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ed, that the cultivation of cotton out the adoption of more effectual might be advantageously introduced measures, the adult class of negroes amongst the newly arrived Africans, will be induced to improve their preunder certain regulations. But that sent condition, which probably apthose Africans WHO HAVE BEEN SOME pears to them, when compared with the TIME LOCATED IN THE Colony, will past, a state of considerable enjoyever be induced to engage in it to any ment!” extent, on their own account, is greatly In Sierra Leone, our failure has to be doubted. Generally speaking, been most complete ; and I leave it to their mode of life is formed, and they you, sir, and to my readers, to say, appear to be satisfied with it. Where after perusing these facts and these such is the case, it will not be found proofs, what can be thought of Mr easy to induce laborious habits in pur. Kenneth Macaulay, who has had the suit of an object, to which neither temerity to come before the British their wants nor desires at present stie nation and assert, and attempt to mulate them.” (P. 75.) « In fact,” prove, the contrary !! say Messrs Savage and Gabiddon (the The situation of Sierra Leone, in latter a black man, and a Justice of every point of view, but more espethe Peace,)“ such employment” (a cially in an agricultural point of view, FIELD LABOURER !) “is considered has been stated to be the worst that degrading; necessity may compel him could have been pitched upon on the to undertake it; but that necessity Western coast of Africa for a British must be strong indeed that will make settlement. Let the Commissioners, him continue it for any length of time. and even Kenneth Macaulay himself,
of one month will keep him bear witness in proof of the fact. “GeFor sıx; and variety is the delight of nerally speaking,” say the Commisthe liberated African, because so dif- sioners, p. 5, " the valleys are conferent from his former condition.” tracted, and the ravines deep. The (P. 77.)
mountains are composed chiefly of Such are the liberated Africans, granite ; and the soil, although genetheir industry and their dispositions to- rally light and inadhesive, derives a wards industry! Such, it is repeated, transient fertility from the admixture are the liberated Africans in Sierra of vegetable matter; but its producLeone, and of the Nova Scotians, and tive powers are soon the Maroons; the Commissioners, p. The mountains are clothed to their 73, state, “the great majority of them summits with thick impervious woods were estranged from agricultural oc- and jungle, which shoot up through cupations; and it is stated by Messrs the interstices of the rocks, and from Savage and Gubiddon, (the latter him- the scanty soil which is formed by self a Maroon,) (Appendix, C. 26,) their own decay. When cleared and that as far as relates to the Nova prepared for the purpose of cultivaScotians and Maroon settlers, AGRI- tion, this mountain-soil makes, for
ONE SEASON, a satisfactory return; than it was during the administration but, having lost, by the process of of the Company and of Governor clearing, the support which had reThompson ! !"
tained it in its place, it is washed This is the sum of Sierra Leone away by the rains of the ensuing seaagriculture ! “ In short,” say the son, leaving only A ROCKY SURFACE, Commissioners, p. 55, “ the results unfit for the general purposes of agriof 18 years' experience, as exemplified culture.” in the condition of those liberated “The appearance of the settlement,” Africans, located in Sierra Leone, say the Commissioners, p. 7, seem to justify the inference, that viewed from the sea, forms a picturesque either the mode pursued, with the coup-d'ail; but the inquiring eye view of improving their condition by SEARCHES IN VAIN for those traces of AGRICULTURAL PURSUITS, has not cultivation, which denote the residence been judicious, or that their character of an agricultural people. The sponand habits are unfavourable to that
PRODUCTIONS of nature kind of improvement. However this alone present themselves," &c.! In may be, the RESULTS ARE IN THEM- short, “ the whited sepulchres” of an
INCONTROVERTIBLE, and cient times, are proper images of this leave little room to hope, that with fatal spot, --without,
CULTURE IS AT A LOWER EBB NOW
so beautiful to
the eye,” but within, "full of rotten- « could not well be pushed beyond ness, and dead men's bones ! !”
its present state.”. Besides, continues Let us now contemplate the picture, he, in fact, it has become ALMOST as drawn by the equally powerful and A PRIVATE AFFAIR !!” experienced pencil used by Mr Ken- How, and to whom, it has become a neth Macaulay, putting his words cu- private affair, let the Commissioners, riously, but correctly, together. In the page 81, state: “ NO PART OF THE high ground we have "grunite mountains," and ground which, as soon as it WITHIN THE LIMITS OF THE COLONY, is cleared of the “immense forest trees' and few of the liberated Africans are which grow upon it, is so washed by the employed by the traile; but there can rains as to leave only "a surface, which be little doubt that advantage is dehas the appearance of Gravel;” and, rived by the Natives in the vicinity in the low ground, we have, “ round of the rivers, from the occupation Freetown, several small plains of hard which it affords. This is exhibited in indurated claystone, covered with grass, the instance of the chief, Dalla Mawhich no man would ever think of hommadu,who is principally EMPLOYED cultivating ;” and in the more central in procuring timber for THE HOUSE OF parts, " a belt of thick forest of consi.
MACAULAY and BABBINGTON, from derable depth, BREEDING
which he is said to have received AND FEVER,” and which gives to “ the about L.500 for less than one half of immediate vicinity of Freetown AN the last shipping season. The advanASPECT OF DESOLATION !”
tage, however, it is to be feared, is not Two things were stated regarding the diffused generally amongst the people trade of the place; first, that the colony to the extent which could be desired. within its bounds did not produce one They are USUALLY THE DOMESTIC OR of the articles which were exported PURCHASED SLAVES OF THE CHIEF from it; and, secondly, that the whole, For WHOM THEY I.AVOUR, and by or nearly the whole, of the trade of whom the profits are either accumulathe settlement, was in the hands of ted, or EXPENDED IN AUGMENTING one powerful and influential mercan- THE NUMBER OF HIS SLAVES! It may, tile concern. To come to the proofs. therefore, be inferred, that no great
In reply to inquiries, the collector pecuniary benefit is obtained by the of the Customs of the place states, say labourers, although their condition is the Commissioners, p. 80 ; “with refe- probably ameliorated in other rema rence to the queries and answers, Nos. spects!!” 1 and 7, NONE OF THE ARTICLES EX. Here we have undeniable proofs of PORTED TO ENGLAND ARE THE AC- two things, namely, that the timber TUAL PRODUCE OF THE COLONY, BUT trade of Sierra Leone is " a private ARE COLLECTED FROM THE INTERIOR, affair"-in the hands of “ Messrs AND COASTways, and deposited here Macaulay and Babbington; and, notuntil they become of sufficient quantity, withstanding the racket which is made or until opportunities offer to ship in this country about the productions them !!", The timber trade, the most of slave labour being sinful, shamea valuable branch, say the Commis- ful, and contaminating, especially by sioners, same page, may possibly be members of that concern, still it is considered to have reached its maxi- seen that the Teake timber trade of mum,” for, says Mr M Cormack, who Sierra Leone is the production of slave first introduced it, “ I do not think labour, and that its proceeds go to the timber denominated African teake, augment the numbers, and increase or No. 1, will be procurable in suffi- the purchase of slaves ; while that very cient quantities for more than seven or house and the British Government eight years in this place ; from the cir- participate in the trade; for we learn, cumstance of the distance, the natives through the means of a babbling Sierra will have to haul it out of the woods; Leone advocate, “ Mr FORSTER, No. and, from the state of the country, it 8, New City Chambers, London,” that is impossible to use carriages of any Government receive this Teake timber description; and I do not think the na- upon contract, and, consequently, from tives would be disposed to make roads, the house alluded to. This contract at least at present.” “ The timber is a national document, which will ere trade,” says Mr Williams, p. 80, long be called for and produced, VOL. XXIII.
After having been purchased from tribute to an UNDUE INFLUENCE gainthe native Princes, this timber is put ed by the merchants of the former on board the ships principally by the place, through the mediam of the labour of Kroomen. Of these un- presents dispensed from Sierra Leone happy people, who yet remain, without by the Colonial Government. Those a single exception, in their native dark presents, they say, though designed to and barbarous state, the Commission- induce the Chiefs of the gold districts ers, p. 17, state—“ It has not been the to favour commerce generally, have had fate of the Kroomen to have much in- practically the effect of turning to tercourse with the individuals who Sierra Leone the gold traders who were likely to bestow much pains upon FORMERLY RESORTED TO THE GAMtheir moral and religious improvement; No presents being made from ON THE CONTRARY, they have been this place, it becomes the interest of employed chiefly by Those to whom the Chiefs to use THEIR AUTHORITY they have been recommended by THEIR in promoting the trade of the other PHYSICAL CAPACITIES AND DISPOSI- settlement, from which they derive TION FOR LABOUR. It could not, the greatest advantage; this authority, therefore, be expected that much time IN SOME INSTANCES AMOUNTING TO or attention would be bestowed upon FORCE, has, according to the statethe improvement of their mind by such ment of the Gambia merchants, been persons, who, although they find it exerted greatly to their prejudice !" profitable to employ them in preference The sums charged against, and to others, acknowledge their urter drawn from the British Treasury, and WANT of morality and religion !" expended in these presents, are, we
How often, I am here compelled learn from the Commissioners, p. 86, to remark, have the West Indian Co- between the years 1814 and 1825, lonists been reproached, unjustly re- L.9,945, 15s. iod. sterling, while the proached, and by Mr 2. Macaulay, vouchers that were produced could
Z. with considering and estimating their only show L.6,928, 68. 8d.!! Those
. slaves only according to their phy. large sums were expended in presents
" sical capacities and disposition to la- to the native Chiefs in the interior, bour," while his agents and his house as the Commissioners and merchants are really pursuing the same system of St Mary's very pointedly state, by with the Kroomen!!
the Colonial Government, as directed The Gold Trade of Sierra Leone is by Mr Kenneth Macaulay; and who, next in importance to the timber trade. by this “undue influence,” drew, not Let us see in whose hands it is, and only the gold trade, but the most vahow those hands came to obtain the luable branches of every other trade, whole of it.
to his house; for, say the Commission“ The trade in this article," say ers, p. 83, the merchants there “as. the Commissioners, p. 79, “ is of re- cribe the superior success of what they cent origin, having commenced in term THEIR FIRST House, to the pos1822; and if the opinion generally en- session of more extensive means, as tertained by the OTHER MERCHANTS well as to what they consider an unbe correct, it is chiefly possessed at DUE ADVANTAGE derived by the PRESENT BY THE FIRM OF MESSRS AGENT of this house from his seat in MACAULAY AND BABBINGTON; that the Council. The feeling of jealousy house must, therefore, be considered entertained on this account by the most capable of estimating the quan- other merchants, appears to be not tity exported. Mr K. Macaulay com- ILL FOUNDED." putes it to have been to the value of . Thus, sir, we have seen developed between L.20,000 and L.30,000 dur. the secret of the increase of the Sierra ing the year 1825," &c. How that Leone trade so loudly and so often house come to be masters of the gold bruited abroad in this country from trade, let the merchants of St Mary's, certain sources--a trade which, while Gambia, through the Commissioners, one concern obtains L.100,000 in gold
“ The merchants of St at the expense of the profits and the Mary's” assert, " that in proportion exertions of less favoured merchants, as the gold trade of Sierra Leone has that honest, simple, plodding ass, JOHN increased, that of Bathurst has dimi Bull, pays L.10,000 out of his pocket NISHED. This circumstance they ate to enable them to obtain it !!
p. 79, tell.
Let all these facts be considered, Macaulay, page 59, “ I have myself and say wherein I have misrepresents seen a Maroon, a Nova Scotia settler, ed the situation, or brought one false the son of a native chief, a Grumet accusation, or one erroneous charge, ta, a Krooman, and a liberated Afri. against Sierra Leone, or those who as- can, working in the same GANG. They sume the control of it. To blacken are confined by a chain passing round it is impossible.
the Middle; and generally two, someThat the liberated Africans in the times three, but I believe seldom or place are compelled to work by the never more, are fastened to the same application of the whip, has been sta- chain !" ted. I am ready, and offer, to prove This country has been surfeited the fact. The Commissioners india with the boasts about the advantages rectly admit this, when, in page 55, which the liberated, and other Afrithey state, that to make thein work, cans, enjoy under the blessings of
mild coercive power seems English law in Sierra Leone. The necessary. But this power should whole is a farce. The Commissioners not be, as IN SOME INSTANCES IT draw aside the veil of delusion. At
page 91, they state,
or when it is asBEEN, LEFT IN THE HANDS OF PER- serted that the English laws are uniSONS LIKELY TO ABUSE IT. I hold versally in practice, it is to be under. in my hands a communication from stood that they are in practice, but the place, dated the 28th May last, modified by the dispensers of them, which runs thus: “ Those liberated so as to meet the general circumstances Africans that are obliged to work for of the colony, and THEIR OWN view the public good, are employed in care of the merits of each particular case !!" rying stones, or bricks, for public That is, men who are totally ignorant buildings; or learning some trade, as of what law is, make it what, and apmasonry, and shingling house-tops, ply it just as, they please ! Under such or the like, and require to be kept a state of things, the Commissioners to their labour by the dread of the justly and forcibly observe, “the law whip; even under this discipline, I must, for a long time, be so only in HAVE seen them idling when the NAME!!"-"A
certain control is reeye of the whipper-in was turned in quisite to prevent their” (the libeanother dir ion. This man of the rated Africans) “ return to their forcord is a black invariably. I have mer habits. This control is, in fact, at often scon one in the wharf when a PRESENT EXERCISED; and, although vessel was unloading, WITH THE CAT tending eventually to their good, must IN HIS HAND, and I have asked him be quite AT VARIANCE with the spirit what use he made of it. I received for of the English law,” &c. Thus the reply-Suppose The Slave no work Sierra Leone bubble is burst, and good, you know, I can flog him.' This thus the truth concerning it comes, he said with a savage pleasure, and piece-meal, as it were, to light! accompanied the words with a smile, That such a place could ever do any and flourish of his whip! What is good, even to degraded Africa, is a this better than slavery? or is it as dream; and that it has been a fatal good treatment as the slaves in the one to the interests of Africa, we learn West Indies receive under the present from one decided and incontrovertible administration !!”
fact mentioned by the Commissioners, The whip and chain, it is clear, are p. 19, namely, that though their tercommon in Sierra Leone. “ The pu- ritory almost lines with the gardens of nishment for minor crimes," say the Freetown, still "no instance could be Commissioners, in page 58, is “hard traced of a Timmanee having been labour in chains. It is by no means CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY. This, uncommon at Freetown to see thirty however, cannot be attributed to any or forty culprits chaiNED IN PAIRS, invincible attachment to their present and employed in a desultory kind of superstitions, as many are said to have labour," &c.; and, says Mr Kenneth become converts to the Mahommedan
* A GRUMETTĂ, is the African name for a household slave, or a slave born in the family. How come such to be found in Sierra Leone ?
faith, which is supposed to be making and, secondly, the sums of money considerable progress among them." which have been paid for the value, These poor people are to this day the for the bounty, and for the maintemost ignorant and rude of all the nance of captured negroes. It is ne tribes of Western Africa, although cessary, however, to remark, that the they have been near 40 years in sight sums paid for the maintenance of of the light established in Sierra Leone! these idlers in the West Indies, can.
The ignorance of the liberated Afri- not be accurately ascertained from can is extreme. “His age, the length any returns which have yet been pro of time he has resided in the colony
or duced ; and therefore the undivided the village, the quantity of land he estimates, or sums drawn, are taken as has in cultivation, of seed which he the data to bring out the total amount. sows, of produce which he reaps, or Moreover, the details under the heads, the number of months or weeks which the Army, the Ordnance and the Bar. he is employed in its cultivation," are rack Department, do not particularize all, say the Commissioners, equally Sierra Leone; consequently under these unknown to him. Time he only com- heads, the expenditure is incomplete. putes by accidents or particular events, What are produced, however, with such as when he built his house, or be official and particular references, will gan the cultivation of a certain piece I doubt not, astonish you and the of land, by stating who was his super- country in general. intendent at the time. Few of them, The forts on the Gold Coast, were, says Mr Gerber, page 43,“ will la- by the advice of the Sierra Leone adbour upon their farms, unless they vocutes, made dependencies upon that were by some means FORCED TO DO fatal place in 1821. From that year, so!" To reclaim them, we send a set · therefore, let us trace the expenditure, of men about as ignorant of human civil, military, and naval, of the prince nature, and as deficient in common ly place. The Quarterly Review (good sense, as themsēlves; in consequence authority) states the expenditure unof which, we have laboured, and still der the naval head to be HALF A MILlabour, in vain.
Lion annually! The whole of this Were it possible to bring together expenditure is properlycharged against the enormous sums of money which Sierra Leone, because the navy staSierra Leone and its miserable depen- tioned on the coast of Africa, is altodencies, together with those which Li- gether employed in capturing slave berated Africans, in various places, and ships, and bringing these into that in various ways, have cost this coun. settlement, in order to people and to try, the sum total would fill it with enrich it. But for this, it is clear astonishment and indignation. But that Sierra Leone had long since been this can only be done by those who abandoned, as the few whites, Mahave access to all the details of every roons, and Kroomen, who remain there, public account which has been liqui- remain only to make money by their dated by the British Treasury during dealings with and for the captured the last thirty-five years :-nay, so negroes. Besides the expensive Slave numerous are the charges for these Commissions in different places, we purposes, and so much are they inter- have had Commissions of Inquiry, woven with the accounts of every de- such as that to the West Indies, to partment, in every year during the inquire into the state of the Africans period mentioned, that I doubt if all liberated there. Each of these comthe clerks in the employ of Govern- missions cost this country many thoument could now draw them forth. sands annually the latter above Special funds have even been created L.3000, and the former upwards of for this and similar purposes, where L.18,000. With these observations I the amount, without the details, are proceed to the details of the expenonly given. Referring to my first diture, &c. for the period alluded to ; letter for a general view of this expen, remarking, that brevity compels me diture, I shall bring before you and to omit the full particulars of the first the public, from a more narrow re- four years; but they are drawn up search into public records ; first, the from the same careful reference to the expenditure of Sierra Leone and its Parliamentary Papers for each year, dependencies for the last seven years; as done with the three last years :