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Duval, the jeweller, is arrived. You may easily imagine that I have asked him several questions concerning you; but, though he seems to be much in your interest, he has owned to me fairly that your utterance is ungraceful.

It is the fate of heroes to ruin themselves by conquering countries they soon lose, or in subduing nations which they are obliged to destroy; like that madman, who wasted his property in buying five statues wbich he threw into the sea, and pier-glasses he immediately broke.

A taste for magnificence, and a love of virtue, are seldom found united. Minds debased by a multitude of frivolons cares cannot rise up to what is truly great.

This young gentleman entered the army after having quitted college: but finding the profits of his commission did not enable him to support his expences, he exchanged the military life for the study of the law.

When I find young men so humble and so docile, I never deny them that information which my studies have enabled me to procure them.

RULE III.

Q. I. Is any article to be used in French before those substantives which denote the country of persons; as, Frenchman, Englishman ; before nouns of dignities, titles, and professions, as, king, officer, &c. and other qualifying substantives, when they are preceded by the verb to be?

A. Those nouns, when singular, are generally used without the article indefinite.-Ex. His father is AN OFFICER, Son père est officIER: in the plural they may be used with the article des, though most commonly without it.—Ex. His sisters are MILLINERS, Ses sæurs sont MARCHANDES DE MODES, or, DES MARCHANDES DE MODES *; with otherqua.

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* Note 1. Sentences, in which the verb to be is understood, are subject to the same rule.—Ex. His father, THOUGH A THYSICIAN (that is, though he is a physician), Son père, QUOIQUE MÉDECIN. And likewise exclamative sentences.--Ex. I tell you I am a physician—YOU A PHYSICIAN ! Je vous dis que je suis médecin-VOUS MÉDECIN !

lifying substantives which do not relate to persons, the indefinite, if it is expressed in English, must be retained in French. If there is no article in English, the partitive must be used for the plural; but, in the singular, it may be indifferently expressed or omitted-Ex. Their houses are PALACES, Leurs maisons sont DES PALAIS ; Thought is neither wood nor MATTER, La pensée n'est NI BOIS NI MATIÈRE,or NI DU BOIS NI DE LA MATIÈRE. This construction will also take place after some verbs like these, regarder comme, to consider as; ne valoir pas mieux que, not to be better than, &c.

Q. II. Is the article indefinite suppressed before substantives which denote the country of persons, before nouns of dignities and titles, only when they are preceded by the verb to be?

A. I. It is likewise suppressed after the verbs to create or noininate, créer ou nommer; to make, faire ; to believe, croire; to become, devenir; to be born, naître; to live, vivre; to die, mourir; and some others followed by the preposition pourPasser pour, to pass for; reconnaître pour, to acknowledge as. -Ex. He gives himself out for a FRENCHMAN, Il se donne pour FRANÇAIS. I take him to be an ENGLISHMAN, Je le crois ANGLAIS. He has made his son A PHYSICIAN, Il a fait son fils MÉDECIN. But in this last sentence the article should be expressed, if the word fils was preceded by de.-Ex. Il a fait de son fils un MÉDECIN.

A. II. After as or like, when they signify in quality of. Ex. I have spoken As A FATHER, J'ai parlé COMME PÈRE, or EN PÈRE. "But the article is expressed, when they mean in the same manner as.--Ex. J'ai parlé COMME UN PÈRE, that is, in the same manner as a father is used to speak.

Q. III. Are there any exceptions to the preceding rules ?

A. I. When the substantive is followed by an adjective, or by some words which do not make an indivisible sense, the article is almost invariably used-Ex. His father is AN EXPERIENCED OFFICER, OR AN OFFICER OF GREAT MERIT; Son père

Note 2. The article must be used, when the verb étre is preceded by ce. Ex. C'est un OFFICIER, lle is un officer ; Ce sont DES MARCHANDES DE MODES, They are MILLINERS. But these constructions belong to Rule II. of personal pronouns, where they will be more fully explained.

est un OFFICIER EXPÉRIMENTé, or UN OFFICIER D'un mé. RITE DISTINGUÉ. Yet this sentence is very proper; Il ne fut point considéré comme roi illégitime, quoiqu' il fút enfant ILLÉGITIME; He was not considered AS AN ILLEGITIMATE KING, though he was AN ILLEGITIMATE CHILD. When the words form an indivisible sense, the article is left out. His father is AN OFFICER IN THE GUARDS, Son père est OFFICIER AUX GARDES.

A. II. If the adjective precedes the substantive, it may sometimes be indifferently used with or without the article.-Ex. Voltaire est EXCELLENT VERSIFICATEUR, or, UN EXCELLENT VERSIFICATEUR : in some instances, one construction must be preferred to the other; which can only depend on taste: but it is generally used without the article, if the adjective is modified by an adverb of comparison.--Ex. Cet homme était AUSSI GRAND GÉNÉRAL QU'HABILE MINISTRE.

Note. The following sentences, Son frère est UN GÉNIE, His brother is A GENIUS; Je demande pourquoi Brutus passera pour UN HÉROS, I ask why Brutus will pass for A HERO; do not deviate from this rule; as the two words génie, héros, cannot be considered as names of dignities, titles, and professions : with some nouns it seems indifferent to use the article, or not. Thus, you may say indifferently, Il aime mieur passer pour PRIPON que pour bête, or, pour UN FRIPON que pour UNE BÊTE ; He had rather be thought A KNAVE than A POOL; because the words fripon, bête, are adjectives as well as substantives; but with others it would be difficult to determine why the article is expressed or omitted. Thus you should say, Vous êtes bien enfant, You are very childish ; Vous n'êtes plus UN ENFANT, You are no longer a child ; Vous n'êtes pas nomMe, You are not a MAN; Vous n'êtes pas UN ENFANT, You are not A CHILD. When the verb être is modified by ne que, it conveys the idea of something which is a reproach or a disgrace. Thus Anacharsis, in his travels, says of himself, Je ne suis qu' UN SCYTHE, I am nothing but a Scytuan; that is, an ignorant and uninformed barbarian.

EXERCISE.
Cicero was no less a philosopher than an orator.

A famous prince, for fear of forgetting himself in the midst of his guod fortune, had a youth to wait on him, and put him in mind that he was a man.

B

We never go to war; not that we fear death : on the contrary, we bless the hour which unites us to the Supreme Being;

but because we are neither wolves nor tygers, but men aud Christians.

What was your profession in the abominable country which you inhabited ?

I was a friar.-A friar! And what is that profession?

The senior of those learned men is an excellent philosopher; as good a poet as a great geometrician; but he has put himself at the head of those who assert, that Homer is an old dotard, Demosthenes a bawling fellow, and Virgil a poet of common abilities.

When that town was taken by the Arabs, those people, accustomed to live under tents, and considering palaces as prisons, destroyed the most magnificent to build houses very little better than huts.

Gerbert, a learned man of the tenth century, passed for a magician, because an Arab had taught him arithmetic, and the first elements of geometry.

He resolved not only to leave off writing plays, but to do a rigorous penance for those he had written; and he actually formed a design of becoming a Carthusian friar.

• Didier, the last of those kings, was confined in the monastery of Corbie, where he lived and died a captive and a monk.

As a father, he permitted his sons to consult their safety by attending the amphitheatre ; as a Roman, he declared that the emperor might dispose of his life. I would give you my orders; but I would rather advise

you seriously as a friend that has some experience, and converse with you cheerfully as a companion.

In domestic life, this prince is allowed to be an easy master, a good.natured husband, a dutiful son, and an indulgent father.

Mr. Bis an affectionate brother, and a sincere friend : in short, he possesses all those virtues which make men beloved by their fellow-creatures.

While he was an ensign in the guards, the Duchess of then favourite mistress to the king, presented him with a sum of money, with which he bought a small estate of sixty pounds

The world is a large school, open to all those who wish to acquire knowledge. If a man reflects on the various events

a year.

which daily occur in it, he will have all the assistance he can wish for, to become a true philosopher,

I cannot conclude this panegyric in a more honourable manner, than by saying he was as good a Christian as a great philosopher.

The learned may be compared to noblemen, who, though in point of real merit they do not resemble those who have given them birth, think it is a great honour to be related to them,

Your friend, Mendes, the good Samaritan, dined with me yesterday; I showed him all the civilities which he deserves. He commends Mr.

extremely ; and as several other persons whom I have seen lately give him the same good character, I am glad of your connexion with him.

The souls of ethereal spirits are mortal, as well as those of mere animals. It is true they exist much longer : a poor consolation in their misfortune; since the duration of millions of ages cannot compensate the loss of immortality.

RULE IV.

Q. I. Is it an elegance in the French, as well as in the Eng. lish language, to suppress the article indefinite before a metaphysical substantive modified by an adjective.-Ex. He did it with ASTONISHING COURAGE; He paid UNUSUAL ATTENTION to her advice, or after the verb to be before metaphysical substantives followed by an infinitive ?-Ex. It would be cowARDICE to act in this manner.

A. I. This suppression does not often take place in French, and the articles un, une, are generally used.Ex. Il le fit avec UN COURAGE ÉTONNANT; Il écouta ses aois avec UNE ATTENTION EXTRAORDINAIRE; Ce serait UNE LÂCHETÉ d'agir ainsi. I say generally, because there are some occasions when it is as well to leave it out before a metaphysical substantive modified by an adjective.-Ex. Un homme de NOBLE EXTRACTION, A man of NOBLE BIRTH; Des plaisirs de COURTE DURÉE, Pleasures OF SHORT DURATION. It is very proper likewise to observe, that the pronoun it, used indeterminately, and coming before the verb to be, followed by a metaphysical substantive with a verb in the infinitive, cannot always be ren

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