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cally flush valves or flushometers. They have the advantage of doing away with the separate tank for each closet. The action consists in depressing or lifting the lever, A, Fig. 66, which permits the flow of sufficient water to flush the closet properly, and then closes automatically, causing very little noise. To insure a good flow when flush valves are used, a larger pipe must be run than is required to supply a tank. Some of these valves are operated by the pressure of the flow of water in the pipes upon the valve, others by a spring control


Fig. 66. Section of Boyle Flushing Valve. A-Oscillating Handle; B-Release Stem; C—By

Pass; D-Cylinder: E-Piston; F-Water-Way to Valve; G-Water-Way to Closet; H-By-Pass; 1-Regulating Screw; J-Loose Key; K-Leather Washer; L-Leather Seat Washer; M-Refill Disk

Courtesy of Federal-Hueber Company, Chicago

operating noiselessly in an oil chamber, and both kinds can be regulated to give as much or as little flow as is desired.

When this form of flush is under consideration it should be remembered that some local plumbing ordinances do not permit the use of these valves when applied directly to the main supply, but require that a separate tank supply be provided.

Lavatories. Not so much choice is to be found in the selection of bowls and tubs. In the former the main differences are to be

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found in the overflow and waste. These appliances have advanced from the old-fashioned plug and chain, Fig. 67, to the most advanced form of outside connections, Fig. 68, which is the pattern called for by our specifications.

Pedestal Fixtures. Of greater attractiveness but more expensive than others are the large lavatories which are supported by means of legs or pedestals, the legs being the first deviation from the wall supports and

Fig. 67. Section of Lavatory Bowl

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with Plug and Chain


Fig. 68. Modern Lavatory with Outside Connection

Courtesy of Crane Company, Chicago the pedestal a later form, of better appearance, Fig. 69. These are particularly adapted for use in the modern tiled bathroom where no

backpiece is needed. The bowls and tubs are made oval in shape as well as square, being set clear of the wall so as to allow cleaning all around. The pedestals are square, round, or of other shapes, and as plain or as ornamental as may be desired. These fixtures may be obtained in porcelain or enameled iron.

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Bath Tubs. In the selection of a modern tub our choice may range from the ordinary roll-rim, enameled iron tub with painted exterior, which is excellent in all respects, through the various stages of finish and pattern to the solid porcelain tubs of luxurious design and finish. In form there are three general types of tub—those which stand free upon legs, those having solid bases, and those which are built into the wall on one, two, or three sides, or even, if desired, tiled across the front.

The simplest and least expensive kind is set on legs and stands free from the walls and floor far enough to allow washing under and about it, Fig. 70. The tub carried down to the floor does away with washing underneath, which is an advantage, while the tub more or less built-in requires still less attention besides giving a better appearance, Fig. 71.

Both porcelain and enameled iron

Fig. 70. Typical Bath Tub on Legs

Courtesy of Crane Company, Chicago tubs are left with

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the outside surface rough, if they are to be covered with tiles or other finish; but if they are to be exposed, the porcelain must be glazed or given a painted or enameled finish. The best finish used on porce

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