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pendent states; that they are absolved from all alle. shalling in arms--the hostile array--the mortal engiance to the British crown, and that all political counter. Ours shall be such only as the opposition connection between them and the state of Great of moral purity to moral corruption, the destrucBritain is and ought to be totally dissolved; and tion of error by the potency of truth-the overthrow that, as free and independent states, they have full of prejudice by the power of love—and the abolition power to levy war, conclude peace, contract allian- of slavery by the spirit of repentance. ces, establish commerce, and to do all other acts Their grievances, great as they were, were trifling and things which independent states may of right do. in comparison with the wrongs and sufferings of those And for the support of this declaration, with a firm for whom we plead. Our fathers were never slavesreliance on the protection of Divine providence, we never bought and sold like cattle--never shut out mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, from the light of knowledge and religion-never suband our sacred honor.
jected to the lash of brutal task-masters.
But those for whose emancipation we are striv.
ing-constituting at the present time at least one. II.
sixth part of our countrymen,-are recognized by
the law, and treated by their fellow beings, as marketDECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS OF THE AMERICAN able commodities, as goods and chattels, as brute ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY.
beasts; are plundered daily of the fruits of their toil The Convention assembled in the city of Phila- without redress; really enjoying no constitutional delphia, to organize a National Anti-Slavery Society, nor legal protection from licentious and murderous promptly seize the opportunity to promulgate the outrages upon their persons, are ruthlessly torn following Declaration of Sentiments as cherished by asunder-the tender babe from the arms of its franthem in relation to the enslavement of one-sixth tic mother--the heart-broken wife from her weepportion of the American people.
ing husband at the caprice or pleasure of irresponMore than fifty-seven years have elapsed since a sible tyrants. For the crime of having a dark band of patriots convened in this place, to devise complexion, they suffer the pangs of hunger, the inmeasures for the deliverance of this country from a fiction of stripes, and the ignominy of brutal serviforeign yoke. The corner stone upon which they tude. They are kept in heathenish darkness by laws founded the Temple of Freedom was broadly this expressly enacted to make their instruction a crimi" that all men are created equal; and they are en nal offence. dowed by their Creator with certain unalienable These are the prominent circumstances in the rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the condition of more than two millions of our people, pursuit of happiness.” At the sound of their trumpet. the proof of which may be found in thousands of call three millions of people rose up as from the indisputable facts, and in the laws of the slaveholdsleep of death, and rushed to the strife of blood; ing states. deeming it more glorious to die instantly as free Hence we maintain,—that in view of the civil and men, than desirable to live one hour as slaves. religious privileges of this nation, the guilt of its opThey were few in number--poor in resources; but pression is unequalled by any other on the face of the honest conviction that Truth, Justice, and Right the earth; and, therefore, were on their side, made them invincible.
That it is bound to repent instantly, to undo the We have met together for the achievement of an heavy burdens, to break every yoke, and to let the enterprise, without which that of our fathers is in. oppressed go free. complete; and which, for its magnitude, solemni. We further maintain,- that no man has a right to ty, and probable results upon the destiny of the enslave or imbrute his brother--to hold or acknowworld, as far transcends theirs as moral truth does ledge him, for one moment, as a piece of merchanphysical force.
dize-to keep back his hire by fraud-or to brntalize In purity of motive, in earnestness of zeal, in de his mind by denying him the means of intellectual, cision of purpose, in intrepidity of action, in stead- social and moral improvement. fastness of faith, in sincerity of spirit, we would not The right to enjoy liberty is inalienable. To inbe inferior to them.
vade it is to usurp the prerogative of Jehovah. Their principles led them to wage war against Every vian has a right to his own body-the protheir oppressors, and to spill human blood like ducts of his own labor-to the protection of law, water, in order to be free. Ours forbid the doing of and to the common advantages of society. It is piraevil that good may come, and lead us to reject, and cy to buy or steal a native African, and subject him to entreat the oppressed to reject, the use of all car to servitude. Surely the sin is as great to enslave nal weapons for deliverance from bondage; relying an American as an African. solely upon those which are spiritual, and mighty Therefore we believe and affirm- that there is through God to the pulling down of strong holds. no difference in principle, between the African slave
Their measures were physical resistance, the mar.trade and American slavery :
That every American citizen who detains a human , national compact, has no right to interfere with any being in involuntary bondage as his property, is of the slave states, in relation to this momentous according to scripture (Ex. xxi. 16) a man stealer : subject ;
That the slaves ought instantly to be set free, and But we maintain that Congress has a right, and brought under the protection of law :
is solemnly bound, to suppress the domestic slave That if they lived from the time of Pharaoh down trade between the several states, and to abolish slaveto the present period, and had been entailed through ry in those portions of our territory which the Consuccessive generations, their right to be free could stitution has placed under its exclusive jurisdiction. never have been alienated, but their claims would We also maintain that there are, at the present have constantly risen in solemnity.
time, the highest obligations resting upon the people That all those laws which are now in force, ad- of the free states, to remove slavery by moral and mitting the right of slavery, are therefore before God political action, as prescribed in the Constitution of utterly null and void; being an audacious usurpation the United States. They are now living under a of the Divine prerogative, a daring infringement on pledge of their tremendous physical force, to fasten the law of nature, a base overthrow of the very the galling fetters of tyranny upon the limbs of mil. foundations of the social compact, a complete extinc lions in the southern states; they are liable to be tion of all the relations, endearments, and obligations called at any moment to suppress a general in. of mankind, and a presumptuous transgression of all surrection of the slaves; they authorize the slave the holy commandments—and that therefore they owner to vote on three fifths of his slaves as properought instantly to be abrogated.
ty, and thus enable him to perpetuate his oppresWe further believe and affirm-that all persons of sion; they support a standing army at the south for color who possess the qualifications which are de- its protection; and they seize the slave who has esmanded of others, ought to be admitted forthwith to caped into their territories, and send him back to the enjoyment of the same privileges, and the exer- be tortured by an enraged master or a brutal driver. cise of the same prerogatives, as others; and that This relation to slavery is criminal and full of dan. the paths of preferment, of wealth, and of intelli- ger : it must be broken up. gence, should be opened as widely to them as to per These are our views and principles-these our sons of a white complexion.
designs and measures. With entire confidence in We maintain that no compensation should be given the overruling justice of God, we plant ourselves to the planters emancipating the slaves ;
upon the Declaration of our Independence and the Because it would be a surrender of the great fun- truths of Divine Revelation as upon the Everlasting damental principle that man cannot hold property in Rock.
We shall organize Anti-Slavery Societies, if posBecause slavery is a crime, and therefore is not sible, in every city, town and village in our land. an article to be sold ;
We shall send forth agents to lift up the voice of Because the holders of slaves are not the just pro- remonstrance, of warning, of entreaty, and rebuke. prietors of what they claim; freeing the slaves is We shall circulate, unsparingly and extensively, not depriving them of property, but restoring it to anti-slavery tracts and periodicals. its rightful owners; it is not wronging the master, We shall enlist the pulpit and the press in the but righting the slave-restoring him to himself : cause of the suffering and the dumb.
Because immediate and general emancipation We shall aim at a purification of the churches would only destroy nominal, not real property; it from all participation in the guilt of slavery. would not amputate a limb or break a bone of the We shall encourage the labor of freemen rather slaves, but by infusirg motives into their breasts, than that of slaves by giving a preference to their would make them doubly valuable to the masters as productions : and free laborers; and
We shall spare no exertions nor means to bring Because, is compensation is to be given at all, it the whole nation to speedy repentance. should be given to the outraged and guiltless slaves, Our trust for victory is solely in God. We may and not to those who have plundered and abused be personally defeated, but our principles never. them.
Truth, Justice, Reason, Humanity, must and will We regard as delusive, cruel, and dangerous, any gloriously triumph. Already a host is coming up to scheme of expatriation which pretends to aid, either the help of the Lord against the mighty, and the directly or indirectly in the emancipation of the prospect before us is full of encouragement. slaves, or to be a substitute for the immediate and Submitting this declaration to the candid examitotal abolition of slavery.
nation of the people of this country, and of the We fully and unanimously recognise the sovereign- friends of liberty throughout the world, we hereby ty of each state, to legislate exclusively on the sub- affix our signatures to it; pledging ourselves that, ject of the slavery which is tolerated within its under the guidance and by the help of Almighty limits; we concede that Congress, under the present God we will do all that in us lies, consistently with
this Declaration of our principles, to overthrow the invaders, no individual possesses that right in his most execrable system of slavery that has ever been own case. The unit cannot be of greater importance witnessed upon earth-to deliver our land from its than the aggregate. If one man may take life, to deadliest curse—to wipe out the foulest stain which obtain or defend his rights, the same license must rests upon our national escutcheon-and to secure necessarily be granted to communities, states, and to the colored population of the United States all nations. If he may use a dagger or a pistol, they the rights and privileges which belong to them as may employ cannon, bomb-shells, land and naval men, and as Americans-come what may to our forces. The means of self.preservation must be in persons, our interests, or our reputation—whether proportion to the magnitude of interests at stake, we live to witness the triumph of liberty, justice and the number of lives exposed to destruction. But and humanity, or perish untimely as martyrs in this if a rapacious and blood-thirsty soldiery, thronging great, benevolent, and holy cause.
these shores from abroad, with intent to commit Done at Philadelphia, the sixth day of December, A.D. 1833. | rapine and destroy life, may not be resisted by the
people or magistracy, then ought no resistance to be
offered to domestic troublers of the public peace, or III.
of private security. No obligation can rest upon DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS
Americans to regard foreigners as more sacred in Adopted by the Peace Convention, held in Boston, their persons than themselves, or to give them a September 18, 19, and 20, 1838.
monopoly of wrong-doing with impunity. Assembled in Convention, from various sections The dogma, that all the governments of the world of the American Union, for the promotion of peace are approvingly ordained of God, and that the pow. on earth, and good will among men, we, the under-ers that be in the United States, in Russia, in Tursigned, regard it as due to ourselves, to the cause key, are in accordance with His will, is not less which we love, to the country in which we live, and absurd than impious. It makes the impartial Author to the world, to publish a Declaration, expressive of human freedom and equality, unequal and tyranof the principles we cherish, the purposes we aim nical. It cannot be affirmed, that the powers that to accomplish, and the measures we shall adopt to be, in any nation, are actuated by the spirit, or carry forward the work of peaceful universal re- guided by the example of Christ, in the treatment of formation.
enemies : therefore, they cannot be agreeable to the We cannot acknowledge allegiance to any human will of God: and, therefore, their overthrow, by a government; neither can we oppose any such go- spiritual regeneration of their subjects, is inevitable. vernment, by a resort to physical force. We recog. We register our testimony, not only against all nize but one King and Lawgiver, one Judge and wars, whether offensive or defensive, but all prepaRuler of mankind. We are bound by the laws of a rations for war; against every naval ship, every kingdom which is not of this world; the subjects arsenal, every fortification; against the militia sys. of which are forbidden to fight; in which Mercy and tem and a standing army; against all military chiefTruth are met together, and Righteousness and tains and soldiers; against all monuments comme. Peace have kissed each other; which has no state morative of victory over a foreign foe, all trophies lines, no national partitions, no geographical boun-won in battle, all celebrations in honor of military daries ; in which there is no distinction of rank, or or naval exploits; against all appropriations for the division of caste, or inequality of sex; the officers defence of a nation by force and arms, on the part of of which are Peace, its exactors Righteousness, its any legislative body; against every edict of governwalls Salvation, and its gates Praise; and which is ment, requiring of its subjects military service. destined to break in pieces and consume all other Hence, we deem it unlawful to bear arms, or to hold kingdoms.
a military office. Our country is the world, our countrymen are all As every human government is upheld by physi. mankind. We love the land of our nativity, only as cal strength, and its laws are enforced virtually at we love all other lands. The interests, rights, the point of the bayonet, we cannot hold any office and liberties of American citizens are no more dear, which imposes upon its incumbent the obligation to to us, than are those of the whole human race. do right, on pain of imprisonment or death. We Hence, we can allow no appeal to patriotism, to re- therefore voluntarily exclude ourselves from every venge any national insult or injury. The Prince of legislative and judicial body, and repudiate all huPeace, under whose stainless banner we rally, came man politics, worldly honors, and stations of authonot to destroy, but to save, even the worst of ene-rity. If we cannot occupy a seat in the legislature, mies. He has left us an example, that we should or on the bench, neither can we elect others to act follow his steps. God commendeth his love toward us, as our substitutes in any such capacity. in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. It follows that we cannot sue any man at law, to
We conceive that if a nation has no right to de compel him by force to restore any thing which he fend itself against foreign enemies, or to punish its may have wrongfullly taken from us or others; but,
if he has seized our coat, we shall surrender up our | swords shall be beaten into plough shares, and cloak, rather than subject him to punishment. spears into pruning-hooks, and men shall not learn
We believe that the penal code of the old covenant, the art of war any more, it follows that all who An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth, has been manufacture, sell, or wield those deadly weapons, abrogated by Jesus Christ; and that, under the new do thus array themselves against the peaceful domicovenant, the forgiveness, instead of the punishment nion of the Son of God on earth. of enemies, has been enjoined upon all disciples, in Having thus briefly, but frankly, stated our prinall cases whatsoever. To extort money from ene- ciples and purposes, we proceed to specify the meamies, or set them upon a pillory, or cast them into sures we propose to adopt, in carrying our object prison, or hang them upon a gallows, is obviously into effect. not to forgive, but to take retribution, Vengeance We expect to prevail through the foolishness of is mine-I will repay, saith the Lord.
preaching—striving to commend ourselves unto eveThe history of mankind is crowded with evidences, ry man's conscience, in the sight of God. From the proving that physical coercion is not adapted to press we shall promulgate our sentiments as widely moral regeneration ; that the sinful dispositions of as practicable. We shall endeavor to secure the man can be subdued only by love; that evil can be co-operation of all persons, of whatever name or exterminated from the earth only by goodness; that sect. The triumphant progress of the cause of it is not safe to rely upon an arm of flesh, upon man Temperance and of Abolition in our land, through whose breath is in his nostrils, to preserve us from the instrumentality of benevolent and voluntary harm; that there is great security in being gentle, associations, encourages us to combine our own harmless, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy; means and efforts for the promotion of a still greater that it is only the meek who shall inherit the earth, cause. Hence we shall employ lecturers, circulate for the violent, who resort to the sword, shall perish tracts and publications, form societies, and petition with the sword. Hence, as a measure of sound our state and national governments in relation to policy,-of safety to property, of life, and liber- the subject of Universal Peace. It will be our leadty,—of public quietude and private enjoyment, -as ing object to devise ways and means for effecting a well as on the ground of allegiance to Him who is radical change in the views, feelings and practices King of kings, and Lord of lords,-we cordially of society, respecting the sinfulness of war, and the adopt the non-resistance principle; being confident treatment of enemies. that it provides for all possible consequences, will In entering upon the great work before us, we are ensure all things needful to us, is armed with om not unmindful that, in its prosecution, we may be nipotent power, and must ultimately triumph over called to test our sincerity, even as in a fiery ordeal. every assailing force.
It may subject us to insult, outrage, suffering, yea, We advocate no jacobinical doctrines. The spirit even death itself. We anticipate no small amount of jacobinism is the spirit of retaliation, violence of misconception, misrepresentation, calumny. Tuand murder. It neither fears God, nor regards man. mults may arise against us. The ungodly and vioWe would be filled with the spirit of Christ. If we lent, the proud and pharisaical, the ambitious and abide by our principles, it is impossible for us to be tyrannical, principalities and powers, and spiritual disorderly, or plot treason, or participate in any evil wickedness in high places, may combine to crush work :-we shall submit to every ordinance of ran, us. So they treated the Messiah, whose example for the Lord's sake; obey all the requirements of we are humbly striving to imitate. If we suffer with government, except such as we deem contrary to him, we know that we shall reign with him. We the commands of the gospel; and in no wise resist shall not be afraid of their terror, neither be trouthe operation of law, except by meekly submitting bled. Our confidence is in the Lord Almighty, not to the penalty of disobedience.
in man. Having withdrawn from human protection, But, while we shall adhere to the doctrine of non- what can sustain us but that faith which overcomes resistance and passive submission to enemies, we the world? We shall not think it strange concernpurpose, in a moral and spiritual sense, to speak and ing the fiery trial which is to try us, as though some act boldly in the cause of God; to assail inquity in strange thing had happened unto us; but rejoice, inhigh places and in low places; to apply our princi- asmuch as we are partakers of Christ's sufferings. ples to all existing, civil, political, legal, and eccle. Wherefore, we commit the keeping of our souls to siastical institutions; and to hasten the time, when God, in well-doing, as unto a faithful Creator. For the kingdoms of this world will become the kingdoms every one that forsakes houses, or brethren, or sisters, of our Lord and of his Christ, and he shall reign or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for forever.
Christ's sake, shall receive an hundred fold, and shall It appears to us a self-evident truth, that, what. inherit everlasting life. ever the gospel is designed to destroy at any period Firmly relying upon the certain and universal tri. of the world, being contrary to it, ought now to be umph of the sentiments contained in this Declaraabandoned. If, then, the time is predicted, when tion, however formidable may be the opposition ar.
BY FRANCES A. PUTLER.
BY WILLIAM BLAKE.
rayed against them,-in solemn testimony of our
ABSENCE. faith in their divine origin,-we hereby affix our signatures to it; commending it to the reason and conscience of mankind, giving ourselves no anxiety What shall I do with all the days and hours
That must be counted ere I see thy face? as to what may befal us, and resolving in the strength of the Lord God calmly and meekly to abide the How shall I charm the interval that lowers issue.
Between this time and that sweet time of grace?
Weary with longing ?-shall I flee away
Cheat myself to forget the present day?
Shall love for thee lay on my soul the sin
Of casting from me God's great gift of time;
Leave, and forget, life's purposes sublime ?
Oh! how, or by what means, may I contrive
To bring the hour that brings thee back more near?
How may I teach my drooping hope to live
Until that blessed time, and thou art here?
I'll tell thee : for thy sake, I will lay hold
Of all good aims, and consecrate to thee,
In worthy deeds, each moment that is told
While thou, beloved one! art far from me.
For thee, I will arouse my thoughts to try
All heavenward flights, all high and holy strains;
For thy dear sake, I will walk patiently
Through these long hours, nor call their minutes
I will this dreary blank of absence make
A noble task-time, and will therein strive
To follow excellence, and to o’ertake
More good than I have won since yet I live.
So may this doomed time build up in me
A thousand graces which shall thus be thine ;
So may my love and longing hallowed be,
And thy dear thought an influence divine.
TO AN INFANT.
BY WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON.
He doth give His Joy to all :
Think not thou canst sigh a sigh,
Fair bud of being! blossoming like the rose
Leaf upon leaf unfolding to the eye,
In fragrance rich and spotless purity-
Give to thy root immortal sustenance;
So thou in matchless beauty shalt advance,
Thou from its tender stem untimely break,
An Angel shall the drooping victim take,
Where it shall flourish in eternal Spring,
Oh! He giveth us His Joy,