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ideas, and teaches us to take close as well as comprehensive views of objects, and argue from facts and not from notions, a Temple of Science, to enter which in a suitable mood of thought will awaken the holiest and most lofty conceptions, and where the mind of the worshipper, instead of being dwarfed as heretofore, will find its powers become colossal, and be expanded by the Genius of the place. "The reason," >ays Aristotle, "why men do not sufficiently attend to facts is the want of experience, hence those accustomed to physical inquiries arc more competent to lay down the principles which have an extensive application; whereas others, who have been accustomed to many assumptions without the confutation of reality, rarely lay down principles, because they take few things into consideration."* So spoke the great Stagirito 3,200 years ago; it cannot therefore be otherwise than gratifying to such of Dame Nature's disciples as have devoted their lives to a consideration of her rich and inexhaustible stores, to observe how her grand truths begin to be appreciated, and that too in academic halls where not Kn\g since it was considered an offence to associate natural >c»c»kv tcachuvgs with the £*MM«/.»m.
\ sJv*lt now proceed with the thread of a narrative which tvgasx lo<*g years since, and has been continued on to Malta, !tw<, whence I now take it up.
\\>.h person* who have devoted considerable attention to th\» iv\\s-s\0 oJ*e«o«v«a ot any region. there is engendered an *fuv .v a'«swi ' W that lor one* native land. I can well ,v<<vo-S.t tNc .-i'.N ot- March, iSrnx whc«. from the deck of vV vwtv^ ^n -^ w,,; l watched the u«'.->:or cl:5f 0/ the .t.Vyv-i"v<';v<N\* ^W, uo-<£ <« tV dv*ta«: horijon. and V* ;V<v a'-v o»nt «v Nv>.-^v cl ,v^et at Nnk- r§ adieu v Svvn^ wVn>» v< -.v viv\v*x v\ >v^x W arvv&rf me
'•'-•••V \v» K>vnv«vie a »*sv ^ xt.N\v,. ^ <a:.-e. and Preface. xi
accustomed to sudden interruptions before my programme was completed, I had no alternative but to submit to the decrees of fortune, and break fresh ground where she chose to place me. Our vessel reached Gibraltar in the course of a few days, when I enjoyed a hurried visit to the famous bonecaves of the Rock. Among members of the public services, civil, naval, and military, whose avocations call them frequently, and at very short notice and considerable risks, to sojourn in foreign and often inhospitable lands, there is a small class who, without any professed knowledge of science, collect stores of natural objects, which they freely deposit in home museums or hand over to the cabinet naturalist for description. Such an example, and one of the most painstaking and indefatigable, was the late Captain Brome. This enterprising cave explorer, by means of the military prisoners under his command, conducted a series of excavations which eventuated in very important discoveries in connection with the bygone history of the Rock, during periods far anterior to any written records, but possibly coeval with the presence of man on this portion of Spain, when there was a direct land communication between the two continents. These researches would therefore be of intense interest to me, in connection with similar phenomena I had been investigating in the little insular group just left; inasmuch as, when the two are compounded, they furnish very cogent proofs of the great physical changes which the entire basin of the Mediterranean has undergone during epochs no doubt far back in the ordinary computation of time, but of modern date in the chronology of the geologist. Nineteen days after leaving Gibraltar we entered the Bay of Fundy, and shortly afterwards proceeded to New Brunswick, where the following notes were taken. These I will now lay before the reader, much in the same form as I have already attempted to describe the natural objects of other lands.
Here I must express my obligations to those gentlemen who have furnished me with valued information. To the late Governor, the Honourable Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, G.C.M.G., my thanks are due for several interesting facts in connection with the local natural history, besides what will be referred to in the sequel. I am also indebted to my friend Dr. Jack, LL.D., Principal of the University of New Brunswick, for many important points in connection with the physical geography of the region; and to Mr. Hannay, for data referring to the early colonization of the Province and the history of the aborigines.
My best thanks are owing to Mr. Pope, of Prince Edward Island, for several observations on the local natural history, as well as a very interesting collection of ancient stone implements found by him in the island.
Lastly, I am indebted to the master-hand of my distinguished friend J. Gould, F.R.S., for the appropriate vignette on the title-page, and also to my esteemed young friend R. De Courcy Laffan, Esq., for valued aid.
To Mr. G. Taylor, photographic artist, Fredericton, I am under obligations for the care and trouble bestowed by him in taking photographs of several of the natural objects in the work.
LONDON, January, 1873.
torical Period I
dil*< i<<us< Ifirrfs Maid headed Eagle* ftooping on Fish—Similitude
Im-iwkoi Birds of Boreal America, Asia, and Europe—Hawks,
OwU I'Mtu t» of Climate and Civilization on certain Rapacious
liUdo Niirnrfiml I'.ilimatc of the Migratory and Resident
Birds l'.l(»-'Is of Cold and Climate on the inward and outward
I' < oii(<tni<'» of Animals and Plants- Results of Climate on
lfilxlii InillijrniMu and Foreign Animals and Trees—Pines split
liy l'iosi A Silver Front Climate affecting Fruits—Ox-eye
Iminy ( Iiiwa and J«y» Canada Jay assuming the Habits of
lliu Kinylulini The Thrtmhrs Robin and his Habits—Young
Mil ita I'twdlng ihdr Companlomi Songs of American Thrushes
1 iillilnl, or ('Hriiliint Mm king.bird ; its modes of Mimicking
NiiiimU VVniiilpri krm piimpniing rotting Pine Trunks—The
l.ogioik llllfpipurrm In illmcniilon of Species from different
I iillliutim Hint l.oiigltudrs MlriU laying indefinite numbers of
Il.ililln »111»I llmmla <<l llir< Huhy lluontpd Humming-bird—Migratory
Mnvmwnts ul Win birrs Swnllows and their Migrations—
li\lUir<m^ ol Koirnl Clearing on the Habits of Hirds— Birds
abandoning their Young at the Migratory Season— Waxwings:
then l.ove (muuiiou IVp.iiloiv iuul Aniv.tl of the Crow Black-
bud l.o\e» ami Comuhip» of limi» . ,4_,