The Shadows of Total War: Europe, East Asia, and the United States, 1919-1939
The period between the two world wars of the twentieth century was one of the most challenging in the history of war. In anticipation of another conflict, military planners and civilian thinkers struggled after 1918 with the painful implications of World War I. Given its scope, the wholesale mobilisation of civilian populations and the targets of civilians via blockades and strategic bombing, many observers regarded this titanic conflict as a 'total war'. They also concluded that any future conflict would bear the same hallmarks; and they planned accordingly. The essays in this collection, the fourth in a series on the problem of total war, examine the inter-war period. They explore the consequences of World War I, the intellectual efforts to analyse this conflict's military significance, the attempts to plan for another general war and several episodes in the 1930s that portended the war that erupted in 1939.
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air force argued armed forces army’s attack battle became Berlin bombers bombing Britain British campaign China civil civilian colonial combat command Condor Legion conflict conscription country’s defeat defense disabled Douhet economic Empire enemy enemy’s Erich Erich Ludendorff Europe European Fascist fighting France French future German Germany’s Guernica guerre historians Hitler Ibid imperial industrial institutions Italian J. F. C. Fuller J¨unger Japan Japanese Krieg kulaks Kwantung Army leadership Liddell Hart London Ludendorff Luftwaffe Manchukuo Manchuria Manchurian Incident mass army Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt military history Ministry modern moral Munich naval navy Nazi officers official history ofthe operations organization Paul Tillich peace plans political postwar psychiatrists psychological rearmament Reich Reichswehr Republic Roger Chickering role RUSI shell shock social society soldiers Soviet Union state’s Stig F¨orster strategic tactical tanks Tillich veterans victory war’s warfare wars weapons Wehrmacht Weimar Weimar Republic Weltkrieg Wilhelm Deist World