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evil, and provided for its removal. If there had been no knowledge of natural history here, not a tree would have been left in our woods ;-and what then would have been the cost of timber ?'-pp. 140—147.,

The connection of the sciences and arts with morality and religion, with order, the due administration of justice, and the general cultivation of the mind, shews that the profitable labourers of the community are not merely those who are engaged in manual occupations; and that therefore it is ridiculous, as well as improper, to class the workmen, in the way that has lately been attempted in this country, for political purposes. The schoolmaster, the author who applies his mind to the elucidation of important truths, the judge who impartially administers the laws, the advocate who faithfully defends the rights of his clients, the medical man who cures disease, the soldier and the sailor who protect the honour and independence of the country,—are all labourers, fully as useful in their respective departments, as the silk-weaver, the cotton-weaver, the potter, the saddler, the glazier, the smith, or any other of those numerous workmen, who occasionally make their complaints in the loudest terms. Nay, even the poet, the novelist, and the painter, are useful labourers in their way. Although they deal chiefly with the world of the imagination, their productions afford enjoyment and relief; they explore the utmost depths and resources of the mind, and frequently animate the exertions of those, whose occupations wear a more serious form. They moreover afford employment to paper-manufacturers, printers, and engravers, and thus are, in fact, doubly useful.

• It was an ignorant fashion amongst the mental labourers of other days to despise your class, the physical labourers. They have learnt to know your value; and

you

should learn to know theirs. Both classes are working-classes. No one can say that the mental labourers are not workers. They are, we may truly affirm, taken as a class, the hardest workers in the community. No one ever reached eminence in these pursuits without unwearied industry: the most eminent have been universally despisers of ease and sloth, and have felt their highest pleasures in the absorbing devotion of their entire minds to the duties of their high calling. They have wooed Knowledge as a mistress that could not be won without years of unwearied assiduity. The most eminent, too, have been practical men, despising no inquiry, however trifling it might appear to common eyes, and shrinking from no occupation, however tedious, as long as it was connected with their higher duties. The positive influence even of the labours of the poets and the artists, upon the advance of other labour, might be easily shown. In their productions, especially, supply goes before demand, and creates demand. It has been calculated, by an American writer, that the number of workmen who have been set in action-paper-makers, printers, binders—by the writings of Sir Walter Scott alone, in all countries, would, if gathered together, form a community that would fill a large town. The Potteries of Etruria, in Staffordshire, could not have existed unless Mr. Wedgwood had introduced into our manufacture of china the forms of Grecian art, bequeathed to us by the taste of two thousaud years ago, and

vol. 1. (1832.) no. 1.

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thus created a demand, which has furnished profitable labour to thousands. But this, as we have already shewn you, is not the principal way of viewing the influence of science, and literature, and art, upon all other industry. To reduce every labour in art, or literature, or science, to the same standard of value by which manual labour is measured, would be as absurd as the tasteless ignorance of the Spaniards, who applied a rare and valuable antique bust to serve as the weight to a church clock. Any attempt to put the mental labourers upon the same footing of value as the labourers without skill, would be as impossible as it would be mischievous, if it were possible ; for in that case production would decline, and ultimately cease altogether, for the fountains of labour with skill would be dried up. Capital must go forward working with accumulation of knowledge; and fortunately, if you, the working-men, adapt yourselves to this natural energy of capital, you will yourselves become the accumulators of knowledge. Manual labour is only in the highest degree required in the early settlement of a country. When a dense population succeeds to a scattered one, labour with skill is called into action. Your counter-control to the absc power of capital is the equally absorbing power of skill--for that also is capital. Knowledge is power, because knowledge is property.' -pp. 152–154.

Knowledge, capital, and labour, then, are the three presiding powers, which set the community in motion upon terms of the greatest advantage to that community, in a collective point of view, Capital could not be usefully applied without knowledge, and neither could exist without labour. It should therefore be the business of those who divide the three powers amongst them, to stand upon the most friendly relations with each other, for they cannot go on without constant mutual assistance. The Indian hunter is a labourer when he pursues the moose deer, and clothes himself with its skin. But he cannot manufacture cloth, because he has neither the knowledge nor the capital, which are necessary to carry on the different parts of the process, essential to the production of that article. The largest capital in the world would be comparatively useless, if it were applied to production without being directed by knowledge ; and the same capital so applied by the most consummate knowledge, would be utterly ineffective without the co-operation of labour, which is again rendered more powerful in proportion as it is skilfully divided. Let us take as an instance of the necessity that exists, for even the most minute divisions of labour, the conversion of wool into a coat.

* The first class of persons who prepare the wool, are the sorters and pickers. It is their business to separate the fine from the coarse locks, so that each may be suited to different fabrics. There is judgment required, which could not exist without division of labour; and the business, too, must be done rapidly, or the cost of sorting and picking would outweigh the advantage. The second principal operation is scouring. Here the men are constantly employed in washing the wool, to free it from all impurities. It is evident that the same man could not profitably pass from the business of sorting to that of scouring, and back again,-from dry work to wet, and

from wet to dry. When the wool is out of the hands of the scourers it comes into those of the dyers, who colour it with the various chemical agents applied to the manufacture. The carders next receive it, who tear it with machines till it attains the requisite firmness. From the carders it passes to the slubbers, who form it into tough loose threads; and thence to spinners, who make the threads finer and stronger. There are subdivisions of employment which are not essential for us to notice, to give you an idea of the great division of employment, and the consequent accumulation of peculiar skill, required to prepare wool to be made into yarn, to be made into woollen cloth.

• The next stages in the manufacture are the spinning, the warping, the sizing, and the weaving. These are all distinct operations, and are all carried forward with the most elaborate machinery, adapted to the division of labour which it enforces, and by which it is enforced.

• But there is a great deal still to be done before the cloth is fit to be worn.

The cloth, now woven, has to be scoured as the wool was. There is a subsequent process called burling, at which females are constantly employed. The boiling and milling come next, in which the cloth is again exposed to the action of water, and beaten so as to give it toughness and consistency. Dressers, called giggers, next take it in hand, who also work with machinery upon the wet cloth. It has then to be dried in houses where the temperature is sometimes as high as 130 degrees; and where the men work almost naked. It is evident that the boilers and dressers could not profitably work in the dry-houses ; and that there must be division of employment to prevent those sudden transitions which would destroy the human frame much more quickly than a regular exposure to cold or heat, to damp or dryness. The cloth must be next cropped or cut upon the face, to remove the shreds of wool which deform the surface in every direction. When cut, it has to be brushed dry by machinery, to get out the croppings which remain in its texture. This done, it is dyed in the shape of cloth, as it was formerly dyed in the shape of wool. Then come a variety of processes, to increase the delicacy of the fabric :singeing, by passing the cloth within a burning distance of red-hot cylinders; frizing, to raise a nap upon the cloth ; glossing, by carrying over it heavy heated plates of iron; pressing, in which operation of the press red-hot plates are also employed; and drawing, in which men, with fine needles, draw up minute holes in the cloth when it has passed through the last operation. Then comes the packing; and after all these processes it must be bought by a wholesale dealer, and again by a retailer, before it reaches the consumer. Between the growth of the fleece of wool, and the completion of a coat by a skilful tailor, — who, it is affirmed, puts five-andtwenty thousand stitches into it,—what an infinite division of employments ! what inventions of science ! what exercises of ingenuity! what unwearied application ! what painful, and too often unhealthy labour! And yet if men are to be clothed well and cheaply, all these manifold processes are not in vain ; and the individual injury in some branches of the employ is not to be compared to the suffering that would ensue if cloth were not made at all, or if it were made at such a cost that the most wealthy only could afford to wear it.'--pp. 160—163.

But how could all this varied process have been completed without the assistance of capital, and how could capital ever be applied

to this, or to any purpose requiring extensive premises and machinery, if capital were not held sacred and inviolable? If the workmen of Lyons eventually succeed in establishing a higher scale of wages than the profits of the silk trade enable their employers to pay, we may predict that the silk trade will soon disappear from Lyons altogether. It is recorded that the cloth trade quitted another town in France, Verriers, where it was once established, because the morals of the people were so depraved, and the police so ineffective, that the thefts committed in the various stages of the manufacture were calculated at no less than eight per cent. High wages, when the state of the market does not afford them, are but a different form of plunder, and if they be sanctioned by an order of the magistrate, he may as well set fire to all the silk factories in Lyons at once. Capital is endangered not merely by the want of legal security, but by all unjust encroachments, and especially by those irritations which, when encouraged amongst workmen by mischievous persons, lead to combinations and frequently to the destruction of property. Fair wages they have a right to obtain ; but any demand beyond that point, is not only unreasonable upon their part, but injudicious in the extreme, and injurious to themselves, for it very often causes a suspension of employment, and produces, if we may so express ourselves, a system of agitation, embarrassment, and uncertainty, which renders the capitalist anxious to withdraw both his money and his skill from business altogether.

The workmen may be convinced that those are their best friends, who, like the author of the excellent little treatise before us, at the same time that they inform them of their rights, convey to them also a knowledge of their duties. No individual, or divisional number of individuals, living in a civilized community, can have separate rights for themselves, unconnected with the rights of others. Perhaps we should speak more properly if we were to say, that the word " rights” ought to be exclusively resolved into

duties,” for as long as we are connected in society with our fellow men, we are bound towards each other by reciprocal obligations, which best express the relations in which we all stand towards each other. One man can have no right to do that which is injurious to another : to abstain from this is an imperative duty. The labourer is worthy of his bire. To pay the hire is the duty of the employer. Civil liberty is the right of the subject. To secure that liberty is the duty of the legislature, and of the executive. Thus rights on one side are duties on another, and we should contemplate them chiefly in that point of view, because it is the one that leads us most powerfully to feel that we are, in fact, members of one community, in which the interests of one individual are the interests of all.

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Art. II.-1. The Truths of Revelation Demonstrated by an Appeal to

existing Monuments, Sculptures, Gems, Coins, and Medals. By a Fellow of several Learned Societies. Svo. pp. 276. London : Long

man and Co. 1831. 2. The Unknown Tongues discovered to be English, Spanish, and Latin ;

and the Rev. Edward Irving proved to be erroneous in attributing their utterance to the influence of the Holy Spirit. By George Pil

kington. 8vo. pp. 36. London: Field and Bull. 1831. The proofs which exist, beyond the internal evidence of the Sacred Writings, in support of their divine origin, cannot be too frequently brought before the public eye in times like these, when the tide of opinion is setting in with tremendous force against the frail foundations of the established church. Its destruction has been already sealed in Ireland. The speech of his Majesty on opening the present session of Parliament, candidly admits the fact that there is, among the people of that country, a settled system of opposition to the payment of tithes, and that no hope being entertained of conquering that opposition by the application of law, or even the force of arms, the tithes must be given up altogether, and another financial system for the support of the Protestant clergy substituted for that ancient and most odious tribute. England will not long remain behind Ireland in getting rid of a similar nuisance. But there is great danger that the discussions to which these measures may give rise, will indispose the great mass of the people to the truths of Christianity, when they come to understand, as they will soon understand, that those precious truths have, in fact, been used as instruments for plundering them of their money, in order to maintain hosts of hypocrites under the name of clergy. It would be a serious, and, we fear, an irreparable evil, if the thorough reformation, or rather subversion of the Anglican church, which we hope one day to witness, were to be followed by indifference on the part of the people to the just claims which Christianity, in its own true and heavenly beauty, has upon their attention. It was, therefore, with unfeigned satisfaction, that we opened the little volume whose title stands at the head of this article, as it contains, within a convevient compass, almost every thing that can be said concerning the extrinsic evidence in support of the truth of Revelation.

In executing the task which he assigned to himself, the author has not affected to be original. Indeed, Mr. Howard's work on the Structure of the Globe, to which we adverted in our journal for November last, embraces most of the points upon which the present writer has insisted. To these, however, he has made some additions, which we shall briefly notice. After shewing from several contradictory facts, that geological systems are not to be depended upon, as correctors of chronology; that from the recent inquiries into the hieroglyphics and monuments of Egypt, they are by no means of such high antiquity as has been frequently claimed for

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