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Gen'oa, p. n., a fortified city in the N.W. of Italy.
Pop. 120,000. Famous for its velvets, silks, &c., and also for the
beauty of its buildings and situation. geol'ogy, n. (G. gē, the earth; logos, dis
course), the science of the stony struc
ture of the earth. gla'cis, n., a smooth slope (L. glacies,
ice). gladiator'ial, a. (L. gladius, the sword),
relating to gladiators, who were men set to fight for the public amusement, among the Romans. They were at first criminals or prisoners of war. The first gladiatorial shows at Rome took place B.c. 263. At Constantinople they were suppressed by Constantine, in 325; and at Rome, Theodoric put
an end to them in A.D. 500. grotesque', a. (F.), ornamented fancifully
after the manner of a grotto, extrava
gant, ludicrous. Haarlem, p. n., a town in Holland, 12
miles from Amsterdam. Pop. 30,000.
Formerly fortified. halberd, n. (O. Ger. halm, a pole, and
barte, an axe), a pear with an axe at
one side, on a long shaft. halberdier, n., a soldier armed with a
halberd. ham'mock, n.(from Hamaca, an American
Indian word for "net"), a netting or
other support slung up as a bed. Hamp'stead, p. n., a district on the north
west of London. harbinger, n., one who goes before, to
provide harbour ; a forerunner. haulm (A. 8.), the stalk of plants, grain,
&c. hemi'sphere, n. (G. hemi, half; sphaira, a
ident'ical, a. (L. idem), the same. idiomat'ic, a., belonging to the idioms or
peculiarities of a language (from G. idios, one's own). i'dol, n. (G. eidolon, from idein, to see),
that which is seen; an inage of the invisible, or the absent; hence, a loved object, an image which is shipped. i’dyll, n. (G. eidyllion, lit. a little image), Intona'tion, n. (L. intono, to sound), modu
sphere), half a sphere, or globe. Hen'don, p. n., a parish in Middlesex,
9 miles from London. hered'itary, a. (L. heres, heredis, an heir),
descending by inheritance. hieroglyph'ic, n. (G. hieros, sacred; glypho,
to carve; lit. sacred writing), the picture writing of the ancient Egyptians, which was used by the priests, and
hence was sacred. histrion'ic, a. (L. histrio, an actor), re
lating to the stage or to actors. homoge'neous, a. (G. homos, the same;
genos, kind), of one kind. hussar, n., orig. a Hungarian cavalry
soldier; a light-cavalry soldier. From Hun. huszar, twenty, because every twentieth family in Hungary had, at
one time, to furnish a cavalry soldier. hydrogen, n. (G. hydor, water ; gennao, to produce), a gas which, with oxygen,
produces water. hymene'al, a. (G. Hymen, the god of mar.
riage), relating to marriage. hyperbol'ical, a. (G. hyper, beyond ; ballo, to throw), stated in words which go beyond the truth, exaggerated, overstated.
a short poem in which is an image of
pastoral life ; a narrative poem. illiterate, a. (L. in, literutus, not lettered),
ignorant. imperative, a. (L. impero, to command),
authoritative, obligatory. impera'tor, n. (L.), commander, emperor. impet'uous, a. (L, impetus, force), violent. impetuos'ity, n. (L. impetus), vehemence,
fury. impoverish, v. (L. in, and pauper, poor),
to make poor. impreca'tion, n. (L. imprecor), to pray for
evil on any one. incanta'tion, n. (L. incantaro, to sing a
magical formula over), the act of enchanting, or working upon by spells
sung incapabil'ity, n. (L. in, capabilis, want of
power), inability to lay hold of. incip'ient, a. (L. incipio, to begin), begin
ning. inconceivable, a. (L. in, not; concipio, to
comprehend ; through F. concevoir),
beyond imagining. incon'gruous, a. (L. in, congruo, to agree),
inconsistent, ill-matched, unsuitable. inconsist'ent, a. (L. in, and consisto, to
stand together), contradictory. indefin'able, a. (L. in, de, finis, à bound),
vague, incapable of being expressed exactly; having no bounds that can be
ascertained. indica'tion, n. (L. indico, to point out), a
pointing out, a sign. indigence, n., poverty. ineffable, a. (L. in, and effabilis, that
may be spoken), unspeakable. inextin'guishable, n. (L. in, not; extinguo,
to quench), unquenchable. infanticide, a. (L. infans, a child who can
not speak; cædo, to kill), the murder of
infants. injunc'tion, n. (L. in and jungo, to join),
the act of enjoining ; precept, order. inquis'itive, a. (L. inquiro, to seek into),
prying, curious. installation, n. (in, and O. Ger. stallan, to
stand), the placing in a stall or office,
order, the investing. intelligible, a. L. intelligo, to choose be
tween), that may be understood. intelligibility, n. (L. intelligo, to choose
between), ability to be understood. intervene', v. (L. intervenio), to come be
tween. interven'tion, n. (L. intervenio, to come
between), a coming between, an interposing.
lation of the voice. inva’riable, a. (L. in and varius), not
varying. invincibil'ity, n. (L. in, not; vinco, to
conquer), unconquerableness. Ionic capital, the head of an Ionic pillar ;
the Ionic order in architecture is known by the ram's horn-like orna
ment of its capital, Irrawad'dy, p. n., a river of Asia, which
traverses the entire length of Burmah. Length, about 1,200 miles. irriga'tion, n. (L. irrigo, to water), to
water fields by artificial means. irrup'tion, n. (L. irrumpo, to break out),
a breaking into, an invasion. jon'gleur, n. (Fr.), a jester; our juggler
comes from this word. jurispru'dence, n. (L. jurisprudentia), the
science and practice of the law. la'pis laz’uli, p. n., an azure blue precious
stone. la'va, n. (from root to lave), the melted
rock poured from a volcano. le'gend, n. (L. lego, to read), unreliable
stories respecting the great persons or events of the past. Lives of saints, &c., were read at prayers in monasteries, and hence were called legenda,
“things to be read," whence the word. ley, n., a lea or meadow. linguis’tic, a. (L. lingua, a tongue), re
lating to languages. mag'nate, n. (L. magnus, great), a great
person. magnificence, n. (L. magnus, great; and
facio, to do), grandeur of display. maize, n., a West Indian word ; Indian
corn. mausole’um, n. (L. orig. the tomb of
Mausolus, king of Caria, in Asia Minor, who died B.c. 353. It was built by his wife, Artemisia, and was one of the wonders of the ancient world. The remains of it, including the statue of Mausolus, are now in the British
Museum.) Any fine tomb. mech'lin, p. n., a kind of lace, named
from the Flemish town of Mechlin or
Malines, in which it was first made. mediæ'val, a. (L. medius, middle; aevum,
age), belonging to the Middle Ages. melodrame', n. (6. melos, a song; and
drama, a drama), interspersed with
songs. merito'rious, a. (L. mereor, to deserve),
deserving. meroquin', a., the leather now called
morocco. metamorph'osis, n. (G. metamorphod, to
change into another form), a change
into another form. metrop'olis, n. (G. meter, metros, mother ; polis, a city), a mother-city, the chief city, the capital of a nation.
mimetic, n. (G. mimos, a mimic), imita
tive. Min'nesing'er, n. (Ger. minne, love, and
singer), one of the old German minstrel
poets who sang of love and beauty. mint, n. (A. S.), the place where money
is coined. misapprehen’sion, n. (E. miss ; and L. ad
and prehendo), a failure to lay hold of or
understand. misrepresentaʼtion, n. (E. miss ; and L.
re-præsens), a wilful or undesigned error in description or statement, the presenting a matter falsely. modifica'tion, n. (L. modus, a measure;
and facio, to make), a change of mode
or manner, a moderating. mon'astery, n. (G. monos, alone), a house
for monks, who are men pledged to live alone, and devote themselves to
religion. mon'grel, a. (A. S. mangan, to mix), of a
mixed breed. mon'ogram, n. (G. monos, single; gramma,
a letter), a single character made up of
several interwoven. monotonous, a. (G. monos, alone; tonos,
a note), uttered in one tone. mule-frame (G. mihl, a mill), the frame
of a machine used for spinning cotton. Nep'tune, p. n., the god of the Mediter
ranean Sea among the Greeks and Romans. His Greek name was Posei don. Used for the god of the ocean generally. Nice, p. n., a city, formerly Sardinian, but ceded to France in 1859. Pop.
40,000. On the Mediterranean. nymph, n. (G. nymphē, lit. a bride, a maiden), a fabled female being inhab
iting the earth and the waters. ob'sequies, n. pl. (L. ob and sequor, to
follow), funeral rites (which follow after
death). ob'verse, n. (L. ob, towards ; verto, to
turn), the side turned towards one; the side of a coin bearing the principal
figure. octant, n. (L. octo). The eighth part of a
circle. organiza'tion, n. (G. organon, from ergo, to
work or do), the structure by which any thing works ; arrangement. or gies, n. pl. (G. orgē, fury), drunken
revels; secret unholy rites, such as were used in the worship of some ancient gods. o'rison, n. (Fr. oraison ; L. orior, to pray),
prayer. ostenta'tiousness, n. (L. ostendo, to show),
vain display, boastfulness. par'tiality, n. (L. pars, a part, partialis),
inclined to one part or person rather
than to another. pa'ternos'ter, n. (L. our father), the Lord's
prayer; the chaplet or string of beads which Roman Catholics wear, to aid them in counting their repetitions of
that prayer pathet'ically, ad. (G. pathos, pain), suffer
ing; so as to touch the feelings. pa'triarch, n. (G. pater, a father; archos,
the chief), the chief father; head of a family or of a communion; an old
person. pau'city, n. (L. paucus, few), fewness. pecu’liar'ity, n. (L. peculium, peculiaris,
belonging to one's self), private property; a distinguishing characteristic. Peculium comes from an obsolete Latin word, pecu, cattle, and points to a time when cattle were the chief form of
property: pedant'ic, a., like a pedant, who is one
vain in the display of his knowledge. From G. pædagogus, a teacher ; orig.
one who led a child to school. ped'igree, n. (perh. from F. par degrés), a
table 'of descent which marks the
degrees, or successive steps. penin'sula, n. (L. pæne, almost ; insula,
an island), land almost surrounded by
water. pen’sioner, n., one who receives a pension,
or payment. Pension comes from L. pensio, to pay, to weigh out. perpendicular, a. (L. perpendiculum, a
plumb line), exactly up and down by
the plumb line. per quisite, n. (L. per and quæro, to ask
after), a special fee or allowance; a right; lit. any thing sought after earnestly. phenom'enon, n. (G. phaino, to appear), a
natural appearance. philol'ogist, n. (G. philos, love of ; logos, a
word), a student of words or languages. Philome'la, p. n., Latin name of the
nightingale, from Philomela, an Athenian princess, who was fabled to have been changed into a nightingale. philosoph'ical, a. (G. philos, loving; sophia,
wisdom), according to philosophy ; rational; scientific. phrenolog'ical, a. relating to phrenology,
which comes from G. phrén, the mind, and logos, science; the science of the functions of the different parts of the
brain. physiog'nomy, n. (G. physis, nature;
gnonai, to know), the science which teaches the character from the features;
the features themselves. physique', n. (Fr.), the bodily form and
constitution. Pi'sa, p. n., an Italian city, 12 miles
from Leghorn. Pop. 26,000. The birthplace of Galileo. Plantagenets, p. n., pl., an English
dynasty. Including Henry II. to
Richard III., 1154-1485, 331 years. point'er, n., a dog which points out game. polit'ical, a. (G. polis, a city), belonging
to the State.
polygʻamy, n. (G. polys, many; ganos,
marriage), the being married to more
than one wife at a time. por'phyry, n. (G. porphyra, purple), a
very hard volcanic rock or lava. It got its name because the variety in favour in antiquity was the red por
phyry of Egypt. preca'rious, a. (L. precor, to pray); lit. to
be obtained only by prayer, doubtful. predeces'sor, n. (L. pre, de, and cedo,
cessum), one who has preceded or gone before another in any office, but has
now left it. pre-em'inence, n. eminence beyond that of
others. pre'fect, n. (L. pre and facio, one set
before others), head magistrate of a
district. prel'ate, n. (L. prefero, prelatum, to place
before); lit. one placed over or before
another, a bishop. premature'ly, ad. (L. pre and maturus,
ripe), ripe before its time. premon'itory, a. (L. pre, before ; moneo,
to warn), warning beforehand. prepon'derate, v. (L. pre and pondus,
weight), to outweigh, to exceed. preternatural, a. (L. præter, beyond and
natural), what is beyond the natural. Prima Donna (Ital.) The first lady singer
in an opera. prim'al, a. (L. primus), first. pris'matic, a. (G. prisma), caused by a
prism, or relating to a prism, which is à triangular piece of glass, like the
crystal drops of a chandelier. procon'sul, n. (L.), a Roman officer who
acted for the Consul; a Roman goverPuck, po n., a noted fairy; from the
Icelandic name for the evil spirit. punctil'ious, a. (L. punctum, a point),
attending to small points ; very exact. pur'suivant, n. (Fr.), a State messenger;
an attendant on a herald. putrefac'tion, n. (L. putridus, rotten ;
facio, to make), rottenness, corruption. pyr'amid, n. (G. pyramis, perhaps from pyr, fire, because of its rising in a pointed form), a square figure which
narrows to a point at the top. Pyrenees, p. n., pl., a mountain range dividing France from Spain. About 250 miles long, by 50 or 60 broad. Their highest peaks range from 8,000
to 11,000 feet above the sea level. quadrille', n., a dance made up of four
couples. quib'ble, n. (L. quid libet, what you please),
an evasion, a play on words; a making
words mean what you please. recognit'ion, n. (L. recognosco, to know
again); the knowing again. reconcilia'tion, n. (L. re and concilio ; lit.
to call together), the being reconciled or brought together again in harmony.
reconstruction, n., rebuilding.
sarcoph'agus, n. (G. sarx, sarkos, flesh, rec'reant, a. (L. re, back from, credo, and phago, to eat; orig. a coffin made
to believe) ; lit. having gone back of a kind of limestone which was from one's belief, false, treacherous, thought to consume the flesh of the dead), cowardly.
any stone coffin, recurrent, a. (L. recurro, to run back, to saturnine, a., gloomy, heavy, unexcit
repeat itself), repeating itself at inter- able; the temperament said by astrolvals.
ogers to mark those born under the refract', v. (re, back, and frango, to break), planet Saturn.
to send back rays of light at an scepticism, n. (G. skeptomai, to consider, angle.
to look into), the condition of doubtrefulgent, a. (L. re, fulgens, shining), ing.
casting back a shining light'; brilliant. scoria'ceous, a. (G. scoriæ, ashes), of an reminis'cence, n. (L. reminiscor, to re- ashy nature; applied to the ashes cast
member), a recollection; remembrance out from a volcano. of.
scru'pulous, a. (L. scrupulus, from scrupus, ren'egade, n. (L. re, back, or again; and anxiety), fearful, nice, precise.
nego, to deny), one who denies his scru'pulously, ad., with hesitation and faith or party; a deserter ; an apos- caution; with conscientious exactness. tate.
scrutiny, n. (L. scrutor, to search even to reprehen’sion, n. (L. re, prehendo, to lay the rags), a search even to the rags ;
hold of), blame; the laying hold of minute inquiry. by blame, or rebuke.
semi'-diameter, n., half the measure representative, a. (L. re, presento, to place
before), one who represents, or stands sempst'ress, n., a woman who sews; from
in the place of, another. 'repulsion, n. (L. repello, repulsum, to sens'
a. (L. sensus, a sense), coming drive back), the act of driving back or specially within the sphere of the away.
senses, or passions. res'ervoir, n. (Fr.), a reserve store of sin'ister, a. (L.), lit. left, and hence of water,
evil omen; any thing appearing on the resplen'dent, a. (L. re intens., splendeo, left side of a person being, in the to shine), shining very brightly.
opinion of the Romans, a presage of responsibility, n. (L. re, and spondeo, to misfortune; unlucky, evil,
promise), accountability, liability. slashed, a., slit, so as to show other retrib'utory, a. (L. re, again, tribuo, to fabric below; an old fashion.
give), punishing or rewarding again for sono'rous, a. (L. sonorus, clear, loud), acts done.
sounding. reverb'erate, v. (L. re and verbero, to beat), spasmod'ic, a., acting in spasms ; fitful,
to beat or send back sound, light, heat, irregular, violent. &c.
spec'ialise, v. (L. species, a kind), to rudimentary, a. (L. rudis, rough), ele- mention particularly, to single out. mentary, simple.
spec'ulum, n. (L.), a mirror.
Spez'zia, p. n., a town of the former SarSaladin, p. n., Sultan of Egypt and dinian States; 40 miles from Genoa.
Syria. He was born in 1137, and died Shelley was drowned in the neighbourin 1192, at Damascus. He was vic- ing bay, which takes its name from torious over the Crusaders, and took the district and town. Jerusalem from them. Richard Cour sprightly, a., spirit, or sprite like. de Lion afterwards took Acre and stam'ina, n. (Latin word, pl.), strength. other towns from Saladin. A man of a stri'ated, a. (L. stria, a streak), marked very noble nature.
with thin lines or streaks. sa'lient, n. (L. saliens, leaping), prominent, subʼlunary, a. (L. sub, under, luna, the projecting
moon), earthly, belonging to what is Samaritan, p. n., the people of the city under the moon.
of Samaría, in Palestine. After the subordinate, a. (L. sub, under, ordo, captivity of Israel, Jews and other ordinis, an order, a rank), inferior in nations united to repeople the city.
rank, &c. Having been refused permission to subterra'nean, a. (L. sub, under, terra, the take part in rebuilding the temple at earth), under ground. Jerusalem, after the return of Judah superfic'ial, a. (L. super, over, facies, the from Babylon, they became the bitter face), only on the surface, shallow. enemies of the Jews as a race.
This sym'phony, n. (G. syn, together, phonē, hatred was as bitterly returned.
a sound), a concord, or sounding harsanctuary, n. (L. sanctus, sacred), a i moniously together. sacred place.
synon'ymous, a. (G. syn, with, onoma, a san'guinary, a. (L. sanguis, blood), bloody. name), meaning the same; some thing san'itary, a. (L. sanitas, health), relating named together with another thing, as to health.
being of the same kind.
taciturn'ity, n. (L. taciturnus, silent),
habitual reserve or silence. tap'estry, n. (G. tapes, a carpet), hang
ings of silk or wool, with carpet-like
figures, &c., worked on it. tena'cious, a. (L. teneo, to hold), holding
fast, stubborn, Ten'eriffe, Peak of, p. n., a mountain in
the island of the same name in the Canary group, off Western Africa. It is
an old volcano; over 12,000 feet high. terres'trial, a. (L. terrestris), of the earth. the'orist, n. (G. theoreo, to look at, to
think of), one who frames theories or
views respecting matters. thermom'eter, n. (G. therme, heat, metron,
a measure), an instrument for measuring heat. Ti'tan, p. n., one of a race of fabled giants
in the Greek mythology, sons of Heaven and Earth, who made war against the
gods. to'paz, n. (G. topazos), a precious stone,
commonly of a brilliant yellow. trachytic (G. trachys, rough), belonging
to the volcanic rock called Trachyte,
which is rough to the touch. trans'itory, a. (L. trans, beyond, eo, itum,
to go), passing, going speedily away. translu'cent, a. (L. trans, beyond, lux,
light), letting light pass through and beyond. trep'ida'tion, n. (G. trepo, to turn), fear,
which makes one turn to flight. trib'uneship, n.. (L. tribus, a tribe), the
office of a tribune; lit. the chief of a tribe. A magistracy appointed by the Romans for the defence of popular rights. Trui'ibers, p. n., pl., Parson Trulliber is
a character in one of Fielding's novels. unadul'terate, a. (L. un, not, ad, to, alter,
another), not changed to something else ;
pure, unmixed, undebased. unadventurous, a., timid, cautious. unavoidably, ad., inevitably; so that
there is no escaping it. unbur'nished, a., lit. not made brown, un
polished. unoontroll'able, a., that cannot be con
trolled. unmitigated, a. (A.S.), un, not (L. mitigo,
to soften), unalleviated, unsoftened.
va'grancy, n. (L. vagor, to wander), the
condition of a wanderer; houseless, unsettled beggary. Vancou'ver's Island, p. n.
in British North America, on the Pacific side. 300 miles long, 75 broad; climate like
that of England. Capital, Victoria. veloc'ity, n. (L. velox, swift), swiftness. ventila'tion, n. (L. ventus, wind), the cir
culation of air through a chamber, &c.;
public examination and discussion. veran'dah, n. (Bans, varanda), a covered
portico or shade to a building. vernac'ular, a. (L. vernaculus, a house
born slave), belonging to house-born slaves; native, natural, of the country
of one's birth. vert'ical, a. (L. vertex, verticis, the turning
point or top), exactly overhead. Vesuvius, p. n., a burning mountain,
3,950 feet high, near Naples. First eruption in historical times, A.D. 77. It continued active for nearly 1,000 years; then showed no signs of activity for nearly 600 years. It broke out afresh in 1631, and since then the eruptions have been more and more frequent, till they have become almost
annual. vetturi'no, n., a coachman or driver, from
vettura (F. voiture), a carriage, a ve
hicle. volute, n. In Architecture the rolled or
turned ornament on the head of pillars.
From L. volvo, volutum, to turn. way'wardness, n., wilfulness, being bent
on taking one's own way. weald, p. n. A.S.), orig. a wood or forest,
now an open country. wor'reting, a., a form of worrying ; fret
ting, teasing. Worret is not used now in correct speaking or writing.
VIRTCE AND CO., PRINTERS, CITY ROAD, LONDON.