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but as the former of these are more generally raised from buds than from grafts, they will at first require a different treatment, namely, that of heading them down the first year. On this account they ought never to be planted later than the end of October, or the middle of November: this early planting will enable the trees to make fresh roots previously to the spring, when, in April, as soon as the buds begin to break out, they should be headed down to within three or four inches of the place where they had been budded. If the trees be good, there will be a sufficient number of eyes to produce as many shoots as will be required to furnish the head: should more than four be produced, they should be reduced to this number, of such as are the best placed. These must be allowed to extend at length without being shortened, nothing further being required than to cut out superfluous shoots, so as to keep the head uniform and handsome. If the heads of young trees be carefully attended to the first three or four years, they will rarely get into confusion afterwards; they must, nevertheless, be looked over frequently, as shoots are occasionally produced, through a local injury of the branch, which may require to be removed.
Espalier cherries, and those trained against the wall, require precisely the same management, both as to pruning and training. For this purpose, trees which have been grafted are always to be preferred to those which have been raised from buds: they must be cut back at the commencement, as directed for Apricots; but the branches, except in Morellos, must be trained horizontally instead of obliquely, and always continued at their full length. In Dukes and Hearts the branches should be eight or nine inches apart, beginning at the bottom of the tree, and continuing each additional shoot in a parallel direction, till the number of series the wall will permit be completed.
This mode of training will give a curved direction, more or less, after the first two or three on each side have been formed, to every additional shoot before it gains its horizontal direction; in consequence of which, lateral shoots must be secured from the last series in their ascent, in order to fill up the middle of the tree. After this there will be nothing further required than to cut off all additional shoots as they are produced, to within half an inch from whence they sprang: the month of May will be soon enough for the first pruning, and July for the second ; after which there will seldom be any more produced in that year. As the trees acquire age, the spurs will advance in length; but these must be kept within due bounds by cutting them out whenever they exceed three or four inches: by this means full sized and perfect specimens of fruit will always be obtained. Morello Cherries require a different mode of treatment: they are best trained obliquely, in the fan manner, the same as Apricots: their fruit is produced from the last year's shoots, and upon spurs from the older branches; but the younger those spurs the finer the fruit; so that all spurs above two years old ought to be removed. The Morello Cherry produces a greater number of shoots than any other variety under similar treatment. This induces many gardeners to crowd their trees with double, and sometimes triple, the number of branches which they ought to have, to the great injury of the fruit, without adding in the least either to the bulk or weight of the crop. In assigning some limit to this practice, I would recommend, that none of the branches should be trained nearer to each other than three inches, and from that to four and five, continuing the out-leaders at full length, as also those which follow at different distances;
insuring at intervals in every part of the tree a supply of young wood to succeed the extreme leaders. When the trees have attained their full size, these leaders should be cut out annually, in the winter pruning, in order to make room for the next succeeding branches.
By this means the tree will always be kept within its
proper limits, and possess strength and vigour to support and mature a heavy and abundant crop. Other particulars will be found where the Morello Cherry is described.
INDEX TO THE CHERRIES.
Ambrée e - - 1 Corone - - - 19
hamshire - - 26 Merisier a gros fruit noir 19
Merisier a petit fruit - 26 Royale - - - 7 Merry Cherry of Cheshire 26 Small Black - - 26 Milan - - - 12 Small Early May - - 5 Montmorency - - 11 Small Wild Black - - 26 Montmorency a gros fruit 11 Superb Circassian - - 17 Morello - - 12 Tobacco-leaved - - 27 Portugal Duke - - 2 Turkey Bigarreau - - 14 Quatre à la livre - - 27 Waterloo - - 13 Ronalds's large Black Heart 17 White Heart - - 28
The Currants most deserving of cultivation are the following : — 1. BLAck NAPLEs. Pom. Mag. t. 43. The superiority of this consists, not only in the larger size of the fruit, but in the clusters being more numerous on the bushes, as well as in each cluster bearing a greater number of berries. Cultivated in the Horticultural Garden at Chiswick. 2. CoMM on BLAck. Eng. Bot. t. 1291. 3. CHAMPAGNE, with pale red fruit. 4. LARGE RED, or RED DUTCH. 5. WHITE CHRYSTAL, with white fruit and large bunches. 6. WHITE Dutch, with yellow fruit and footstalks. The nurserymen’s catalogues contain other names, some of which are probably a repetition of the same fruit. There are indeed several worthless varieties of the Red Currant to be found in gardens, which ought to be rooted up, and replaced by the larger fruited. Where the currant is cultivated for the purpose of making wine, the White Dutch is to be preferred, as it is by far
the sweetest: and it is also superior in the dessert; but its bunches are not so large as those of the White Chrystal.
When it is grown for the dessert, the size of the bunches should be increased to the utmost extent of which they are capable. This can only be accomplished by management. Where bushes are injudiciously planted, and where they are suffered to become mossy and crowded with branches, the bunches are always small, and the fruit inferior in quality. On the contrary, where bushes are advantageously planted, and have plenty of room; pruned annually, divesting them of their old spurs, removing the young ones where they are too numerous, and keeping them thin of branches so as to admit plenty of sun and air, the bunches will be larger, and the fruit superior in size and flavour, in proportion to the care and judgment bestowed upon their management.
Currants are propagated by cuttings only, where good and handsome bushes are required; for this purpose, strong vigorous young shoots should be selected, which are straight, and about twelve inches of the lowest part of each made use of. The eyes from six or eight inches of each cutting should be cut out previously to planting, which will prevent suckers from being thrown up from the roots. When they have been two years in the nursery-bed, and have formed heads of four or five shoots, they may be planted where they are intended to remain, taking care to have a stem of eight inches, clear above ground, to each plant. Its cultivation is the same as the Gooseberry, which See. M