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Gen'oa, p. n., a fortified city in the N.W.

of Italy. Pop. 120,000. Famous for its velvets, silks, &c., and also for the beauty of its buildings and situation. geol'ogy, n. (G. gē, the earth; logos, dis

course), the science of the stony struc

ture of the earth. gla'cis, n., a smooth slope (L. glacies,

ice). gladiator'ial, a. (L. gladius, the sword),

relating to gladiators, who were men set to fight for the public amusement, among the Romans. They were at first criminals or prisoners of war. The first gladiatorial shows at Rome took place B.c. 263. At Constantinople they were suppressed by Constantine, in 325; and at Rome, Theodoric put

an end to them in A.D. 500. grotesque', a. (F.), ornamented fancifully

after the manner of a grotto, extrava

gant, ludicrous. Haarlem, p. n., a town in Holland, 12

miles from Amsterdam. Pop. 30,000.

Formerly fortified. hal'berd, n. (O. Ger. halm, a pole, and

barte, an axe), a spear with an axe at

one side, on a long shaft. hal'berdier, n., a soldier armed with a

halberd. ham'mock, n.(from Hamaca, an American

Indian word for “net”), a netting or

other support slung up as a bed. Hamp'stead, p. n., a district on the north

west of London. harbinger, n., one who goes before, to

provide harbour ; a forerunner. haulm (A. 8.), the stalk of plants, grain,

&c. hemi'sphere, n. (G. hemi, half; sphaira, a

identical, a. (L. idem), the same. idiomat'ic, a., belonging to the idioms or

peculiarities of a language (from G. idios, one's own). i'dol, n. (G. eidolon, from idein, to see),

that which is seen; an inage of the invisible, or the absent; hence, a loved object, an image which is shipped. i'dyll, n. (G. eidyllion, lit. a little image), Intona'tion, n. (L. intono, to sound), modu

sphere), half a sphere, or globe. Hen'don, p. n., a parish in Middlesex,

9 miles from London. hered'itary, a. (L. heres, heredis, an heir),

descending by inheritance. hieroglyph'ic, n. (G. hieros, sacred; glypho,

to carve; lit. sacred writing), the picture writing of the ancient Egyptians, which was used by the priests, and

hence was sacred. histrion'ic, a. (L, histrio, an actor), re

lating to the stage or to actors. homoge'neous, a. (G. homos, the same;

genos, kind), of one kind. hussar, n., orig; a Hungarian cavalry

soldier; a light-cavalry soldier. From Hun. huszar, twenty, because every twentieth family in Hungary had, at

one time, to furnish a cavalry soldier. hy'drogen, n. (G. hydor, water ; gennao, to produce), a gas which, with oxygen,

produces water. hymene'al, a. (G. Hymen, the god of mar.

riage), relating to marriage. hyperbol'ical, a. (G. hyper, beyond; ballo, to throw), stated in words which go beyond the truth, exaggerated, overstated.

a short poem in which is an image of pastoral life; a narrative poem. illiterate, a. (L. in, literutus, not lettered),

ignorant. imper'ative, a. (L. impero, to command),

authoritative, obligatory. impera'tor, n. (L.), commander, emperor. impet'uous, a. (L. impetus, force), violent. impetuos'ity, n. (L. impetus), vehemence,

fury. impoverish, v. (L. in, and pauper, poor),

to make poor. impreca'tion, n. (L. imprecor), to pray for

evil on any one. incanta'tion, n. (L. incantaro, to sing a

magical formula over), the act of enchanting, or working upon by spells

sung: incapabil'ity, n. (L. in, capabilis, want of

power), inability to lay hold of. incipient, a. (L. incipio, to begin), begin

ning. inconceivable, a. (L. in, not; concipio, to

comprehend ; through F. concevoir),

beyond imagining. incon'gruous, a. (L. in, congruo, to agree),

inconsistent, ill-matched, unsuitable. inconsistent, a. (L. in, and consisto, to

stand together), contradictory. indefin'able, a. (L. in, de, finis, à bound),

vague, incapable of being expressed exactly; having no bounds that can be

ascertained. indica'tion, n. (L. indico, to point out), a

pointing out, a sign. in'digence, n., poverty. ineff'able, a. (L. in, and effabilis, that

may be spoken), unspeakable. inextin'guishable, n. (L. in, not; extinguo,

to quench), unquenchable. infanticide, a. (L. infans, a child who can

not speak; cædo, to kill), the murder of

infants. injunc'tion, n. (L. in and jungo, to join),

the act of enjoining ; precept, order. inquis'itive, a. (L, inquiro, to seek into),

prying, curious. installa'tion, n. (in, and 0. Ger, stallan, to

stand), the placing in a stall or office,

order, the investing. intel'ligible, a. L. intelligo, to choose be

tween), that may be understood. intelligibility, n. (L. intelligo, to choose

between), ability to be understood. intervene', v. (L. intervenio), to come be

tween. interven'tion, n. (L, intervenio, to come

between), a coming between, an interposing.

lation of the voice. inva'riable, a. (L. in and varius), not

varying. invincibil'ity, n. (L. in, not; vinco, to

conquer), unconquerableness. Ionic capital, the head of an Ionic pillar ;

the Ionic order in architecture is known by the ram's horn-like orna

ment of its capital, Irrawad'dy, p. n., a river of Asia, which

traverses the entire length of Burmah.

Length, about 1,200 miles. irriga'tion, n. (L. irrigo, to water), to


water fields by artificial means. irruption, n. (L. irrumpo, to break out),

a breaking into, an invasion. jon'gleur, n. (Fr.), a jester; our juggler

comes from this word. jurispru'dence, n. (L. jurisprudentia), the

science and practice of the law. la'pis laz'uli, p. n., an azure blue precious

stone. la'va, n. (from root to lave), the melted

rock poured from a volcano. le'gend, n. (L. lego, to read), unreliable

stories respecting the great persons or events of the past. Lives of saints, &c., were read at prayers in monasteries, and hence were called legenda,

“things to be read,” whence the word. ley, n., a lea or meadow. linguis'tic, a. (L. lingua, a tongue), re

lating to languages.

mimet'ic, n. (G. mimos, a mimic), imita

tive. Min'nesing'er, n. (Ger. minne, love, and

singer), one of the old German minstrel

poets who sang of love and beauty. mint, n. (A. S.), the place where money

is coined. misapprehen’sion, n. (E. miss; and L. ad

and prehendo), a failure to lay hold of or

understand. misrepresenta'tion, n. (E. miss ; and L.

re-præsens), a wilful or undesigned error in description or statement, the

presenting a matter falsely. modifica'tion, n. (L. modus, a measure;

and facio, to make), a change of mode

or manner, a moderating: mon'astery, n. (G. monos, alone), a house

for monks, who are men pledged to live alone, and devote themselves to

religion. mon'grel, a. (A. S. mangan, to mix), of a

mixed breed. mon'ogram, n. (G. monos, single; gramma,

a letter), a single character made up of

several interwoven. monot'onous, a. (G. monos, alone ; tonos,

a note), uttered in one tone. mule-frame (G. mühl, a mill), the frame

of a machine used for spinning cotton. Nep'tune, p. n., the god of the Mediter

ranean Sea among the Greeks and Romans. His Greek name was Posei don. Used for the god of the ocean generally. Nice, p. n., a city, formerly Sardinian,

but ceded to France in 1859. Pop.

40,000. On the Mediterranean. nymph, n. (G. nymphē, lit. a bride, a maiden), a fabled female being inhab

iting the earth and the waters. ob'sequies, n. pl. (L. ob and sequor, to

follow), funeral rites (which follow after

death). ob'verse, n. (L. ob, towards ; verto, to

turn), the side turned towards one; the side of a coin bearing the principal

figure. octant, n. (L. octo). The eighth part of a

circle. organiza'tion, n. (G. organon, from ergo, to

work or do), the structure by which any thing works ; arrangement. or' gies, n. pl. (G. orgē, fury), drunken

revels; secret unholy rites, such as were used in the worship of some ancient gods. o'rison, n. (Fr. oraison ; L. orior, to pray),

prayer. ostenta'tiousness, n. (L. ostendo, to show),

vain display, boastfulness. partiality, n. (L. pars, a part, partialis),

inclined to one part or person rather

than to another. pa'ternos'ter, n. (L. our father), the Lord's

prayer; the chaplet or string of beads

mag'nate, n. (L. magnus, great), a great

person. magnif'icence, n. (L. magnus, great; and

facio, to do), grandeur of display. maize, n., a West Indian word; Indian

corn, mausole'um, n. (L. orig. the tomb of

Mausolus, king of Caria, in Asia Minor, who died B.C. 353. It was built by his wife, Artemisia, and was one of the wonders of the ancient world. The remains of it, including the statue of Mausolus, are now in the British

Museum.) Any fine tomb. mech'lin, p. n., a kind of lace, named

from the Flemish town of Mechlin or

Malines, in which it was first made. mediæ'val, a. (L, medius, middle; aevum,

age), belonging to the Middle Ages. melodrame', n. (G. melos, a song ; and

drama, á drama), interspersed with

songs. meritoʻrious, a. (L. mereor, to deserve),

deserving. meroquin', a., the leather now called

morocco. metamorph'osis, n. (G. metamorphod, to

change into another form), a change

into another form. metrop'olis, n. (G. meter, metros, mother ;

polis, a city), a mother-city, the chief city, the capital of a nation.


polyg'amy, n. (G. polys, many; ganlos,

marriage), the being married to more

than one wife at a time. por'phyry, n. (G. porphyra, purple), a

very hard volcanic rock or lava. It got its name because the variety in favour in antiquity was the red por

phyry of Egypt. preca'rious, a. (L. precor, to pray); lit. to

be obtained only by prayer, doubtful. predeces'sor, n. (L. pre, de, and cedo,

cessum), one who has preceded or gone before another in any office, but has

now left it. pre-em'inence, n. eminence beyond that of

others. pre'fect, n. (L. pre and facio, one set

before others), head magistrate of a

district. prel'ate, n. (L: prefero, prelatum, to place

before); lit. one placed over or before

another, a bishop. premature'ly, ad. (L. pre and maturus,

ripe), ripe before its time. premon'itory, a. (L. pre, before ; moneo,

to warn), warning beforehand. prepon'derate, v. (L. pre and pondus,

weight), to outweigh, to exceed. preternat'ural, a. (L. præter, beyond and

natural), what is beyond the natural. Prima Donna (Ital.) The first lady singer

in an opera. prim'al, a. (L. primus), first. pris'matic, a. (G. prisma), caused by a reconstruction, n., rebuilding. rec'reant, a. (L. re, back from, credo,

which Roman Catholics wear, to aid them in counting their repetitions of

that prayer. pathetically, ad. (G. pathos, pain), suffer

ing; so as to touch the feelings. pa'triarch, n. (G. pater, a father; archos,

the chief), the chief father ; head of a family or of a communion ; an old

person. pau'city, n. (L. paucus, few), fewness. pecu’liar'ity, n. (L. peculium, peculiaris,

belonging to one's self), private property ; a distinguishing characteristic. Peculium comes from an obsolete Latin word, pecu, cattle, and points to a time when cattle were the chief form of pro

perty: pedantic, a., like a pedant, who is one

vain in the display of his knowledge. From G. pædagogus, a teacher ; orig.

one who led a child to school. ped'igree, n. (perh. from F. par degrés), a

table of descent which marks the

degrees, or successive steps. penin'sula, n. (L. pæne, almost ; insula,

an island), land almost surrounded by

water. pen'sioner, n., one who receives a pension,

or payment. Pension comes from L. pensio, to pay, to weigh out. perpendic'ular, a. (L. perpendiculum, a

plumb line), exactly up and down by

the plumb line. per quisite, n. (L. per and quæro, to ask

after), a special fee or allowance; a right; lit. any thing sought after earnestly. phenom'enon, n. (G. phaino, to appear), a

natural appearance. philol'ogist, n. (G. philos, love of; logos, a

word), á student of words or languages. Philome'la, p. n., Latin name of the

nightingale, from Philomela, an Athenian princess, who was fabled to have

been changed into a nightingale. philosoph'ical, a. (G. philos, loving; sophia,

wisdom), according to philosophy; rational; scientific. phrenolog'ical, a. relating to phrenology,

which comes from G. phrén, the mind, and logos, science; the science of the functions of the different parts of the

brain. physiog‘nomy, n. (G. physis, nature;

gnonai, to know), the science which teaches the character from the features;

the features themselves. physique', n. (Fr.), the bodily form and

constitution. Pi'sa, p. n., an Italian city, 12 miles

from Leghorn. Pop. 26,000. The birthplace of Galileo. Plantagenets, p. n., pl., an English

dynasty. Including Henry II. to

Richard III., 1154-1485, 331 years. point'er, n., a dog which points out game. polit'ical, a. (G. polis, a city), belonging

to the State.

prism, or relating to a prism, which is a triangular piece of glass, like the

crystal drops of a chandelier. procon'sul, n. (L.), a Roman officer who

acted for the Consul; a Roman goverPuck, po n., a noted fairy; from the

Icelandic name for the evil spirit. punctil'ious, a. (L. punctum, a point),

attending to small points ; very exact. pur'suivant, n. (Fr.), a State messenger;

an attendant on a herald. putrefac'tion, n. (L. putridus, rotten ;

facio, to make), rottenness, corruption. pýr'amid, n. (G. pyramis, perhaps from pyr, fire, because of its rising in a pointed form), a square figure which

narrows to a point at the top. Pyrenees, p. n., pl., a mountain range dividing France from Spain. About 250 miles long, by 50 or 60 broad. Their highest peaks range from 8,000

to 11,000 feet above the sea level. quadrille', n., a dance made up of four

couples. quib'ble, n. (L. quid libet, what you please),

an evasion, a play on words; a making

words mean what you please. recognit'ion, n. (L. recognosco, to know

again); the knowing again. reconcilia'tion, n. (L. re and concilio ; lit.

to call together), the being reconciled or brought together again in harmony.


to believe) ; lit. having gone back from one's belief, false, treacherous,

cowardly. recurrent, a. (L. recurro, to run back, to

repeat itself), repeating itself at inter

vals. refract', v. (re, back, and frango, to break),

to send back rays of light at an

angle. refulgent, a. (L. re, fulgens, shining),

casting back a shining light; brilliant. reminiscence, n. (L. reminiscor, to re

member), a recollection; remembrance

of. ren'egade, n. (L. re, back, or again; and

nego, to deny), one who denies his faith or party; a deserter ; an apos

tate. reprehen’sion, n. (L. re, prehendo, to lay

hold of), blame; the laying hold of

by blame, or rebuke. representative, a. (L. re, presento, to place

before), one who represents, or stands

in the place of, another. repulsion, n. (L. repello, repulsum, to

drive back), the act of driving back or

away. res'ervoir, n. (Fr.), a reserve store of

water, resplen'dent, a. (L. re intens., splendeo,

to shine), shining very brightly. responsibil'ity, n. (L. re, and spondeo, to

promise), accountability, liability. retrib'utory, a. (L. re, again, tribuo, to

give), punishing or rewarding again for

acts done. reverb'erate, v. (L. re and verbero, to beat),

to beat or send back sound, light, heat,

&c. rudimentary, a. (L. rudis, rough), ele

mentary, simple. Sal'adin, p. n., Sultan of Egypt and

Syria. He was born in 1137, and died in 1192, at Damascus. He was victorious over the Crusaders, and took Jerusalem from them. Richard Cour de Lion afterwards took Acre and other towns from Saladin, A man of a

very noble nature. sa'lient, n. (L. saliens, leaping), prominent,

projecting: Samaritan, p. n., the people of the city

of Samaria, in Palestine. After the captivity of Israel, Jews and other nations united to repeople the city. Having been refused permission to take part in rebuilding the temple at Jerusalem, after the return of Judah from Babylon, they became the bitter enemies of the Jews as a race. This

hatred was as bitterly returned. sancťuary, n. (L. sanctus, sacred), a i


sacred place. san'guinary, a. (L. sanguis, blood), bloody. san'itary, a. (L. sanitas, health), relating

to health.

sarcophagus, n. (G. sarx, sarkos, flesh,

and phago, to eat; orig. a coffin made of a kind of limestone which was thought to consume the flesh of the dead),

any stone coffin. satur'nine, a., gloomy, heavy, unexcit

able; the temperament said' by astrologers to mark those born under the

planet Saturn. scep'ticism, n. (G. skeptomai, to consider,

to look into), the condition of doubt

ing. scoria'ceous, a. (G. scoriæ, ashes), of an

ashy nature; applied to the ashes cast

out from a volcano. scru'pulous, a. (L. scrupulus, from scrupus,

anxiety), fearful, nice, precise. scru'pulously, ad., with hesitation and

caution; with conscientious exactness. scrutiny, n. (L. scrutor, to search even to

the rags), a search even to the rags ;

minute inquiry. semi’-diameter, no, half the measure

across. sempst'ress, n., a woman who sews; from sens'uous, a. (L. sensus, a sense), coming

specially within the sphere of the

senses, or passions. sin'ister, a. (L.), lit. left, and hence of

evil omen; any thing appearing on the left side of a person being, in the opinion of the Romans, a presage of misfortune; unlucky, evil. slashed, a., slit, so as to show other

fabric below; an old fashion. sono'rous, a. (L. sonorus, clear, loud),

sounding. spasmod'ic, a., acting in spasms ; fitful,

irregular, violent. spec'ialise, v. (L. species, a kind), to

mention particularly, to single out. spec'ulum, n. (L.), a mirror. Spez'zia, p. n., a town of the former Sar

dinian States; 40 miles from Genoa. Shelley was drowned in the neighbouring bay, which takes its name from

the district and town. sprightly, a., spirit, or sprite like. stam'ina, n. (Latin word, pl.), strength. stri'ated, a. (L. stria, a streak), marked'

with thin lines or streaks. sublunary, a. (L. sub, under, luna, the

moon), earthly, belonging to what is

under the moon. subor'dinate, a. (L. sub, under, ordo,

ordinis, an order, a rank), inferior in

rank, &c. subterra'nean, a. (L. svib, under, terra, the

earth), under ground. superfic'ial, a. (L. super, over, facies, the

face), only on the surface, shallow. sym'phony, n. (G. syn, together, phonē, a sound), a concord, or sounding har

moniously together. synon'ymous, a. (G. syn, with, onoma, a name), meaning the same; some thing named together with another thing, as being of the same kind.


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unpronounce’able, a. (L. un, pro, and

nuncio, to speak, to announce), that

cannot be spoken out distinctly. unsubstan'tial, a., wanting in substance. unsympathet'ic, a. (G. sympatheia), show

ing no sympathy or feeling. unutterabil'ity, n. impossibility to be

uttered; utter is from the same A. S. root as outer.

taciturn'ity, n. (L. taciturnus, silent),

habitual reserve or silence.
tap'estry, n. (G. tapes, a carpet), hang-

ings of silk or wool, with carpet-like

figures, &c., worked on it.
tena'cious, a. (L. teneo, to hold), holding

fast, stubborn.
Ten'eriffe, Peak of, p. n., a mountain in

the island of the same name in the
Canary group, off Western Africa. It is

an old volcano; over 12,000 feet high.
terres'trial, a. (L. terrestris), of the earth.
the'orist, n. (G. theoreo, to look at, to

think of), one who frames theories or
views respecting matters.
thermom'eter, n. (G. therme, heat, metron,

a measure), an instrument for measur-
ing heat.
Ti'tan, p. n., one of a race of fabled giants

in the Greek mythology, sons of Heaven
and Earth, who made war against the

to 'paz, n. (G. topazos), a precious stone,

commonly of a brilliant yellow.
trachytic (G. trachys, rough), belonging

to the volcanic rock called Trachyte,

which is rough to the touch.
trans'itory, a. (L. trans, beyond, eo, itum,

to go), passing, going speedily away,
translu'cent, a. (L. trans, beyond, lux,

light), letting light pass through and
trep'ida'tion, n. (G. trepo, to turn), fear,

which makes one turn to flight.
trib'uneship, n. (L. tribus, a tribe), the

office of a tribune; lit. the chief of a
tribe. A magistracy appointed by the
Romans for the defence of popular
Trull'ibers, p. n., pl., Parson Trulliber is

a character in one of Fielding's novels,
unadul'terate, a. (L. un, not, ad, to, alter,

another), not changed to something else ;

pure, unmixed, undebased.
unadventurous, a., timid, cautious.
unavoidably, ad., inevitably; so that

there is no escaping it.
unbur'nished, a., lit. not made brown, un-

unoontroll’able, a., that cannot be con-

unmitigated, a. (A. 8.), un, not (L. mitigo,

to soften), unalleviated, unsoftened.

va'grancy, n. (L. vagor, to wander), the

condition of a wanderer; houseless,

unsettled beggary. Vancou'ver's Island, p. n. in British

North America, on the Pacific side. 300 miles long, 75 broad; climate like

that of England. Capital, Victoria. veloc'ity, n. (L. velox, swift), swiftness. ventila'tion, n. (L. ventus, wind), the cir

culation of air through a chamber, &c.;

public examination and discussion. veran'dah, n. (Sans, varanda), a covered

portico or shade to a building. vernac'ular, a. (L. vernaculus, a house

born slave), belonging to house-born slaves; native, natural, of the country

of one's birth. vertical, a. (L. vertex, verticis, the turning

point or top), exactly overhead. Vesuvius, p. n., a burning mountain,

3,950 feet high, near Naples. First eruption in historical times, A.D. 77. It continued active for nearly 1,000 years; then showed no signs of activity for nearly 600 years. It broke out afresh in 1631, and since then the eruptions have been more and more frequent, till they have become almost

annual. vetturi'no, n., a coachman or driver, from

vettura (F. voiture), a carriage, a ve

hicle. volute, n. In Architecture the rolled or

turned ornament on the head of pillars.

From L. volvo, volutum, to turn. way'wardness, n., wilfulness, being bent

on taking one's own way. weald, p. n. A.S.), orig. a wood or forest,

now an open country. wor'reting, a., a form of worrying ; fret

ting, teasing. Worret is not used now in correct speaking or writing.

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