my dependants sigh; my sisters weep; my father bends beneath a load of grief and years; my lovely wife, pale and silent, conceals her inmost anguish; my friend, who was as my own soul, suppresses his sighs, and leaves me, to hide his secret grief. But, oh! which of them will bail me from the arrest of death? Who can descend into the dark prison of the grave with me? Here they all leave mo, after having paid a few idle ceremo.nies to the breathless clay which may lie reposed in state, while my soul, my only conscious part, may stand trembling before my Judge.

The celebrated Talleyrand on his death-bed was visited by Louis Phillippe, king of the French. “How do you feel ?” said the king; the answer was, “Sire, I am suffering the pangs of the damned." • Sir Thomas Scott said: Until this moment, I believed that there was neither a God nor a hell. Now I know and feel that there are both, and I am doomed to perdition by the just judgment of the Almighty. - A rich man when dying, was informed by his physician that be should prepare for the worst. “Cannot I live for a week?” “No,” said the doctor, “ you will continue but a little while.” “Say not 180," said the dying man. “I will give you a hundred thousand dollars if you will prolong my life three days," but in less than an hour he was dead.

on sufering

both neither a les cost said

THE LITTLE DEAF AND DUMB Boy. At the examination of s deaf and dumb institution some time since, a little boy was asked in writing, “Who made the world ?” He took the chalk and wrote underneath, “In the beginning God created the beaven and the earth.”

The question was then asked, “Why did Jesus come into the world ?" A smile of gratitude overspread the face of the little fellow as he wrote, “This is a faithful saying, and worthy of acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners.”

He was then asked the trying question, “Why are you born deaf and dumb, when I can both hear and speak ?” “Never,'' said an eye-witness, “shall I forget the look of sweet resignation and peace as he again took up the chalk and wrote, “Even 80, Father, for it seemed good in thy sight.””

Our Monthly Retrospect.

THE UNITED STATES. | and all procured since that date and Tas LIQUOR LAW.-A very important before the fourth day of July authorize sot has passed the Legislature of Penn the sale until the first of October, for sylvania, which was approved by Gov which the price of a year's license must ernor Pollock on the 14th ult. It is be paid. After the first of July the entitled "an act to restrain the sale of courts can grant licenses, in their disintoxicating liquors," and will, if duly cretion, to citizens of the United States, enforced, completely break up the retail to sell by not less measure than a quart, liquor traffic and all public drinking provided it is not drank on the premihouses, besides greatly restricting and ses, but under severe restrictions. They guarding the sale by measure. As the must advertise their applications as provisions of this law will have an im- | under existing laws, omitting the certiportant bearing upon the morals of this ficate of applicant and the necessity of Commonwealth, as well as the business the house, giving bond in suficient interests of a large class of citizens, we security for $1000, with judgment conwill be pardoned for devoting a consid- | fessed, for the faithful observance of erable space in this number of the Re- ! all laws relating to the sale of liquors trospect to a consideration of its provi- | in this State. The sureties on these sions and the duty of all good citizens bonds are liable at any time to have in relation thereto.

them forfeited upon the principal vioFirst, it must be borne in mind that I lating the law and failing to give legal this is not “a prohibitory liquor law," satisfaction therefor. When it is borne such as was voted against by a small in mind that the act of May 8, 1854, majority of the people last fall on the making it a misdemeanor to sell or give abstract issue. It probably goes as far liquor to intemperate persons, drunk. in legislating upon this subject as the ards, or minors, and the Sunday liquor legislature would have been justified in law of 1855, are unrepealed by the new going under the circumstances and law, the effects of this provision will be that they were justified in going just to keep irresponsible and reckless meu so far as they did does not admit of a out of the traffic, as few men will be reasonable doubt. The very largo vote found willing to go on a bond where so polled for a prohibitory law, understood | much risk of its forfeiture is involved. to include the search and seizure clause, ! This law does not prohibit the sale so objectionable to many even friendly of cider or domestic wines in quantities to temperance, demanded some very of not less than five gallons, and it will stringent legislation at the hands of the l not therefore interfere with the farmer present legislature: and they could in the making and selling of cider of scarcely have done less than they did , his own manufacture. Importers, disto accomplish any good at all.

tillers, brewers, and auctioneers are also The most proininent feature of this allowed to sell in the same quantities, new law is that it forbids the issuing and the druggist is not prohibited from of any license to sell any kinds of in- i selling "admixtures of intoxicating litoxicating liquors or admixtures there- quors as medicines.” This section has of, as a beverage, by less measure than been thou ht by some to be a loop-hole a quart, after the first day of July; and for evading the law, but that clear after that date, no license to sell by any | headed and able jurist, Judge Pearson, measure or without measure, can be of Dauphin, declares that “the druggist granted to the keeper of any hotel, inn, has no general license to traffic, but tavern, restaurant, eating house, oyster merely to use liquors for the purpose house or collar, theatre, or other place of preparing medicines for the sick, of entertainment, refreshment or amuse- and should he under cover of that ment. Those who procured licenses authority, sell for an ordinary beverage, before the 14th day of April can sell, and not in good faith for the adminisuntil the oxpiration of said licenses, tratiou of medicine, he would come

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