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9. The quality of mercy is not strained. Shakespeare.
12. There lay the rider, distorted and pale.—Byron. 15. When the verb of the predicate is transitive, -i. e., expresses action passing from a doer to a receiver or sufferer,it must be followed by an object; as,
He dismissed his councillors.—Milman. 16. The grammatical equivalent of the object is a noun in the objective case ; like the subject, it may be accompanied by attributes; as,
I will a round unvarnished tale deliver.—Shakespeare. 17. The object, like the subject (§ 8), may be any word or phrase equivalent to a noun; as, He then desired to be wheeled through his rooms.
:-Lockhart. The infinitive subject or object may have an object and adverb of its own; as,
He learned to speak French fluently. 18. The words conjoined with the verb, to modify or qualify its meaning, are called the adverbial; as,
The chief in silence strode before. --Scott. 19. The grammatical equivalent of this term is the adverb. It is frequently a single adverb; but it is often also an adverbial expression or phrase, as in silence in the last example; or,
He leans upon his hand.—Byron.
Henry bowed his head before his fate.—Milman. 20. The subdivisions of the predicate may be thus indicated :
Predicate =verb + object+ adverbial.
21. Examples of analysis with division of predicate into verb, object, and adverbial :
1. Mammon led them on.—Milton.
She quells the floods below.—Campbell. 6. I here fetched a deep sigh.—Addison. 7. The common impulse drove them onwards to the wall.–Gibbon. 8. Great skill have they in palmistry -Cowper. 9. By night, an atheist half believes a god. - Young. 10. Did ever knight so foul a deed ?—Scott. 11. Godfrey of Bouillon erected his standard on the first swell of
Mount Calvary.-Gibbon. 12. One man in his time plays many parts.—Shakespeare.
22. Some verbs, chiefly those denoting to command, request, declare, and perceive, are followed by a compound object, consisting of a substantive and an infinitive; as,
The general ordered [the artillery to advance).
The judge declared (the prisoner to be innocent]. This corresponds with the classical construction of the “accusative with the infinitive." It is also equivalent to a substantive clause (8 45), The general ordered [that the artillery should advance],—where the whole clause is the object of ordered.
Sometimes the infinitive to be is omitted, and the construction resembles that of an appositional complement ( 25); as,
The people considered [him guilty]; where the predicate might be taken to be, "considered guilty.” In the passive form, the substantive becomes the subject, and the infinitive remains as an infinitive complement (vide 26, 2).
23. Verbs denoting addition (give, teach, tell, 8c.), besides their direct object, are generally followed by a dative object, to denote that to which something is added ; as,
He gave a book to his son (his son a book). In the passive form, either object may be made the subject, the other remaining; as,
(a) A book was given (to) his son.
(6) His son was given a book. The dative object frequently denotes advantage; as,
Explain me this.- Berkeley.
Me = for my benefit. 24. Incomplete verbs, -i. e., verbs which do not by themselves make a complete predication,-must be followed by a complement; as,
Brevity is the soul of wit.
The Black Prince never became king. The substantive verb to be is the incomplete verb par excellence. It is, however, also used as a complete verb, to denote existence, as, God is, Can such things be?
The complement may be (1) a word in apposition with the subject or with the object, (2) an infinitive, (3) a preposition. 25. The appositional complement is used, 1. After a neuter verb; as,
William was Duke of Normandy.
William became King of England.
The view was magnificent.
The people made Paul a god.
To “make a god" expresses a single action, as much as to “deify.” Since the verb to make is the type of verbs taking this construction, this complement is sometimes called the factitive objective (from Latin factus, made).
3. After the passive of a verb of making, gc.; as,
Paul was made a god.
Here the complement is in apposition to the subject. Both subject and complement relate to the same person.
When the subject is placed after the verb, the pronominal particles it and there are used before the verb. In this construction, it and there are to be considered appositional complements ; as,
It was an English ladye bright.-Scott.
There be six Richards in the field.—Shakespeare.
a demonstrative adverb of place.
The whole assembly appeared to comply. 2. After a passive verb of commanding, requesting, &c. (22);
The prisoner was declared to be innocent. By the suppression of to be, this complement assumes the form of an appositional complement. 27. The prepositional complement is used,1. After an intransitive verb, to which it imparts a transi
tive force; as,
How came she by that light.—Shakespeare. Similarly, we have such expressions as to wonder-at, to come-to, to stand-by, which are transitive verbal phrases, and many of which, accordingly, admit of a passive form, to be wondered-at, to be cometo. The addition of a preposition to verbs otherwise transitive frequently gives them a new transitive meaning; as, to make-for, to meet-with, to think-of, &c. 2. After a transitive verb, to introduce a secondary object; as,
They accused the boy of theft. Here “boy” is the object of the verb accuse; " theft" is the object of the verbal phrase to accuse of.
Exercise 4. In the following sentences, distinguish the Complement from the Object, and state the precise kind of each :
Example. “ His lordship soon perceived me to be unfit for his service.”—Goldsmith.
“Me to be unfit for his service,” = Compound object.
3. The king was on his throne.—Byron.
Seemed to have known a better day.--Scott.
Against my sandy shallows.— Tennyson.
Of household fires gleam warm and bright.-Longfellow.
12. Thou dost preserve the stars from wrong.– Wordsworth. 28. There are three forms or degrees which the terms of a sentence may assume, –
a clause. 29. A phrase is a combination of words without a predicate, expressing a single idea ; a clause is a term of a sentence containing a predicate within itself; as, Word.
a wise man. Phrase. spring returning. a man of wisdom.
Clause. when spring returns. a man who is wise. Phrases are introduced by prepositions, clauses by conjunctions and relatives; as,
He departed on my arrival.
He departed when I arrived. 30. A sentence with only one predicate,--the rest of its terms being either single words or phrases, -is called a simple sentence. When any term of a simple sentence is expanded into a clause, –and thus introduces a second predicate,-the sentence is called complex; as, Simple. The lessons over, writing time began.-Dickens. Complex. When the lessons were over | writing time began.
The nature of the compound sentence and the distinction between the complex and the compound sentence, will be explained at a subsequent stage.