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that is, God be praised; for the Arabs are drop off, the tree is weakened by it, and great levellers, put every body on a footing very often is broke down by the wind ; the with them; and it is by such generosity and diameter of the tree being little more than hospitality that they maintain their interest." a foot, and not above eight or nine inches —PococКЕ. .
when the ends of the boughs drop off; and if the tree is weak towards the bottom they
raise a mound of earth round, and it shoots Palm Tree.
out abundance of small roots along the side “ The palm or date tree is of great use
of the tree, which increase its bulk so that in this country (Egypt); and deserves a the earth being removed, the tree is better particular description. For three or four able to resist the wind. The palm-tree years no body of a tree appears above grows very high in one stem, and is not of ground, but they are as in our green-houses. a proportionable bulk; it has this peculiarity If the top is cut off, with the boughs coming that the heart of the tree is the softest and from it, either then or afterwards, the young least durable part, the outer parts being bud and the ends of the tender boughs the most solid; so that they generally use united together at top, are a delicate food, the trees entire on the tops of their houses, something like chesnuts, but much finer, and or divide them only into two parts. A sort is sold very dear. This tree being so fruit- of bough shoots out, and bears the fruit in ful, they rarely cut off the top, unless the a kind of sheath, which opens as it grows. tree is blown down; though I have been The male bears a large bunch something told, that part of it may be cut away without like millet, which is full of a white flower, hurting the tree. The boughs are of a grain and unless the young fruit of the female is like cane; and when the tree grows larger, impregnated with it, the fruit is good for a great number of stringy fibres seem naught; and to secure it, they tie a piece of to stretch out from the boughs on each this fruit of the male to every bearing branch side, which cross one another in such a man- of the female. The fruit of the date, when ner that they take out from between the fresh, eats well roasted, and also prepared boughs a sort of bark like close net-work; as a sweet-meat: it is esteemed of a hot and this they spin out with the hand, and nature, and as it comes in during the winwith it make cords of all sizes, which are ter, being ripe in November, Providence mostly used in Egypt. They also make of seems to have designed it as a warm food, it a sort of brush for cloaths. Of the leaves during the cold season, to comfort the stothey make mattresses, baskets, and brooms; mach, in a country where it has not given and of the branches all sorts of caye-work, wine; it is proper to drink water with it as square baskets for packing, that serve for they do in these countries, and so it bemany uses instead of boxes; and the ends comes a good corrective of that cold eleof the boughs that grow next to the trunk, ment."-PocockE. being beaten like flax, the fibres separate, and being tied together at the narrow end they serve for brooms. These boughs do
Thebaic Palm. not fall off of themselves in many years, “ In the upper parts of Egypt they have even after they are dead, as they die after a palm tree called the Dome, the stem does five or six years; but, as they are of great not grow high, but there soon shoot out use, they commonly cut them off every from it two branches, and from each of year (unless such as are at a great distance them two others, and so for four or five from any town or village), leaving the ends times each branch divides into two. The of them on the tree, which strengthen it leaf is of a semicircular figure, about three much ; and when after many years they feet diameter, and is very beautiful. The
fruit is oval, about three inches long and
Port des Français. two wide. The flesh on it is about a quarter of an inch thick ; but it is dry and
“ Port des Français, on the north-west husky, having something of the taste of coast of America. The Bay is perhaps the ginger-bread; they therefore make holes
most extraordinary place in the world. To in it and moisten it with water. Under
form a conception of it, let us suppose a this there is a shell, and within that a large that could not be fathomed, bordered by
bason of water, of a depth in the middle kernel which is hollow within; so that, making a hole through it when it is green, peaked mountains of an excessive height, it serves for a snuff-box, and turned when
covered with snow, without a blade of dry makes very fine beads that have a
grass upon this immense collection of rocks polish like marble. They are much used
condemned by Nature to perpetual sterility.
I never saw a breath of air ruffle the surface by the Turks, who bring them from Mecca. I have called it the Thebaic palm." —
of this water; it is never troubled but by Рососкв. .
the fall of enormous pieces of ice, which
different glaciers, and which, in falling,
make a noise that resounds far in the moun“ The Indians of Chili are no longer those tains. The air is in this place so very calm, Americans who were inspired with terror and the silence so profound, that the mere by European weapons. The increase of voice of a man may be heard half a league horses, which are now dispersed through off, as well as the noise of some sea-birds the interior of the immense deserts of Ame- which lay their eggs in the cavities of these rica, and that of oxen and sheep which has rocks.”—PEROUSE. also been very great, have converted these people into a nation of Arabs, comparable in every respect to those that inhabit the
Duty of a Conqueror. deserts of Arabia. Constantly on horseback, “ C'est à un Conquérant à réparer une they consider an excursion of 200 leagues partie des maux qu'il a fait. Je définis as a very short journey. They march, ac- ainsi le droit de conquête: un droit nécompanied by their flocks and herds, feed cessaire, légitime, et malheureux, qui laisse upon their flesh and milk, and sometimes toujours à payer une dette immense, pour upon their blood;' and cover themselves s'acquitter envers la nature humaine.”with their skins, of which they make hel- MONTESQUIEU, lib. 10, ch. 4. mets, cuirasses and bucklers. Hence it appears that the introduction of two domestic animals has had a decisive influence upon the manners of all the tribes which inhabit Copy of a Letter from a Farmer's Daughter,
1798. the country from St. Jago to the Straits of Mogellan. All their old customs are laid “ DEAR Miss, aside; they no longer feed on the same “ The energy of the races prompts me fruits, nor wear the same dress; but have to assure you that my request is forbidden, a more striking resemblance to the Tartars, the idea of which I had awkwardly nouor to the inhabitants of the banks of the rished, notwithstanding my propensity to Red Sea, than to their ancestors who lived
Mr. T. will be there. two centuries ago."-LA PEROUSE.
with confidence assure you that him and
" I have been assured that they sometimes bleed their oxen and horses, and drink their blood.
' I think this queer letter is given in Espri. ELLA's Letters, but I cannot immediately light mpon the reference.- J. W. W.
brothers will be very happy to meet you mémoire, a tiré sur le peuple avec une caand brothers. Us girls cannot go for rea- rabine.' L'histoire dit que ce meurtrier tirait sons. The attention of the cows claims par la fenêtre de sa chambre sur ses malour assistance in the evening. Unalterably heureux sujets, qui pour éviter le massacre yours.
cherchaient à traverser la Seine à la nage." -Fragments sur Paris, par MEYER. Traduits de l'allemand, par
DUMOURIEZ. Raisciac and his Son. “ In the wars which King Ferdinand made against the widow of John, King of
Master of Merry Disports. Hungary, about Buda, a man-at-arms was “ In the feast of Christmas there was in particularly noted of all men for so much the king's house, wheresoever he was lodged, as in a certain skirmish he had shewed a lord of misrule, or master of merry disexceeding prowess of his body; and though ports; and the like had ye in the house of unknown, being slain, was highly commen- every nobleman of honour or good worship, ded and much bemoaned of all; but yet were he spiritual or temporal. Among the of none so greatly as of a German lord which the Maior of London and either of the called Raisciac, as he that was amazed at Sheriffs, had their several Lords of Misrule, so rare vertue. His body being recovered ever contending, without quarrel or offence, and had off, this lord, led by a common who should make the rarest pastimes to decuriositie, drew neere unto it, to see who light the beholders. These lords beginning it might be, and having caused him to be their rule at Alballond Eve, continued the disarmed, perceived him to be his own sonne; same till the morrow after the feast of the which known did greatly augment the com- Purification, commonly called Candlemaspassion of all the camp; he only, without day. In all which space, there were fine framing word, or closing his eyes, but earnest- and subtle disguisings, masks and mummely viewing the dead body of his son stood ries, with playing at cards for counters nails still upright, till the vehemencie of his sad and points, more for pastimes than for gain." sorrow, having suppressed and choaked his-Stow's Survey. vital spirits, felld him stark dead to the ground."— MONTAIGNE, b. 1. ch. 2.
“ Against the feast of Christmas, every Charles, Duke of Burgundy. man's house, as also their parish churches, “Carolus Pugnax, that great Duke of
were decked with holm, ivie, bays, and whatBurgundy, made H. Holland, late Duke of soever the season of the year afforded to Exeter, exiled, runne after his horse like a be green. The conduits and standards in lackey, and would take no notice of him." the streets were likewise garnished. Among Comines. Burton's Anat. of Melancholy.
the which I read that in the year 1444, by tempest of thunder and lightning, on the 1st of February, at night, Paul's steeple was
fired, but with great labour quenched ; and Massacre of Saint Bartholomew.
towards the morning of Candlemas-day, at “ Sur le quai du Louvre au bas d'une the Leaden-hall, in Cornhill, a standardfenêtre dont la vue donne sur la rivière, on tree being set up in the midst of the pavea mis une inscription relative au massacre ment, fast in the ground, nailed full of de la Saint Barthélemi. C'est de cette fe- holme and ivie, for disport of Christmas to nêtre que l'infâme Charles IX. d'exécrable the people, was uptorn and cast down by the malignant spirit as was thought, and Moreover this Robin Hood desired the King the stones of the pavement all about were and Queen with their retinue to enter the cast in the streets and into divers houses, green wood, where in arbours made with so that the people were sore agast at the boughs and decked with flowers, they were great tempests."
set and served plentifully with venison and wine by Robin Hood and his men to their
great contentment, and had other pageants Easter Tree.
and pastimes, as ye may read in my said “In the week before Easter, had ye great author. shows made, for the fetching in of a twisted
“ I find also that, in the month of May, tree or with, as they termed it, out of the the citizens of London, of all estates, lightly woods, into the king's house; and the like in every parish, or sometime two or three into every man's house of honour or wor- parishes joining together, had their several ship.”
Mayings, and did fetch in May-poles, with divers warlike shews, with good archers,
morice dancers, and other devices for pasMay Day.'
time all the day long; and towards the “ In the month of May, namely on May- evening they had stage plays and bonefires day in the morning, every man, except im- in the streets."—Ibid. pediment, would walk into the sweet mcadows and green woods, there to rejoice their spirits with the beauty and savour of sweet
Festival Bonfires. flowers, and with the noise of birds, prais
“ In the months of June and July, on ing God in their kind. “ And for more notable example hereof
the vigils of festival days, and on the same Edw. Hall bath noted, that King Henry
festival days in the evenings after the sun
setting, there were usually made bonefires VIII. as in the 3rd of his reign and divers other years, so namely in the 7th of his reign,
in the streets, every man bestowing wood
or labour towards them. The wealthier sort on May-day in the morning, with Queen
also before their doors, near to the said Catharine his wife, accompanied with many
bonefires would set out tables on the vigils, lords and ladies, rode a maying from Green
furnished with sweet bread and good drink, wich to the high ground of Shooter's Hill;
and on the festival days with meat and where as they passed by the way they es
drink plentifully; whereunto they would pied a company of tall yeomen clothed all
invite their neighbours and passengers also in green, with green hoods, and with bows and arrows to the number of 200. One miliarity, praising God for his benefits be
to sit and be merry with them in great fabeing their chieftain was called Robin Hood, stowed on them, these were called bonewho required the King and all his company to stay and see his men shoot, whereunto bours, that being before at controversie
fires, as well of good amity amongst neighthe King granting, Robin Hood whistled and all the 200 archers shot off
, loosing all ciled, and made of bitter enemies loving
were there by the labour of others reconat once. And when he whistled again, they
friends; as also for the virtue that a great likewise shot again. Their arrows whistled
fire hath, to purge the infection of the air.” by craft of the head so that the noise was
-Ibid. strange and loud, which greatly delighted the King, Queen, and their company.
Vigil of St. John Baptist, 8-c. " See some striking remarks in ESPRIELLA'S Letters, Letter xiii. vol. i. p. 147, third edit.
“On the vigil of St. John Baptist, and J. W. W. on Saint Peter and Paul the Apostles, every
man's door being shadowed with green birch, of the city; their bows bent in their hand long fennel, St. John's wort, orpin, white with sheafs of arrows by their sides ; pike lillies, and such like, garnished upon with men in bright corslets, burganets, &c. Halbeautiful flowers, had also lamps of glass, bards, the like the billmen in almain rivets," with oil burning in them all the night. and aprons of mail in great number. Some hung out branches of iron curiously There were also divers pageants, morwrought, containing hundreds of lamps ris dancers, constables, the one half which lighted at once, which made a goodly shew.” was 120 on St. Johns eve, the other half -Ibid.
on St. Peters eve, in bright harness, some over gilt and every one a jornetta of scarlet thereupon and a chain of gold, his hench
man following him, his minstrels before him Midsummer Watch.
and his cresset light passing by him, the “Besides the standing watches, all in waits of the city, the maiors officers, for his bright harness, in every ward and street in guard before him, all in a livery of woosted this city and suburbs, there was also a march- or sea jackets party-coloured; the maior ing watch, that passed thro the principal himself well mounted on horseback, the streets thereof; to wit, from the little conduit sword bearer before him in fair armour, by Pauls gate, through West Cheap, by the well mounted also, the maiors footmen and Stocks, through Cornhill, by Leaden Hall to the like torch bearers about him ; hench Aldgate; then back down Fen Church street men twain upon great stirring horses foland by Grasse Church, about Grasse Church lowing him. The sheriffs watches came conduit, and up Grasse Church street into one after the other in like order, but not Cornhill, and through into West Cheap so large in number as the maiors; for again, and so broke up. The whole way where the maior had besides his giant, three ordered for this marching watch extended pageants, each of the sheriffs had besides to 3200 Taylor's Yards of a size, for the their giant but two pageants ; each their furniture whereof with lights, there were morris dance and one hench man, their appointed 700 cressets, 500 of them being officers in jackets of woosted, or sea partyfound by the companies, the other 200 by coloured differing from the maiors and each the chamber of London. Besides the which from other, but having harnessed men a lights, every constable in London, in num- great many, &c. ber more than 240 had his cresset; the
“ This Midsummer watch was thus accharge of every cresset was in light 28. 4d. customed yearly, time out of mind, until and every cresset bad two men, one to bear the year 1539, in which year on 8th May or hold it, another to bear a bag with light a great muster was made by the citizens at and to serve it. So that the poor men the Miles end, all in bright harness with pertaining to the cressets taking wages, be- coats of white silk or cloth and chains of sides that every one had a strawen hat with gold, in three great battles to the number a badge painted, and his breakfast, amounts of 15,000; which passed through London to ed in number to almost 2000. The march- Westminster, and so through the Sanctuary, ing watch contained in number about 2000 men; part of them being old soldiers, of The reader will find many of these terms skill to be captains, lieutenants, serjeants, but he candidly confesses his ignorance of “ al
explained in Thum's edition of Stow's Survey; corporals,&c. Whifflers, drummers and fifes, main rivets.” It is easier to conjecture the standard and ensign bearers, demilaunces meaning than to supply authority for it.
J. W. W. on great horses, gunners with hand guns or half hakes, archers in coats of white fustian, signifie proprement une veste militaire pour un
3 “De l'Italien giornata. Et ce mot Italien signed on the breast and back with the arms jour de bataille.” MENAGE in v.-J. W. W.