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acres Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount Arthur Young capital capitalist cause circulating capital competition condition considerable consumed cost cottier crease cultivation demand depends diminished duce duction effect employed employment England English equal exertion exist expense farmers farms favourable fertility fixed France greater habits hired human hundred quarters improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland labouring class land landlord less limited manufacture manure marriage materials means ment METAvers metayer mode nations natural necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant peasant proprietors peasantry permanent persons political economy Poor Law population portion possession present principle produce profit proportion Prussia quantity racter rate of profit remuneration rent require saving says Sismondi slavery society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose tenant tenure things tical tion tivated trade unproductive wages wealth whole
Сторінка 79 - The habit of sauntering, and of indolent careless application, which is naturally, or rather necessarily, acquired by every country workman who is obliged to change his work and his tools every half hour, and to apply his hand in twenty different ways almost every day of his life, renders him almost always slothful and lazy, and incapable of any vigorous application, even on the most pressing occasions.
Сторінка 172 - Give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden ; give him a nine years' lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.
Сторінка 78 - This great increase of the quantity of work which, in consequence of the division of labour, the same number of people are capable of performing, is owing to three different circumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particular workman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another ; and lastly, to the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Сторінка 379 - Gold and silver having been chosen for the general medium of circulation, they are, by the competition of commerce, distributed in such proportions amongst the different countries of the world, as to accommodate themselves to the natural traffic which would take place if no such metals existed, and the trade between countries were purely a trade of barter.
Сторінка 79 - A man commonly saunters a little in turning his hand from one sort of employment to another. When he first begins the new work, he is seldom very keen and hearty; his mind, as they say, does not go to it, and for some time he rather trifles than applies to good purpose.
Сторінка 208 - With these limitations of the terms, wages not only depend upon the relative amount of capital and population, but cannot, under the rule of competition, be affected by anything else. Wages (meaning, of course, the general rate) cannot rise, but by an increase of the aggregate funds employed in hiring labourers, or a diminution in the number of the competitors for hire ; nor fall, except either by a diminution of the funds devoted to paying labour, or by an increase in the number of labourers to...
Сторінка 129 - ... the largest portions to those who have never worked at all, the next largest to those whose work is almost nominal, and so in a descending scale, the remuneration dwindling as the work grows harder and more disagreeable, until the most fatiguing and exhausting bodily labour cannot count with certainty on being able to earn even the necessaries of life; if this or Communism were the alternative, all the difficulties, great or small, of Communism would be but as dust in the balance.
Сторінка 485 - Thirdly, by the forfeitures and other penalties which those unfortunate individuals incur who attempt unsuccessfully to evade the tax, it may frequently ruin them, and thereby put an end to the benefit which the community might have received from the employment of their capitals.
Сторінка 455 - A world from which solitude is extirpated, is a very poor ideal. Solitude, in the sense of being often alone, is essential to any depth of meditation or of character ; and solitude in the presence of natural beauty and grandeur, is the cradle of thoughts and aspirations which are not only good for the individual, but which society could ill do without.