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Khan had one, I am told, probably 18, 19, and 21, of their Report, and the
equal to his brother's in Bakhara. What general character of that population,
might the number be? said I to an in- as drawn by Mr Kenneth Macaulay
formant. That I cannot exactly state, himself:
because, though scattered, they were
so numerous, was the reply; but, Europeans,

113 judging from the progeny, they must Nova Scotians,

578 have exceeded in number both Solo- West Indians and Americans, 141 mon's queens (60), and concubines Maroons, (80); and, added he slyly, they keep Discharged soldiers,

949 no virgins in the Harems at Sierra Liberated Africans,

10,716 Leone!!--The progeny of this Khan, Natives,

*3113 what might the number be? said I. Why, judging from what I saw, three

Total, 16,246 or four here, and three or four there, at school, and at other places, and exclusive of the military. Of this hefrom what I was informed by good terogeneous mass, Mr Macaulay says, authority, were daily coming into the pp. 16, 17, and other places ; First, of world, and growing up in it, the num- the military, that they are commuted ber might approach to Fifty!!-What men," whose pass-word “ is a merry would the Emigration Committee say, life and a short one,” while their were Great Britain and Ireland peo. white wives are such characters as pled with men of this stamp? “ do not require the immoral habits

The proceedings just noticed may be of Sierra Leone to degrade" them. the speediest and most effectual way Secondly, “ the lower class of Euroof improving the population of Africa; pean adventurers are seldom men of yet not being one of the enlightened, good character. Intemperance is their I cannot take it upon myself to deter- besetting vice.” Thirdly, Mr Raban mine how far it is proper to do as they says of the higher ranks of Europeans do, namely, “ evil that good may in the place, that “ come;" and although the Missionary TIAN LIVES” led by“ too many” of Register and Parliamentary Reports them tend to demoralize by their exmay omit the fact, yet it is true, that ample the untutored Africans. Fourthwherever anything like a ready pro- ly, Mr Macaulay tells us of the nagress in education is evinced, or seen in tives, that they are “ Mahommedans the schools in Sierra Leone, supported and Pagans, quite INDIFFERENT TO wholly by the British Treasury, it is CHRISTIANITY;" and Kroomen, with amongst the coloured children of the whom “no inducement can prevail to Whites and the Mulattoes that this is relinquish their native superstitions ;" seen; a decided proof of the superiority and lastly, Liberated Africans, who are of European intellect over African. generally “ in the lowest state of igOne of these schools, said an inform- norance and DEGRADATION, the bad ant, is nearly filled with children of subjects of barbarous states, ENSLAS this description; and several of them VED FOR CRIMES!!readily answered to the name of Mac- These classes composed the popula. aulay, so called, no doubt, in honour tion of Sierra Leone, and such anof some venerable patron of that place, other collection was never gathered or patriarch of that name.

into one place by any rational peoI should not again have troubled

ple!! you on this disgusting topic of Sierra Sierra Leone is, without exception, Leone vices, had not Mr Kenneth the most immoral and vicious place Macaulay and his friends, as unneces- on the face of the earth, unmatched sarily as unguardedly adopted the Afrie by any other place, even in Africa. can mode of defence which they have Disgusting assaults upon female indone.

fants, say the Commissioners, p. Here it will be proper to state the 98,“ have of LATE been frequent.” number and the classification of the Amongst the various colours, white, population of Sierra Leone, April 1826, yellow, and black, whic as given by the Commissioners at pages the population, “ concubinage” is gem

THE UNCHRIS

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Vol. XXIII,

* Or this number about 1200 are Kroomen.

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neral and pre-eminent, and immoral- monkeys. The Parliamentary Com ity conspicuous. The superior classes missioners, in their Report, justly obwho can afford it, buy these concu- serve, that in this settlement, teachers bines from the natives in the interior of religion are employed who are parts. Their price reaches as high as more likely to excite enthusiasm thirty dollars, not, however, always than to instil morality.” At one of paid in cash, but in rum, beads, baft

, these conventicles superintended by gunpowder, &c. The Mandingo girls, native preachers, amidst a pathetic being the most handsome, are gene- harangue by one of the orators, as I rally

preferred. When at Sierra Leone have been informed, a black female upon a trading expedition, such fa- threw herself on the floor, and rolling thers who may have numerous fae along, with her garments, upper and milies of daughters, generally take the nether, enveloping her head, she bawlorder to bring back a daughter or ed out, that she had found the daughters, on their return. These fe- Lord!” Several of the congregation males, once purchased, dare not return rose and offered to bear her out of to their paternal homes, unless put the chapel, but the preacher comaway by their purchasers and protecte manded them to desist, declaring that ors for alleged inisconduct. The high- IT WAS A GLORIOUS sight! er ranks have generally coloured fe- Mr Kenneth Macaulay flies at me males as concubines. With one co- in a towering passion, because, as an lour or other, or with both colours, instance of the unblushing immorali. all the males are provided. The pick ty which is practised in the settleof the Liberated African girls are taken ment, I stated, that “ General Turner and cast off as passion, whim, or a love was scarcely laid in the dust, till the of variety dictates.

house which he had inhabited swarmAmongst all ranks of the black and ed with inmates” of a certain descrip coloured female population, but more

tion. “ This,” says my angry oppoespecially in Freetown, prostitution is nent," is a personal attack upon my. undisguised and regardless. The mo- self. To this accusation I give a most ther readily sells the daughter to the unqualified denial. It is AN INFAhighest bidder, or, as may be, to any MOUS FALSEHOOD, and in proof of bidder. Such is the pitch to which this I appeal to the whole colony !" depravity has reached in the place, 'Big words are easily penned, and that, as I have been informed, the “ unqualified denials” are readily giblack husband quietly retires at the ven ; and from a Sierra Leone chama command of his rib, while in his own pion, I am prepared to expect everyhouse she earns the cut money, or the thing that wears a face of brass, or a dollar, by the prostitution of her per- countenance of hypocrisy. While I do son! This climax of degradation is not state, as I am not called upon to reserved for this new earthly paradise. state, the name of any individual, or In no other quarter of the British do that it was Mr Kenneth Macaulay minions, are such scenes or such con- who collected an assemblage such as duct to be met with or heard of. that which was alluded to, I must nem

Idleness, drunkenness, and debauch- vertheless still reiterate and affirm the ery, prevail to an extent scarcely credi- fact--a fact known to “the whole coble, and this without one redeeminglony." Mr Macaulay ought to have point in the human character. Religion been aware, that the coarse and the in Sierra Leone is a name "a tink- false epithet which he has chosen to ling cymbal, and the sounding brass.” apply to the statement which I had The scenes which take place in assem- made, would not be tamely submitted blies where the blacks are addressed unto. How judiciously he has acted, by native preachers, are truly frighte in compelling me to recur to this suba ful to contemplate or to dwell on. ject, will appear, as I proceed in rem Even in the chief church, Europeans freshing his memory with names and are disgusted with the scenes which circumstances, which may serve to they witness, when they behold, as I convince him, and others of that ilk, am informed they have beheld, during at the ss that is said by any of the solemn service, the liberated and them on such subjects the better ; and other blacks stalking about without that more is known of Sierra Leone decency, and sitting making faces at secrets, than Sierra Leone advocates each other, like so many mischieyous are aware of.

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After General Turner's death, did pretends to know everything that not the free-labour female, MARO, passes in Sierra Leone, answer these march from a distance to resume her questions, and refute, if he can refute, place as a Sultanah ? I ask this ques- these statements, before he again dares tion at Mr Macaulay, because I be- to pronounce one statement which has lieve he can solve it. Moreover, there been made about such subjects, “ an was a day when a Sierra Leone Khan, infamous fulsehood." Does he, or any or chief, had a party at his house. of his associates in abuse and arro. From some mishap or other, a Harem gance, wish me to cut deeper and wia had on that day broken loose,-as it is der? Let them beware lest I do so. supposed, by overpowering its keeper, In defence, for such I must call it,

in the gallery stood a round half of the scandalous immorality of the dozen damsels, peeping over it, eyeing place, Mr Macaulay, p. 43, actually the guests, giggling at them as they en proclaims that there is no distinction tered, and at the same time attracting between virtue and vice, thus :-“The the

gaze of a considerable number of woman who there lives with one man, spectators collected in the neighbour- in unauthorised intercourse, does not hood. The guests remonstrated with thereby lose' caste' so completely, nor the chief upon the indelicacy and im- sink so deep in depravity, as one sipropriety of such a public exhibition, milarly situated in this country. This and earnestly begged that the legion SPECIES OF CONCUBINAGE does not might be relegated to its proper place, cause that total renunciation of moral which was readily admitted and as- feeling and conduct, which too often sented to, and the black swarm ac- follows it here; and MANY who are licordingly driven off to their proper vingin such A State look upon themcorner. Amongst the females present selves as virtually married, and would on this occasion, there was one name consider UNFAITHFULNESS to their ed Actooa, who had a considerable KEEPER as great a crime as if it were squint in one eye; and Mr Kenneth committed against a lawful husband !" Macaulay, who was, I believe, present, I merely stated, that such practices may remember how one of the gentlea were common; but it was left to this men of that party, who also squinted “ex-acting Governor,” Mr K. Macaua little, was jeered by the rest with lay, to publish a defence of this system being on thataccount Actooa's brother! of pollution, and nereby to fix a deeper

I do not say that this took place in and a blacker brand upon the forehead Government House, when Mr Ken- of the place and the system. neth Macaulay was

acting Govers Into the details of the immoralities nor,”-remember I do not say this; and vices, which are so prevalent in but I affirm that it did take place in a the place, it was not to be expected house inhabited by a predecessor of that the Parliamentary Commissioners the present Khan," or governor. would enter very deeply; but they

Besides, I must demand of Mr Ken- have stated sufficient to confirm, to neth Macaulay, Does he not know two the fullest extent, all that has been seemly liberated African girls, natives advanced in my foriner letters.“ The of Accra, who were, within the me- neglect of public worship,” say the mory of man, concubines to a man in Commissioners, page 65, is very prepower in Sierra Leone ? One of these valent amongst the resident Eurowas named Arfood, and the other, peans; and to this may in part be atthe handsomest and the best-beloved, tributed the non-attendance of many KOCKQUO. I use the African names, who might be influenced by their exof which it is difficult to be accurate ample.” The “ congregation,” say in the orthography. The latter was they, which attended the Rev. Mr Ramet at Sierra Leone by an informant, ban, the only clergyman of the estawho had previously met her in a less blished church in the place, did not fortunate and prominent situation. on any occasion exceed 12 Europeans, She was eneiente at the latter period, 15 persons of colour, the military, and the honour of which she said was and a part of the children who attend due to “ de Goburnar."

the school.* The fact, as I have al. Let Mr Kenneth Macaulay, who ready stated, is, the whites in the

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The Missionary Register for May 1826, p. 261, states the attendance upon Mr Raban to be 200 Europeans and 50 people of colour !

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place rettre upon Sundays to the Bul- habits which they seemed to have laid lam shore, there to spend their time in aside. Instead of rising in the scale of revelling amongst black females of a moral improvement, or even continuing certain description," and I have seen at the point to which they had been these women,

said an informant, brought in their former secluded si“coming into stores in Freetown upon tuation, THEY SINK nearly to the level the Monday morning following, to ob- of those about them.” tain the payment of their preceding Such is the moral state of this ca. day's services in beads, baft, or articles pital of British Africa--so horridly of dress, according as were required, vicious and corrupt, that it corrupts, or that had been agreed upon. degrades, and debases even the libe

“ The progress of morality,” say the rated African, who was but yesterday Commissioners, page 66, amongst brought from his native wilds, and the coloured classes, is not to be estie who is scarcely one degree removed mated by their regular attendance at from the most debased and savage public worship. În the villages, the state ! elergymen, or teachers who occasionally It will not be denied, that the Af. officiate as such, have generally been rican population of Sierra Leone were, also local SUPERINTENDENTS. It nay are, savages, with feeble intelwill readily be conceived with what fa lects, and sunk in the lowest state of cility an attendance at worship could, ignorance and moral debasement. under these circumstances, be insured. With a knowledge of these facts, it But, when it is remembered that a is not necessary that an European great part of those who attend DO NOT should visit the place in order to COMPREHEND EVEN THE LANGUAGE learn what such a set of savages, supin which they are addressed, it will ported in idleness, and thrown loose excite no surprise that they should amongst a set of graceless moneyhave derived little benefit from the hunting Europeans, would be followlessons inculcated. At Freetown, si, ing and attending to. Common sense milar results may in part be attributed would teach us to know, that without to the unrestrained ministration of forsaking their native superstitions individuals, some of whom, however and grovelling immoralities, they good their intentions, are more likely would learn, as they do learn, and as to excite enthusiasm than to instil they have learned, all the vices of the morality. Were the prevalence of the immoral European, and to practise domestic virtues to be judged of by these as they are practised in Sierra the number of marriages, a comparison Leone, by these Africans in particular, of these returns would place Freetown with their native grovelling bestialiin an UNFAVOURABLE point of view. ty. The European must rank below It is not, however, to be inferred, that the meanest schoolboy in knowledge the morality of the villagers is thereof human nature, who does not ape fore of a higher standard. For, when preciate correctly the real state of Sithe circumstances of the liberated Af- erra Leone, the character and purricans, and the manner in which mar- suits of its population; and detect the riages are contracted amongst them, impudent fabrications which are cire are considered, THIS INSTITUTION, culated so widely and so profusely over so far as it regards them, will be found this country concerning it, although a FALLACIOUS CRITERION.” Indeed so such an European had never personaldreadful is the moral pestilence which ly visited the pestilential and vicious is engendered in the Freetown atmo- spot. sphere, that the Rev. Mr Raban says, At the risk of some repetition, it is (page 66,) speaking of those liberated due to you and to my subject to point Africans who leave the villages to re- out a few specimens of the utter ignoside there, “it is much to be feared, ance, or unpardonable disregard for they, being freed from the salutary truth, which characterises the pages of restraint exercised over them in the my Sierra Leone opponent. villages, and settling AMONG THE The individual, however, who deHEAThen, have fallen again into those means himself so far as to fabricate,

9

The Sierra Leone name for that office, which is known by the name of “ Bookkeeper,” in the West Indies, and “ Conducteur" in Haiti.

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as Mr Macaulay has done, official General's nephews. “General Turdocuments, in order to support his ner,” says Mr Macaulay, p. 77,“ took statement, and controvert his oppo- out two nieces, Two Nephews, and nent, is an antagonist scarcely deser- two aides-de-camp.” &c. Here then ving notice. Mr Macaulay has done we have, by Mr Macaulay's admission, this, and I here repeat the proof. two nephews ; and besides these, Ge

: Adverting to the expenditure for the neral Turner took out with him liberated Africans, he, pages 14 and lation named Martin Turner, who 15, proceeds thus :-" According to was appointed Superintendent of Kisthe Parliamentary return, No. 389 of sey town, and who died there. Thus, 1826, the expense subsequently to Mr Macaulay's book refutes Mr Maca 1813 was as follows:

aulay's preface!

“ The circumstances attending the 1814 : L.8,088 6 4

death of the two nephews,” says Mr 1815 10,825 15 3

Macaulay, page 77, were these : The 1816

13,234 0 11 1817 21,954 9 4

two nephews were labouring un1818 21,400 6 2

der consumption (one in the last

stage) on their arrival in the colony, 1819 21,234 2

and both died of that disease !" My 1820 36,188 17 02

informant, who was acquainted with 1821 34,214 5 11

both in Sierra Leone, and saw them 1822 35,250 1 91

on their death-beds, told me a differ1823 40,907 4 9

ent tale ; and upon inquiry at those, 1824 31,065 1

who, alas ! must know too well, I 1825 17,671 ( 31"

state that only one of these nephews Parliamentary Return, No. 389 of was affected with consumption when 1826, as you know well, and as the he arrived in the colony, but not seJournal of the House of Commons, verely; while the other was a fine, and the paper itself, will testify, stands stout, healthy young man, totally free as follows:

from any such complaint. He was 1821 L.34,214 5 15

cut off by the fever of the place ; and

I have the authority of the officer un1822 35,250 1 99

der whom the other served, to say, 1823 40,907 4 9

that his death was also accelerated, 1824

31,065 1 1825 17,671 0 31

nay, wholly occasioned, by the fatal

Sierra Leone fever! All the rest was made up by Kenneth Mr Macaulay denies that General Macaulay. No such return was pub- Turner's agricultural schemes really lished by the House of Commons. I failed; and he denies that General Tur might leave such dishonest and repre- ner ever had employed on his farm a hensible proceedings as the above re- man who had been in the West Indies. ferences disclose, to be characterized The cause of the failure, says Mr and estimated by the intelligent read- Macaulay, p. 56, was :- General er in the manner which they merit; Turner lost his first superintendent, but I must extend my notice of simi. (a hard-drinking intemperate Scotslar references.

man, and not a man acquainted with Amongst the list of deaths at Sierra tropical agriculture, or with the West Leone, within a short period I enu. Indies, as Mr Macqueen UNTRULY merated-Charles Turner, Major-Ge Asserts,) and he soon ascertained neral ; Donald Turner, Lieutenant; that the multifarious duties of his and · Turner, volunteer.

own extensive command left him no Mr Macaulay adds to the last name, time for personal attention to cultiva(Preface, p. 5,) “ THERE WAS NÓ tion."

To this statement I The man to whom I allude as Gea reply and affirm, there was such a neral Turner's overseer, was named person, and that he was one of the John GORDON. He had been nine

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Par. Rep. No. 64, of 1817, p. 347, says expressly that the expenditure under this head, from 1st January to 30th June 1814,(half the year !) was L.23,630 : 7: 8£d. in the colony !! Supplies from England had also, before that period, been ordered. The 9th Report of the African Institution, page 59, expressly states this.

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