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stanch, n., to stop the flow of blood ; a.,

constant; steadfast. steep, v., to soak; a., much inclined ; n.,

precipice. steer, v., to direct a ship's course ; n., a

young bullock. stem, v., to oppose; n., a stalk; the fore

part of a ship. stern, a., harsh; severe; n., the hind part

of a ship. stick, n., a thin piece of wood; 1., to

adhere; to stab. still, n., the apparatus for distilling ; a.,

quiet; v., to calm ; adv., to this time; con., notwithstanding. strain, n., a violent effort; a song sung ;

style ; tendency ; v., to sprain; to filter. succeed, v., to come after; to prosper. suffer, v., to endure; to permit. suit, v., to please; to fit; n., a set; a

petition; courtship; an action at law. swallow, v., to take into the stomach ;

n., a bird; the throat. table, n., a tablet; an index; an article

of furniture. tack, v., to alter a ship's course ; to join

together; n., a small nail. taper, a., slender and coming to a point ;

n., a small candle. tender, n., a ship attending another ship;

an estimate of cost; a., delicate; v., to

offer. till, n., a money-box; con., to a certain

time; v., to cultivate ground. toll, y., to ring a large bell ; n., a tax for

using a road. top, n., a boy's plaything; the head of

anything. treat, n., a pleasure conferred; v., to

negotiate. tumbler, n., a glass vessel ; a kind of

pigeon ; an acrobat. turtle, n., a dove; a kind of tortoise. usher, n., an under teacher; v., to intro

duce. vault, n., an arched room underground ;

V., to leap. vice, n., a smith's gripping tool ; gross (It.), Italian. (Ger.), German, (O. F.), Old French.

ring, n., a circle ; v., to sound a bell; to

sound. rock, n., a mass of stone; v.,

to move backward and forward. roe, n., the eggs of a fish; a female

deer. rose, n., a flower; an ornament of ribbon;

v., did rise. rue, v., to lament; to regret; n., a bitter

plant. rush, n., a marsh plant; anything worth

less ; v., to move forward with vio

lence. sack, n., a bag; a kind of cloak; a Span

ish wine; v., to plunder. sage, n., a wise man; a culinary herb. sash, n., a belt worn for ornament; a

window frame. scale, n., part of a balance; a small part

of the covering of a fish; a measure; a gradation; a gamut; v., to storm a

town by ladders; to peel off. seal, n., a sea-beast ; a stamp; v., to

fasten with a seal. season, n., a convenient time; one of the four divisions of the year; v., to make tasty ; to harden ; to dry (as of

wood). see, n., a diocese; v., to perceive. shaft, n., an entrance to a mine ; an

arrow; the pole of a carriage; handle

of a weapon; the body of a pillar. shed, n., a slight structure for shelter;

v., to cast (as a plant its leaves). shoal, n., a great swarm of fish ; a shallow

part in the sea, &c.; a., shallow. shore, n., a support; the sea-beach. shrub, n., a low dwarf tree; a mixture

of spirits, lemon-juice, &c. size, n., weak glue; dimensions. smelt, n., a small' fish ; v., to fuse ore;

perfect of "to smell.” sole, n., a flat sea-fish; the bottom of

the foot; a., only. sound, n., a narrow strait; noise ; part

of a cuttle-fish; a probe ; v., to try the depth of water; to make a noise; a.,

healthy. spirit, n., an intoxicating drink; the

soul; bravery. spring, n., a leap; elastic power; an elastic body; a fountain; the rise of any thing ; one of the seasons ; v., to grow up; to start; to rise.

a substitute. well, a., in good health ; n., a deep pit for

water, yard, n., three feet; the cross beam of a

ship's rigging ; the enclosure connected with a house.



The great fulness of the Notes in this Reader has left comparatively few words

Ap'ennines, p. n. pl., a chain of mountains which traverses Italy in its whole length from north to south. The highest peak is 9,521 feet high, but the general height is about 4,000 feet. The

chain is about 800 miles long. apoth'ecary, n. (G. apothēkē, a storehouse), lit. the keeper of a storehouse, a

licensed seller of medicines. apotheo'sis, n. (G. apo, from, theos, a God), the being raised from among men

and ranked among the gods. appall'ing, a. (L. ad and palleo, to grow

pale), terrifying, making one pale. appari'tion, n. (L. appareo, to appear), an

appearance. arbiter, n., an umpire, a judge. ar'borous, a., formed by trees (L, arbor, a

tree). arch'etype, n. (G. archē, the beginning,

typos, a pattern, a type), the first type,

from which others are formed. Archimē'des, p. n., a great Greek mathe

matician. Born at Syracuse, Sicily. Slain in the siege of the city by the

Romans, B.C. 212. as'inine, a. (L. asinus, an ass), ass like. assassina'tion, n., secret murder, from

hashishin, the name given to an Eastern clan of robbers who drank hashish, a

spirit prepared from hemp. assumption, n. (L. ad, to, sumo, sumptum,

to take), a claim, a taking for granted. Asteroid, n. (G. aster, a star, eidos, form),

a minor planet, having the form of a star,

for the Vocabulary.

(L.), Latin.
(F.), French,
(G., Greek.

(Heb.), Hebrew.
(A. S.), Anglo-Saxon.
(0. E.), Old English.

(P.), Portuguese.

or is

A prio'ri (L.), term used for a form of rea

soning, which, from certain premises, takes to be granted, beforehand, cer

tain conclusions. ab'scess, n. (L. abscessus), an ulcer, which

sloughs away. accom'plishment, n. (Fr. accomplir), what

finishes or perfects. acknowl'edgment, n. (A. S.), the owning

a knowledge of, the admitting or con

fessing. acquies'cence, n. (L. acquiesco), yielding

to, assent, compliance. ad'amant, n. (G. a, not, damao, to break),

a stone so hard that it cannot be broken,

the diamond. administra'tion, n. (L. ad, to, ministro, to

serve), the administering any trust, the serving or conducting the duties of any office. adum'brate (L. ad, and umbra, a shadow),

to give a foreshadowing of, to shadow

forth. adventi'tious, a. (L. ad, to, venio, to

come), accidental, what comes added to a thing, by chance. affin'ity, n. (L. afinitas), close relation

ship. aggrand'isement, n. (L. ad, to, grandis, great), the making greater in wealth,

power, &c. ag gravate, v. (L. ad, to, gravis, heavy), to add to the weight of, to increase, to

make worse. am'ethyst, n. (G. a, not, methyo, to be

drunken). A crystal of quartz of a bluish purple colour, of which cups were made by the ancients, in the belief that they prevented the drinker from becoming drunken. anach'ronism, n.(G. ana, up, back, chronos,

time). An error in date by which events

are misplaced. anal'ogous, a. (G. ana, according to, logos,

speech), similar, coming under one

class with. anarch'ical, a. (G. a, an, without, arche,

government), lawless, revolutionary. antedilu'vian, a. (L. ante, before, dilu

vium, a flood), belonging to the period before the Flood.

though small. asy'lum, n. (G. asylon, a refuge), a place

where one is safe. at'mosphere, n. (G. atmos, air, sphaira, a

sphere), the air. atone'ment, n., lit. at-one-ment, the making

into one, reconciliation, amends. Atticise, v., to imitate the fashions, &c.,

of Attica, the province of Greece of

which Athens was the capital. authentio'ity, n. (G. authentikos, original),

genuineness, authority, given to that

which is from an original source. Bal’der, p. n., the sun god in the Scandi.

navian mythology.


bandoleer', n., an old name for a mus

keteer. From Sp. bandolera, a broad leathern belt musketeers wore over their shoulder, to hang their muskets from, at their left side. It points to the time when_the Spanish infantry

was the first in Europe. bap'tism (G. baptizo, to dip, to plunge).

catalogue, n. (G. kata and lego, logos, to

write down), things set down and

arranged in a list. catechu'men, n. (G. katechumenos, one who

is being catechised or instructed in the rudiments of the Christian religion),

a candidate for the communion. cav'alcade, n. (L. caballus, a horse), a

company of persons on horseback. caveat, n. (3rd person sing. pres. sub.

of Latin verb caveo, to beware), let

him beware. centraliza'tion, n. (L. centrum, the centre,

centralis), the drawing to a centre. centrip'etal, a. (L. centrum, the centre,

and peto, to seek), a force which seeks or tends towards a centre, as in gravi

tation. centu'rion, n. (L. centurio), a Roman

officer, like our captain. He was nomi

nally over 100 men. certif'icate, n. (L. certus, certain, facio, to

make), a written guarantee of a fact;

written testimony to a fact. characteris'tic, n. (G. character, a mark, as

of a die), a distinguishing trait or

feature. Chili', p. n., a South American state,

stretching along the west coast in a thin line, bounded on the east by the

Andes. chime'ra, n. (G. chimaira, a she goat; orig. conchol'ogist, n. (G. kongke, a shell, logos,

În Constantine's time baptism was very often deferred to the last moments of life, from a superstitious idea that had gained ground that the rite had a magical effect in cleansing the soul from all sins. Another reason for such delay, with some, was that no after sin might stain the purity thus

supposed to be attained. barom'eter, n. (G. baros, weight, metron,

a measure), an instrument which tells

the weight of the atmosphere. beaker, (Ger. becher, Scotch bicker). A

drinking bowl or cup with a beak or

mouth, beleagʻuer, v. (Ger. belagern), to lay siege

to. bifurca'tion, n. (L. bis, twice, furca, a

fork), a division or forking into two. biogʻrapher, n. (G. bios, life, grapho, to

write), one who writes the life of

another, black-a-moor, n., a black moor, a negro. bluff, a., outspoken, almost rude. Brews'ter, Sir David, p. n., a Scotch

natural philosopher of high reputa

tion. Born, 1781 ; died, 1867. bronze, n. (Ital.), an alloy of copper and

tin, of a brown or burned colour. Būf'fon, p. n., a French count.

An eminent naturalist. Born, 1707; died,

1788. Bur'mah, p. n., a state of further India,

bounded on the west by the British Possessions, and on the east by the Chinese Provinces. It formerly had a long sea coast, but is now shut in from the ocean by British conquests. Pop.

about 3,000,000. busk'in, n., a half boot, anciently worn

by actors in tragedy. It had thick soles, to raise the wearer, which was necessary from the great size of the ancient theatres. Masks of a larger size than nature were also worn, partly to make the actor seem larger, partly that the voice might sound out better through the projecting lips, as through a speaking - trumpet. The

person (L. persona) comes from this. It means to sound through (the mask). A person was thus one

who spoke through an actor's mask. cal'ibre, n., the size of the bore of a gun,

the diameter or capacity of anything. cam'bric, n., very fine linen, first made at

Cambray, in Flanders.
Carac'tacus, p. n., or Caradoc. A British

king, taken prisoner by the Romans,
A.D. 52.

a fabulous monster), any wild scheme,

or fancy. chivalry, n. (Fr. cheval, a horse), the

rules of knightly courtesy. This meaning of the word rose from the use of the horse by knights; whence, also, cavalry. Chris'tendom, p. n. (A. 8. cristen, a chris

tian; dom, rule, sway), the part of the

world which professes Christianity. civilisa'tion (Fr. civiliser ; L. civis), the

opposit of barbarism; the arts and

culture of a settled state. clois'ter, n. (L. claustrum, claudo, clausum,

to shut), an enclosed place, the covered

interior walk of a monastery; a monascoherent, a. (L. con and hæreo, to stick

together; lit. sticking together), sen

sible, duly connected. coif, n., a covering for the head, a cap. columba'rium, n. (L.), a dovę-cote. commem'orate, v. (L. con and memor,

mindful, to keep in mind), to celebrate

the memory of. commu'nicate, v. (L. communis, common),

to share in common; to take the Holy

Communion. communica'tiveness, n., frankness, open

ness ; from the root COMMON (L. com

munis). compatible, a. (L. con and patior, to bear

with), suitable, consistent. comptroller, n., one who controls ; here,

an officer who issues stamps. concen'trate, v. (L. con, to, centrum, the

centre), to gather to a centre.

tery itself.


discourse), a student of the science of

shells. con'crete, a. (L. con and cresco, to grow),

grown together; a solid mass. condescen’sion, n. (L. con, descendo, to

descend), letting one's self down to an

act, or person, voluntary humiliation. confed'erate, n., con, together ; fædus, fæderis, a league ; one leagued with

another. con'jugate, a. (L. conjungo, to join to

gether), joined together. conservative, a. (L. conservo, to preserve),

opposed to change. constel'lation, n. (L. con and stella, a star),

a group of stars. consum'mate, a. (L. consummo, to perfect,

con and summus, the highest), in the

highest degree. constituent, n. (L. constituo, a part which

constitutes), a portion of a whole. constitu'tion, n. (L. constituo, to form),

the natural condition of one's mind or body; a form of government; the act of establishing ; the organization of

any thing. consulta'tion, n. (L. consulo, consultum, to

confer on a subject), joint consider

ation of a subject. contempt'uous, a., insolent, scornful. conversa'tion, n. (L. con and verto, to turn

together-hence, to have intercourse), intercourse, familiar discourse, con

duct. coun’terpoise, v. (L. contra, against ; 0.

F. poiser, to weigh, to hang), a counGod), the art of divining or foretelling,

from age.

terweight or balance. courtesy, n., the polite manners of a

court; politeness. crapaud', p. n. (F.), a toad; given in

vulgar rudeness as a name to Frenchmen, from their using frogs as an

of food. crucifix'ion, n. (L. crux, a cross, figo, to

fix), to nail on a cross, to crucify; a very ancient form of punishment practised by the Egyptians, Persians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and Romans. Among the Romans it was reserved for the worst crimes and the lowest grades of criminals, mainly for slaves. Hence it got the name of "a slaves' punishment.” No Roman citizen could

be crucified. cūm’ulus, n. (L. a heap), the clouds which

form great white masses in the sky. cycle, n. (G. kyklos, a circle), a great recurring period ; an orbit or circle in

the heavens. cyl'inder, n. (G. kylindros, a roller), a

roller-like body, round and hollow. debil'itate, v. (L. debilis, weak), to weaken. decanter, n. (F. décanter, to pour from),

a glass vessel from which wine, &c., is

poured out. decen'traliza'tion, n. (L. de, from ; centrum,

a centre), the loosening from a centre.

deci'pher, v., to translate from cipher,

that is, from secret writing; to dis

cover. decompose', v. (L. de and compono, to put

together), to separate into component

parts. decoʻrum, n. (L. decorus, what is seemly),

appropriate behaviour, propriety, mo

dest bearing. decrep'it, n. (L. decrepitus, noiseless, very

old), worn out, noiseless, and feeble, def'erence, n. (from defer, the deferring

to the opinion of another), respect. degen'eracy, n. (L. de and genus, generis),

the falling from or sinking below one's

kind, debasement, del'egate, n. (L. delego, to send as an am

bassador), a representative sent for

a special purpose, a deputy. delir'ious, a. (L. de, from; lira, a furrow),

light-headed, wandering in mind; lit.

getting out of the furrow. demean'our, n., bearing, behaviour. demonstra'tion. n. (L. de, monstro, to

show), unquestionable proof; outward

expression of the feelings. den'izen, n. (old Fr. deinzein), a dweller in

a place. depend'ency, n. (L. de and pendeo, to

hang), the hanging or depending on another; a province; opposite to what

is independent. depre'ciate, v. (L. de, from; pretium, price),

to lessen the value of anything, to dis

parage. despera'tion, n. (L. de and spero, to hope),

a state of despair, in which hope is

given up. despond'ency,n., dejection, down-spiriteddevelopment, n. (F. dévelloper), an unrol

ling, growth, gradual unfolding. diag'onal, a. (G. dia, across, or through ;

gonia, an angle), from corner to opposite corner across a square or many-sided body: dialec'tic, a. (G. dialectos, speech), belong

ing to a dialect or dialects, logical. diaphoretic, a. (G. dia, through, and

phoreo, to carry), causing or increasing

perspiration. dif'fidence, n. (L. diffidens, distrustful),

distrust (of one's self, or of persons or things). dil'atory, a. (L. differo, dilatum, to carry

asunder, to spread out), slow, delaying, putting off. dis'cipline, n. (L. disciplina, from disco, to

learn), instruction, obedience to strict

rules. discour'agement, n. (L. dis, priv., cor, the

heart; Fr.courage), that which destroys the courage, disfavour, what takes

away one's heart in a thing. diverg'ence, n., (L. dis, apart; vergo, to

tend), the going apart, separation,

going opposite ways. divina'tion, n. (L. divinus, from Deus


as if inspired by God. dogʻma, n. (G. dokeo, to think ; dogma,

what one thinks and utters authoritatively on a point), a doctrine, a reli

gious decree. draff, n., dregs. Dutch, p.n., of or belonging to Holland,

from deutsch, German, the Dutch being really Germans, and still retaining their old name. Germany is still called Deutschland.

ebullition, n. (L. e, out, and bullio, to

boil), the boiling over. ejacula'tion, n. (L. e, jaculor, to throw, to

dart), a word suddenly thrown out. elab'orate, a. (L. e, out; laboro, to labour),

worked out, finished, complex. elastic'ity, n., the quality of springing

back to a former position or state, e.g.,

in India-rubber. Elys'ium, p. n. (L.), the heaven of an

tiquity; any place of special delight. emancipa'tion, n. (L. e, out of; mancipium,

slavery), setting free. embroid'er, n., to border; to ornament

with needlework, em'erald, n. (G. smaragdos), a precious

stone of a bright green colour. em'phasis, n. (G. em and phaino, to show

strongly), stress on words to show the

meaning forcibly. emul'sion, n. (L. emulgeo, emulsum, to

milk), á milky white blending of oil

with another liquid. en'ergize, v. (G. en, in; ergon, work), to

work earnestly to an end; to breathe

vigour into. enfran'chisement, n. (Old Ger., frank,

free, through F. franche), the making

free, like a Frank. enlightenment, n., instruction ; the

making light in the mind where there

had been darkness. epidem'ic, a. (G. epi, upon; dēmos, the

people), affecting large numbers at a time: used as a noun of any disease

prevalent in any place for a time. ep'itaph, n. (G. epi, upon ; taphion, a

tomb), an inscription on a tomb. ep'ithet, n. (G. epi, upon; tithemi, to put

or place), a name fixed or put upon one. epitome, n. (G. epitemno, to cut short), a summary; a compendium embracing in abstract the essentials of that

which is epitomized. equanim'ity, n. (L. equus, equal ; animus,

the mind), evenness of mind. equilib'rium, n. (L. equus, equal; libra, a balance), an equal balance of weights

or influences, &c. escutcheon (L, scutum, a shield), a shield

with arms blazoned on it. Etna, p. n., a burning mountain in

Sicily, nearly 11,000 feet high. evapora'tion, n. (L. e, from; vaporo, to

send off vapour), the flying off in vapour.

exempʻlary, a. (L. exemplum, an example),

suited for an example. expostula'tion, n. (L. expostulo, to demand

earnestly), remonstrance ; reasoning

with. exterminate, v. (L. ex and terminus,

boundary; lit. to drive out of the limits

of a place), to uproot, to extirpate. extravagance, n. (L. extra, beyond; va

gans, wandering), the wandering beyond

bounds, excess, prodigality. ex'tricate, v. (L. ex, trico, hindrances), to

free from difficulties, to set free. fac'et, n., the face cut on a crystal. facil'itate, v. (L. facilis, easy), to make

easy All'ament, n. (L. filum), a thread. Alexibil'ity, n. (L. flexibilis, that may be bent), the condition of being easily

bent. flux, n. (L. fluo, fluxum, to flow), melting,

flowing: fop'pery, n., vanity, silly conceit; the

behaviour of a fop or affected dandy. fore'stal, v,, lit. to buy goods before they

are put on the stall ; to anticipate, to

come in before another. for'mula, n. (dim. of L. forma, a form),

a rule, a prescription, a little form. fran'chise, D. (see enfranchise), to grant

the privileges of a Frank, or free-man, to any one; to grant political rights,

such as voting, &c. fran'tically, ad. (G. phrēn, the mind), in

a frenzied way, distractedly, madly. frieze (0. E. frise, the rough nap on

cloth), the part of a building between the cornice and the top of the pillars,

often roughened with sculptures. Francis'can Order, an order of monks

founded by St. Francis, of Assisi, Italy (1182-1226). They were very numerous in England up to the Reformation. They were known by many names; Franciscans, from their founder; Minorites, from their assumed humility; Grey Friars, from the colour of their rags; Mendicants, from their

mode of life. fu'marole, n. (It. fumarola ; L. fumus,

smoke), a cleft or hole in the ground, which smokes ; found in volcanic re

gions. fu'siform, a. (L. fusus, a spindle ; forma,

a form), spindle-formed, tapering at each end.

[blocks in formation]
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