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and consummate art, had cast around transition from despondence to ecstasy. rashness, levity, and, I fear, guilt!" I took a hand of each in mine, and

“ Thank God ! it is, as I hoped, ratified this solemn union of hearts my dear Philip, on your side," said I; with a truly parental blessing. “and I think I may venture to assure “ Uncle,” said Philip, in a tone of you that half what you have told me manly firmness,“ you will assist me will suffice to give to the smiles of to get civilly rid of yonder host of your bride a warmth and sunshine, idlers, and the false friend who amid which that of Italy will never hoped, by their means, to disgust me be missed.”

with my country, and estrange me He shook his head incredulously, from my bride. You shall make me and sighing, exclaimed, “What would an Englishman after your own heart.” I not give to see them on her own “ Uncle," whispered Lady Jane, dear lips !"

with the most insinuating softness, We were near an opening in the you will invite us to your cottage, old rugged yew hedge; I suddenly won't you, till a few more comforts drew my nephew within it, and the are added to our home, to make it all fair listener stood confessed. The that an English home should be?” tears of joy, irradiated by such a blush, I carried them with me in triumph. and such a smile as I have seldom seen I introduced them at Dunbarrow to but on the cheek of a daughter of the worthy and the wise among their England. “Give her your confidence, compatriots. I saw at my own tranquil Philip,” said I; can you doubtfireside their once threatened wedded further?"

bliss assume the imperishable hues of “Give me your pardon, my dear eternity. I saw, not only without rehusband,” said she, as he flew towards luctance, but with delight, a youthful her," for being an involuntary, but figure in my mother's sacred chair, oh! a blessed listener !-It was your and a second Emma beneath the picuncle

ture of my sainted bride. They staid, “ Who has made me the happiest only to grow too dear; they left me, of men !” cried Philip, his whole ex- at length, to know, for the first time, pression absolutely changed by the what it truly is TO BE ALONE.

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This country has long been a proud powerful and lawless-public law toone; and on nothing has she prided wards herself was annihilated and herself more, than on her unsullied all this only rendered her integrity honour, and her reverence for the law the more scrupulous and magnaniof nations. She did not indulge this

On various occasions she dispride, until the right of indulgence regarded the most tempting opportuwas nobly earned. Until recently the nities of adding largely to her trade, lofty spirit of her sons shone in the wealth, and power, not because her acts of her rulers ; and she stood at availing herself of them would have the head of the world, as a splendid been unjust, but because the justice example of all that could be upright of it was not wholly above question. and chivalrous—as the only nation Public law found defenders alike in incapable of violating its faith, and her Courts of Justice, her Legislature, staining its integrity. She disregarded and her fleets and armies—in her provocation, and disdained seduction; learning, her eloquence, her treasure, she endured injuries, and incurred and her blood. She was its champion, losses, in maintaining inviolate the sa- preserver, expounder, and enforcer. cred principles of national right and Such, we say, was the case with justice. During the war, France and this proud country until recently. In other nations trampled upon every- her late changes, nothing has been thing that had previously borne the spared ; and she has reversed her name of public law-hér existence principles and conduct touching nawas in danger--she was threatened iional law and right. The conduct with extinction by a confederacy alike she is following in respect of Turkey VOL. XXIII.


and Greece, is directly opposed to ing the grounds on which the intereverything she previously professed ference is defended. and practised ; and it is utterly sub- Before the monstrous league beversive of every obligation which, in tween Britain, France, and Russia was right and justice, one nation owes to formed, the most zealous partizans of another.

Greece, men capable of asserting anyThat Turkey obtained Greece in thing that was calculated to benefit the same manner in which this coun. their cause, never once ventured to try obtained various of her possessions, say, that the lawful rights and inte. will be denied by no one. In respect

rests of other nations were injured by of the means of acquisition, Greece is the contest. They called on other naas much the right of Turkey, as Bri- tions to interfere, not for their own tish India, British America, and Ire. sake, but for the sake of the Greeks--land, are the right of Britain. on account of the orgin and religion

On this point, the right of Turkey of the Greeks, and of the manner in is not disputed by the most romantic which the latter had been treated by and unscrupulous friend of Greece. Turkey. But it is not argued, but asserted, that On the point of origin, it cannot be Turkey destroyed the right given her necessary for us to speak. To say that by conquest, by the manner in which national law and right ought to be she governed her Greek subjects. If trampled on in favour of the Greeks, this be admitted, there cannot be any because their ancestors, ages ago, were such right as that of conquest. Public renowned in arts and arms, is to say law has nothing to do with forms of what common sense and common hoa government; it divides not the subject nesty alike brand with reprobation. from the ruler, it treats the nation as It is doctrine which all must abhor, a whole ; and it attaches to the right save maniacs and robbers. If it were of conquest no conditions as to manner adopted, what would it lead to ? The of governing. We of course say this great powers ought immediately, to with reference to the interference of give independence to Italy; they one nation with another. Turkey had ought to re-establish the Jews in their a clear right to govern her Greek sub- long-lost country. The great Cathojects according to her own mode, so lic nations ought to liberate the Irish far as other nations were concerned, Catholics from what the latter and provided there was nothing in this their champions call the tyranny of mode which affected the rights of other England; and to restore to the Romish nations. It is not even asserted that Church of Ireland its lost possessions the rights of other nations were inju- and splendour. Almost every atrocity red by the manner in which Greece that a nation, or a combination of nawas governed. We are not inquiring tions, could commit, might be easily whether the Greeks were justified in justified by this doctrine. When it revolting, for this has nothing to do is remembered what ancient Greece with the question before us.

was in her glory, it ought likewise to When, therefore, the Greeks revolte be remembered what she was in her ed, they were, in public law, as much fall; if the present Greeks be the the subjects of Turkey as the inhabia descendants of her heroes and sages, tants of British possessions are the they are likewise the descendants of subjects of Britain. However just her demagogues, tyrants, traitors, and their grounds for appealing to arms profligates. The absurd nonsense might be to themselves, they were touching “ classical recollections” calls still, in such law, neither more nor for no farther notice. less than subjects rebelling against In regard to religion, have the their lawful government. Other na- Turks made war on the Greeks for tions had not the smallest right to in- professing Christianity ? No, must be terfere.

the answer of all. The religion of the We will now ask, has anything ta- Greeks never had anything to do with ken place during the contest to change the contest; they did not at the outset the character it bore at its commence- take up arms to defend it, and it has ment, and to justify the interference never since been the object of attack : of other nations ? We shall gain the they were allowed to profess it, and most satisfactory answer, by examine they knew that; if they were subdued, they would still be allowed to profess nations in interfering, not only to huit. The sole object of Turkey, from manize it, but to make the Greeks infirst to last, has been to reduce them dependent, is below notice. to subjection. The whole the parti- The three nations which are now zans of Greece can say on this point acting the part of national plunderers is, the Greeks are Christians, and the and pirates, have, however, in asserTurks are not; but religion forms in tion, gone much beyond even the no degree the object of contention on Greek Committee, and the very Loneither side. This is perfectly decisive don-Greek newspapers. In their treaty against the right of other nations to they represent that the war injured interfere on the score of religion. Ca- other States. A treaty concluded for tholic France, Austria, &c., have just purposes of piraeyand spoliation could as much right on this score to make not well have any other basis than Ireland independent, by force of arms, falsehood. Did the war involve the as Britain, France, and Russia, have rights and interests of any other State ? to interfere between Greece and Tur- No. Did it endanger the internal or key.

external tranquillity of any other State? We have already said sufficient to No. Putting aside the piracies of the dispose of the point touching the man- Greeks, no other nation suffered in ner in which the Greeks have been the least from the war, in either right, treated by Turkey. If other nations interest, or apprehension. The pirahad a right to interfere on this point, cies were committed solely by the any confederacy of foreign nations has Greeks, and not a charge was ever a right to render the West India slaves, made against Turkey for trenching in or the East India subjects of this the smallest degree on the property country, independent; or, such a con- and rights of other countries. Did federacy has a right to overturn ale these Greek piracies give to other namost every continental government. tions the right to dismember Turkey It is ridiculous to draw distinctions and make Greece independent ? We in despotism and slavery by the rule will insult no man's common sense by of more or less; and to argue that giving the reply. one despot, or keeper of slaves, has a It has indeed been alleged by the right to make war on another for be- Treasury scribes, in defence of the ing more despotic, or treating his slaves treaty, that if this treaty had not been more harshly, than himself. The doc- concluded and acted upon, Russia trine of interference on this point, could scarcely have been prevented strikes at the foundation of all nation- from invading Turkey. The defence al independence, and at the existence is worthy of its parents and their of all national government. If it bet cause. Why did Russia wish to inadmitted, any nation or combination vade Turkey ? Had she been injured of nations can, at all times, plead a or insulted ? Had she wrongs to reright to dictate to, and overturn, the dress, or dangers tó avert? No. She governments of other nations at plea- had received from Turkey neither in

The partizans of Greece have jury nor provocation ; the war affected always been the loudest, when the in no shape her lawful interests and Greek question was not in sight, in tranquillity. She could not invent, enforcing the principle of non-intera and her degraded British apologists ference-in insisting that one nation could not invent, a single pretext for has no right to interfere in the inter- her attacking Turkey on her own acnal concerns of another. Applied to count: her sole pretence was-the inthe case before us, this principle de dependence of the Greeks for their clares that foreign nations have no own sake; her real object was-her right to interfere between Turkey and own rapacious and lawless aggrandiseher Greek subjects.

ment. This cannot be denied by the As to what has been said against partizans of the Greeks-by the methe mode in which the war has been nials of Government-or eren by that carried on, it in truth applies as much Lord Dudley, whose name is affixed to the Greeks as to the Turks. The this eternally infamous treaty of one side has been as cruel as the other. piracy and spoliation. The worst of the cruelty was, how- The threat, therefore, of the Rusever, abandoned years since. The as. sian despot and his barbarians, that sertion that this mode justified other they would invade Turkey in defiance



of every principle of national law and that the Greeks could offer no farther right, was a sufficient cause for Eng- resistance. When the treaty was conland to league herself with them to cluded, the Greeks were in reality dismember Turkey, in defiance of eve- subdued ; had it not been formed, the ry principle of national law and right; war before this would have been terit was a sufficient cause for Britain to minated “ through the means at the league herself with them to do in disposal of the Sublime Porte.” reality all they threatened to do, and We are not quarrelling with parto furnish them with pretexts for do- tialities and wishes in favour of the ing it. The mere threat, independe Greeks. They have nothing to do ently of right and wrong, justice and with the question before us. This injustice, was a sufficient cause for question is-Are Britain, FRANCE, her to league herself with them. AND Russia, SANCTIONED BY NAHad she no alternative? Had she no

TIONAL LAW AND RIGHT, IN INTERinterests to protect, no honour to cona FERING AS THEY HAVE DONE IN THE sult—no duty to listen to ? The threat

BETWEEN GREECE AND of Russia did not alter, in the least, Turkey? If the reply be in the nethe nature of the contest between gative, such partialities and wishes Turkey and Greece; and to justify will not diminish in the least the crie the treaty by it, is to proclaim the minality of the interference. It has Ministers of Britain to be destitute of been said by a Treasury print, that sense and honesty, and to sink British the interference was forced upon

the honour to the lowest point of degra, respective governments by national dation.

feeling. On the part of our own coun. When this country, acknowledged try, this is wholly untrue; it is rethe independence of the South Ame- futed by the fact, that the nation is rican republics, she declared she did so unanimous, almost beyond precedent, on the ground, that they had practi- in reprobating the interference. The cally secured their independence, and Greek Committee-most unexceptionestablished within themselves regular able witnesses-can testify, that no government. What was the case with public enthusiasm ever existed in fathe Greeks on these matters when vour of the Greeks; the papers in the treaty was concluded ? Nothing their interest loudly vituperated the worthy of being called law, order, public for its apathy in the matter. and government, could be found In so far as public feeling went with among them. As to their indepen- the Greeks, it only amounted to cold, dence, all confessed that they were careless opinion ; and it was always utterly unable to conquer it, and that, strongly opposed to any intermeddling without foreign assistance, they would on the part of Government. But if be compelled to submit. The treaty national enthusiasm had been carried does not even hint that it was possible to the highest point in favour of the for them to acquire their independence interference, Ministers would have by their own efforts ; on the contrary, deserved impeachment had they obeyit speaks only of the probability that ed it, without any reference to its - they might be reduced to subjection justice. Every honest man will abby Turkey. With consistency in fic- hor these abominable attempts to tion perfectly incredible, it states that give the decision of questions of law the termination of the

war, through and right to popular enthusiasm. They the means at the disposal of the Sublime strike at everything dear to the indiPorte, appears still remote.While vidual, the nation, and the human we admit that nothing but deplorable race. ignorance could have led Lord Dudley On this point we may observe, that, to affix his signature to an assertion as a people, the Greeks have had the so outrageously at variance with truth, fewest possible real claims on the we deeply lament that an Englishman sympathy of the people of this councould be found so deplorably ignorant. try. In moral character, they rank, as At the time when Lord Dudley and a whole, almost lower than any other his colleagues were giving being to people upon earth. They have exhithe assertion, their own newspapers bited, throughout the contest, a natuwere proclaiming to the world that ral disposition of the worst description, the Greek cause was hopeless, that They have fought from personal inthe contest was virtually ended, and terest and animosity ; but nothing


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has been seen among them that could terms equally fair to bothmon terms be mistaken for genuine patriotism., giving no unjust advantage to either; Their chiefs, - their military com- but it appears that the term has a manders, their statesmen, -their very different meaning amidst pirarulers, have displayed the most revolt- tical and lawless nations. By their ing selfishness, falsehood, cupidity, treaty, the mediation of the three great knavery, and contempt for their coun- piratical and lawless ones is this try. Of late, they have been almost a they place before Turkey the most nation of pirates; their piracies have insolent, unjust, injurious, revolting, been carried on, on such a scale, as to and degrading conditions-conditions involve in the guilt both government to which the Greeks have not the and people. Their repayment for all smallest claim-and, on the score of that the British people and British mediation, they allow her no alternaGovernment have done for them, has tive. The Greeks are vanquished; been-robbery! While this country they have nothing before them but was squandering her blood and trea- almost immediate unconditional subsure, and trampling on public law in mission, and, when they are in such fighting their battles, they were ale circumstances, the three powers de. most, as a people, warring against her mand from Turkey, that she shall re-plundering her ships, and maltreat- sign all sovereignty over them, with ing her seamen.

this exception-she shall receive an We have shown, that, up to the time, annual fixed tribute from them, and and at the time, when the treaty was have some undefined veto in the choice signed, nothing could be found to jus- of their authorities: they demand, tify the interference. We will now moreover, that all Turks shall be perglance at the treaty.

petually banished from Greece, and The three great powers—or, to speak that the Greeks shall take possession of more properly, the three great na- their property, on giving an indemnity. tional pirates—bind themselves by it A treaty like this-a treaty distinto offer their mediation to the Oito- guished as much by absurdity as by man Porte, and to accompany the of- depravity-could never have been fer with a demand for an immediate drawn in any civilized and educated armistice between the Turks and the country; it is evidently the composiGreeks. This armistice is to be the tion of some of the Russian barba. indispensable condition to the opening rians. We will not disgrace any memof any negotiation.

ber of even the present imbecile MiNow, as affectation of honour may nistry, by charging him with writing occasionally be found among thieves, a sentence of it. It was, doubtlessly, it might have been expected that the sent hither by the Northern Autocrat, three powers would, in their piratical with the gracious message—Sign it, manifesto, affect to place the bellige- or my armies shall march to Constanrents on an equality. As the most tinople! and Lord Dudley and his nefarious treaties generally abound colleagues obeyed in terror, without the most with professions of justice reading it. Its conditions are more and impartiality, it might have been injurious and degrading to Turkey expected that this treaty would be than a demand for the complete indefilled with bombast in favour of jus.' pendence of Greece would have been. tice and impartiality, from beginning It makes her responsible to other nato end. The three pirates, however, tions for the actions of Greece, while shamelessly acknowledge in it, that it takes from her all control over their object is to compel one of the these actions ; it makes her answerbelligerents to submit to their own able for all the Greek government may terms, for the benefit of the other. do, while it deprives her of all influ. The offer and demand are to be made ence over the conduct of this governto Turkey ; but nothing is said of ment; it gives her a vague negative the Greeks. They bind themselves to in the nomination of the Greek authooffer their mediation. Amidst honest rities, while it prohibits her from in. and honourable nations, the term me- terfering in the administration of diation means an endeavour to make Greek affairs. The tribute and veto peace between two belligerents, on are worthless, when weighed against

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