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manners, and not less intent on giving pain to their adversaries than on the discovery or the establishment of truth."
In the latter part of the same year, intelligence arrived in England that a murderous rebellion had broken out in Ireland, and the archbishop learned that he had been made to suffer by the general spoliation and ruin; but he was grateful for the personal safety of himself and family.
In the preceding March or April, the Irish had formed the project of casting off the British yoke, and their plan was to massacre all the English and protestants in the island; and, as persons of great influence amongst the natives were engaged in the conspiracy, and they had the assistance of some thousands of disbanded soldiers, they confidently expected success in their horrid undertaking.
The 23d of October was the day appointed for the general rising of the native population, and nothing can be more shocking than the account which Hume and other historians give of this savage insurrection: "When rapacity and vengeance had been fully exerted upon the property of the English inhabitants, cruelty, the most barbarous that ever in any nation was known or heard of, began its operations. No age, no sex, no condition, was spared; without provocation, without opposition, the astonished English, living in profound peace and full security, were massacred by their nearest neighbours, with whom they had long maintained a continual intercourse of kindness and good offices.
"But death was the slightest of the punishments inflicted by the rebels. All the tortures which wanton ferocity could devise, all the lingering pains of body, the anguish of mind, the agonies of despair, could not satiate revenge excited without injury, and cruelty derived from no cause. To enter into particulars would shock the least delicate. Such enormities, though attested by undoubted evidence, appear almost incredible. Nor were these barbarities perpetrated without a pretence of religion, and the countenance of its ministers. The English, as heretics, were marked out by the priests for slaughter, and it was pronounced meritorious to rid the world of these enemies to catholic faith and piety."
According to Burnet, in his Life of Bishop Bedell, a popish writer boasted that upwards of two hundred thousand thus miserably perished; the lowest computation is that of Hume, who estimates the number of the victims at somewhat less than forty thousand.
From such terrors and miseries the primate of Ireland was preserved by his absence from that kingdom: for there can be no doubt that the infuriate people would not have spared him if he had been at home, since they even seized bishop Bedell, and confined him in a damp and dreary prison, although they were not insensible to his exemplary conversation among them, his tenderness and charity, and told him that they loved and honoured him beyond all the English that ever came into Ireland, and that he should be the last to be driven out of that kingdom.
With the exception of the archbishop's house, furniture, and library, at Drogheda, which place held out against the rebels through a long siege, his whole property fell a sacrifice to these merciless plunderers; and he was reduced to the necessity of selling whatever plate and other valuables he had brought over, in order to supply the present wants of his family.
By one who had completed more than sixty years without having experienced privation, who was fond of quietude, and whose habits were studious, such a reverse as that which now befel him, must have been severely felt. But he knew where to look for support. The Bible,—" the Book of books," as he termed it,— taught him, in whatsoever condition he might be, therewith to be content; and, remembering the examples set before him of the patient endurance of affliction, he was satisfied to take up his cross, and follow the steps of his blessed Saviour.
We are told that at an early period of his life he had adopted, from some books which he read, a notion that affliction was a necessary mark of being a child of God, and earnestly prayed that he might be dealt with accordingly. And, although he was afterwards convinced of his error, and ceased to pray for chastisements, he considered that from the time of those prayers he was never altogether free from affliction of some sort. His advice therefore was, that no christian should tempt God to show such a sign for a mark of his paternal love, but wait and be prepared for them, bear them with patience, and turn them to good account by considering the purposes for which they were sent. And he added, that "we should by no means judge of a man's spiritual state by his portion of sorrow; but that we should judge ourselves by the fruits of a real sincere conversion and internal holiness, which are the only true evidences of a state of salvation."
His present affliction was much alleviated by the immediate opening of various channels through which the means of adequate subsistence might flow to him. The University of Leyden, when they heard that there was little prospect of his return to Ireland, sent to offer him a professorship, the stipend of which they were willing to increase if he should accept it. Even a papist, Cardinal Richelieu, promised him a kind reception in France, an ample pension, and freedom to exercise his own religion. But the king proposed to confer upon him the vacant bishopric of Carlisle, and as he had no disposition to settle in a foreign land, he gladly accepted that offer in preference to the others, although the revenues of the see seemed precarious according to the present aspect of affairs, and were so impoverished as to be inadequate to his maintenance without "some other helps," in consequence of the armies in the north being quartered upon the bishopric.
A few years after, when parliament seized upon the bishop's lands, they made a show of generosity, by voting for his use an annual pension of four hundred pounds ; but that payment was soon discontinued, and he probably did not receive it more than twice, if so often.*
In 1642 he resolved once more to withdraw himself from the tumults and heart-burnings of the metropolis, and to remove to his favourite residence at Oxford; and he found on his arrival that poverty did not make him
* The chief agent employed by parliament to dispose of the property of the See of Carlisle, was one Barker, of whom Walker relates the following particulars: he destroyed the woods, pillaged the castle of Rose, (the bishop's residence,) and carried off many of the stones to build his own house and barn. But in the next generation Barker's name was clean put out; for he died soon after the restoration, and his son and posterity, together with the house and lands are in a manner quite vanished: that is, the latter out of the name, the former out of the country. About the year 1645, Mr. Lowther, who had been constable of the castle of Rose, with about twenty or thirty men, endeavoured to keep it for the rightful lord, but he was soon beaten out of it by a party of Colonel Hevingham's regiment, who burned down the best and greatest part of it; in which condition it remains, says Walker, unrepaired to this day. For this, and other good services of the same kind, Hevingham and some of the rest of the officers had the lands and revenues of the bishop, dean, and chapter, for their debentures.
less welcome to his friends. Dr. Prideaux, the bishop of Worcester, lent him a house near Exeter college, at a very short distance from the Bodleian library, where he prosecuted his studies diligently, and prepared several works for the press.
The archbishop preached at one of the churches in Oxford every Sunday, and multitudes flocked to hear him. There was something remarkably simple and impressive in his sermons; he shunned that " windy affected sort of oratory, which was then much in use, called florid preaching, or strong lines ;" and, being gifted with a quickness of mind and ready command of language, he only wrote down the heads of the discourse, for which he had prepared himself by reflection, study, and prayer.
"I remember," says Dr. Parr, "that there was a person in the University, very much famed for that [florid] kind of preaching, who, after he had sometimes heard the lord primate's sermons, and observing how plain and yet moving they were, and being sufficiently satisfied that it was not for want of wit or learning that he did not do otherwise, he was soon convinced that his own was not the most ready way of gaining souls, and therefore, quitting his affected style and studied periods, took up a more plain and profitable way of preaching; so that, coming afterwards to visit the lord primate, he gave him many thanks, and told him that he had now learned of him how to preach, and, that since he had followed his example, he had found more satisfaction in his own conscience, and comfort in his ministry,, than ever he had before.
"And I remember one sermon above the rest, which he preached in Exeter college chapel, about that time, upon the text, Prov. xviii. 1. Through desire a man having separated himself, seeheth and intermeddleth with all