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Angelo," of all those glories of the Italian and mira- , stand, is confined to a very small compass; to their cles of the Flemish school, which have filled the eyes daily affairs and experience; to what they have an of mankind with delight, and to the study and imi. opportunity to know, and motives to study or practation of which thousands have in vain devoted their tise. The rest is affectation and imposture. The lives. These are to him as if they had never been, common people have the use of their limbs; for they a mere dead letter, a by-word; and no wonder: for live by their labour or skill. They understand he neither sees nor understands their prototypes in their own business, and the characters of those they nature. A print of Ruben's Watering-place, or have to deal with; for it is necessary that they Claude's Enchanted Castle, may be hanging on the should. They have eloquence to express their paswalls of his room for months without his once per- sions, and wit at will to express their contempt and ceiving them; and if you point them out to him, he provoke laughter. Their natural use of speech is will turn away from them. The language of nature not hung up in monumental mockery, in an obsolete or of art (which is another nature) is one that he language; nor is their sense of what is ludicrous, or does not understand. He repeats indeed the names readiness at finding out allusions to express it, buried of Apelles and Phidias, because they are to be found in collections of Anas. You will hear more good in classic authors, and boasts of their works as pro- things on the outside of a stage-coach from London digies, because they no longer exist; or when he to Oxford, than if you were to pass a twelvemonth sees the finest remains of Grecian art actually before with the Undergraduates or Heads of Colleges of that him in the Elgin marbles, takes no other interest in famous university; and more home truths are to be them than as they lead to a learned dispute, and learnt from listening to a noisy debate in an ale-house, (which is the same thing) a quarrel about the mean than from attending to a formal one in the House ing of a Greek particle. He is equally ignorant of of Commons. An elderly country gentlewoman will music; he “ knows no touch of it,” from the strains often know more of character, and be able to illusof the all-accomplished Mozart to the shepherd's trate it by more amusing anecdotes taken from the pipe upon the mountain. His ears are nailed to his history of what has been said, done, and gossiped in books; and deadened with the sound of the Greek a country town for the last fisty years, than the best and Latin tongues, and the din and smithery of school-blue-stocking of the age will be able to glean from learning. Does he know anything more of poetry? that sort of learning which consists in an acquaintHe knows the number of feet in a verse, and of acts ance with all the novels and satirical poems publishin a play: but of the soul or spirit he knows nothing. ed in the same period. People in towns, indeed, are He can turn a Greek ode into English, or a Latin woefully deficient in a knowledge of character, which epigram into Greek verse, but whether either is they see only in the bust, not as a whole-length. worth the trouble, he leaves to the critics. Does People in the country not only know all that has he understand - the act and practiqne part of life” | happened to a man, but trace his virtues or vices, as better than « the theorique?" No. He knows no as they do his features, in their descent through liberal or mechanic art; no trade or occupation; no several generations, and solve some contradiction in game of skill or chance. Learning “has no skill his behaviour by a cross in the breed, half a century in surgery,” in agriculture, in building, in working ago. The learned know nothing of the matter, in wood or in iron; it cannot make any instrument either in town or country. Above all, the mass of of labour, or use it when made; it cannot handle the society have common sense, which the learned in all plough or the spade, or the chisel or the hammer; ages want. The vulgar are in the right when they it knows nothing of hunting or hawking, fishing or julge for themselves; they are wrong when they shooting, of horses or dogs, of fencing or dancing, or trust to their blind guides. The celebrated noncudgel-playing, or bowls, or cards, or tennis, or conformist divine, Baxter, was almost stoned to anything else. The learned professor of all arts and death by the good women of Kidderminster, for sciences cannot reduce any one of them to practice, asserting from the pulpit that “ hell was paved with though he may contribute an account of them to an infants' skulls;” but by the force of argument, and Encyclopædia. He has not the use of his hands or of learned quotations from the Fathers, the reverend of his feet; he can neither run, nor walk, nor swim; preacher at length prevailed over the scruples of his and he considers all those who actually understand congregation, and over reason and humanity. and can exercise any of those arts of body or mind, Such is the use which has been made of human as vulgar and mechanical men ;-though to know learning. The labourers in this vineyard seem as if almost any one of them in perfection requires long it was their object to confound all common sense, time and practice, with powers originally fitted, and and the distinctions of good and evil, by means of a turn of mind particularly devoted to them. It does traditional maxims and preconceived notions, taken not require more than this to enable the learned can- upon trust, and increasing in absurdity with increase didate to arrive, by painful study, at a Doctor's de- of age. They pile hypothesis on hypothesis, moungree and a fellowship, and to eat, drink, and sleep tain-high, till it is impossible to come at the plain the rest of his life!
truth on any question. They see things not as they The thing is plain. All that men really under-'are, but as they find them in books; and «wink and
BY WILLIAM J. PA BODIE.
shut their apprehensions up,” in order that they may GO FORTH INTO THE FIELDS.
Go forth into the fields, in maintaining contradictions, and rendering non-Ye dwellers in the city's troubled mart! sense sacred. There is no dogma, however fierce or Go forth and know the influence nature yields, foolish, to which these persons have not set their
To soothe the wearied heart. seals, and tried to impose on the understandings of their followers, as the will of Heaven, clothed with Leave ye the severish strife, all the terrors and sanctions of religion. How little The jostling, eager, self-devoted throng ;has the human understanding been directed to find | Ten thousand voices, waked anew to life, out the true and useful! How much ingenuity has Call you with sweetest song. been thrown away in the defence of creeds and systems! How much time and talents have been wasted Hark!-from each fresh clad bough, in theological controversy, in law, in politics, in Or blissful soaring in the golden air, verbal criticism, in judicial astrology, and in finding Glad birds, with joyous music, bid you now out the art of making gold! What actual benefit do we To Spring's loved haunts repair. reap from the writings of a Laud or a Whitgift, or of Bishop Bull or Bishop Waterland, or Prideaux’ Con. The silvery-gleaming rills nections, or Beausobre, or Calmet, or St. Augustine, Lure, with soft murmurs, from the grassy lea, or Puffendorf, or Vattel, or from the more literal but Or, gaily dancing down the sunny hills, equally learned and unprofitable labours of Scaliger,
Call loudly in their glee ! Cardan, and Scioppius? How many grains of sense are there in their thousand folio or quarto volumes ? | With breath all odorous from her blossomy chase,
And the young wanton breeze, What would the world lose, if they were committed to In voice low whispering 'mong the embowering trees, the flames to-morrow? Or are they not already “gone
Woos you to her embrace. to the vault of all the Capulets?" Yet all these were oracles in their time, and would have scoffed at you Go-breathe the air of heaven, or me, at common sense and human nature, for dif- Where violets meekly smile upon your way; fering with them. It is our turn to laugh now. Or on some pine-crowned summit, tempest-riverr,
To conclude this subject. The most sensible peo Your wandering footsteps stay. ple to be met with in society are men of business and of the world, who argue from what they see and
Seek ye the solemn wood, know, instead of spinning cobweb distinctions of Whose giant trunks a verdant roof uprear, what things ought to be. Women have often more of And listen while the roar of some far flood what is called good sense than men.
They have Thrills the young leaves with fear! fewer pretensions ; are less implicated in theories ;
Stand by the tranquil lake, and judge of objects more from their immediate and Sleeping 'mid rocky banks abrupt and high, involuntary impression on the mind, and, therefore, Save when the wild-bird's wing its surface break, more truly and naturally. They cannot reason
Chequering the mirrored sky;wrong; for they do not reason at all. They do not think or speak by rule; and they have in general And if within your breast more eloquence and wit, as well as sense, on that Hallowed to nature's touch, one chord remain ; account. By their wit, sense, and eloquence toge- If aught save worldly honors find you blest, ther, they generally contrive to govern their hús Or hope of sordid gainbands. Their style, when they write to their friends, (not for the booksellers,) is better than that of most
A strange delight shall thrill, authors. Uneducated people have most exuberance
A quiet joy brood o'er you like a dove ; of invention, and the greatest freedom from prejudice. Earth’s placid beauty shall your bosom fill, Shakespear's was evidently an uneducated mind,
Stirring its depths with love. both in the freshness of his imagination, and in the
0, in the calm, still hours, variety of his views; as Milton's was scholastic, in The holy sabbath hours, when sleeps the air, the texture both of his thoughts and feelings. Shake And heaven, and earth, decked with her beanteous spear had not been accustomed to write themes at
flowers, school in favour of virtue or against vice. To this Lie hushed in breathless prayer; we owe the unaffected, but healthy tone of his dramatic morality. If we wish to know the force of Pass ye the proud fane by, human genius, we should read Shakespear. If we The vaulted aisles, by Haunting folly trod, wish to see the insignificance of human learning, we And, 'neath the temple of the uplifted sky, may study his commentators.
Go forth and worship God!
God wills, man hopes : in common souls
Hope is but vague and undefined, Till from the poet's tongue the message rolls
A blessing to his kind.
Never did Poesy appear
So full of heaven to me as when I saw how it would pierce through pride and fear,
To the lives of coarsest men.
I thought, these men will carry hence
Promptings their former life above, And something of a finer reverence
For beauty, truth, and love.
Freely among his children all,
Wherein some grains may fall.
Of a more true and open life,
With way-side beauty rife.
Some wild germs of a higher birth,
Whose fragrance fills the earth.
It may be glorious to write
Thonghts that shall glad the two or three High souls like those far stars that come in sight
Once in a century;
But better far it is to speak
One simple word, which now and then Shall waken their free nature in the weak,
And friendless sons of men;
To write some earnest verse or line,
Which, seeking not the praise of art, Shall make a clearer faith and manhood shine
In the untutored heart.
Within the hearts of all men lie
These promises of wider bliss, Which blossom into hopes that cannot die,
In sunny hours like this.
He who doth this, in verse or prose,
May be forgotten in his day, But surely shall be crowned at last with those
Who live and speak for aye.
All that hath been majestical
In life or death, since time began, Is native in the simple heart of all,
The angel heart of man.
And thus, among the untaught poor,
Great deeds and feelings find a home, That cast in shadow all the golden lore
Of classic Greece or Rome.
0, mighty brother-soul of man,
Where'er thou art, in low or high, Thy skyey arches with exulting span
The setting of a great hope is like the setting of the sun. The brightness of our life is gone. Shadows of evening fall around us, and the world seems but a dim reflection,-itself a broader shadow. look forward into the coming, lonely night. The soul withdraws into itself. The stars arise, and the night is holy.
the upward spirit of the age. They did not emanate
from those who in wonder and awe were styled The world's Eras, for the most part, have been prophets, but from those who were of the people, mighty efforts of courage or intellect, perverted to and uttered what many felt and acknowledged, and base uses. The love of what is noblest has not osten
so shall be honored even when a purer philosophy been honored by pillar, or temple, or poet's song, or shall have pointed out to mankind some flaws in stateman's advocacy, or orator's eulogium, or bis- their positions. Magna Charta shall not bave a torian's record. Tyrtæus, because he was full of
name more imperishable than they. The world's the spirit of carnage, has always sung of battle-fields; archives do not contain nobler voices from masses and as his songs were to Spartans, Spartans treasur. of men. They are Eras in the march of Soul. ed them up above any purer strains.
I. noble aspirations doubtless graced the ages that have fled. The heart of man, though not perfect, has fre
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. quently beat for the true and right. Demosthenes,
IN CONGRESS, JULY 4, 1776. though a coward at Chæronea, was bold for Freedom in the popular assemblies; Tancred, though some. By the Representatives of the United States of Ame. times fierce, was often kind and pious; and even
rica, in Congress assembled. Xerxes, nurtured as he was with no feeling of When, in the course of human events, it becomes brotherhood for his millions of serfs, wept with in- necessary for one people to dissolve the political voluntary pity at what he conceived would be their bands which have connected them with another, and miserable fate. Then, too, Isaiah and Jeremiah and to assume among the powers of the earth the sepaDavid and Confucius and Socrates, by close union rate and equal station to which the laws of nature with God, felt and knew nobleness so in advance of and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect their age, that the truth of it all is not even yet for the opinions of mankind requires that they acknowledged by the mass of mankind. Then, too, should declare the causes which impel them to the thousands have gone down to their graves unwept separation. and unremembered, whose voices full of divine ac We hold these truths to be self-evident- that all cents, falling upon ears not ready to receive them, men are created equal; that they are endowed by died with the passing breeze.
their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that The high task of weaving the fragments of nobleness among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of bapthat remain into a Philosophico-Religious history, and piness. That, to secure these rights, governments deducing from them invaluable conclusions with re- are instituted among men, deriving their just powers gard to God's government and man's duty, is reserv- from the consent of the governed; that whenever ed for some Freeman whose heart beats warmly for any form of government becomes destructive of these the right, and whose intellect can recognize truth even ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to when covered by the dust which Malice and Ignorance abolish it, and to institute a new government, lay. have so liberally flung upon it. We need that the Soul's ing its foundation on such principles, and organizing progress from its lower to its higher destinies should its powers in such form, as to them shall seem be exhibited in the strong light of history. We need most likely to effect their safety and bappiness. to be assured by infallible proofs that each age has Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments made advances upon that which preceded it, even long established should not be changed for light and when at first glance the reverse would appear; and transient causes ; and accordingly all experience that in every age Love when exerted has been more hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to sufpotent than Hate and Violence to bring men to its fer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themmeasures ; and that Freedom bas never led to license, selves by abolishing the forms to which they are but Tyranny always; and that Truth with her pure accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and confiding aspect has ever been more revered even by usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, her enemies, than Falsehood with her gorgeous trap- evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despings and millions in her train. We need to have potism, it is their right, it is their duty to throw off our Infidelity, in God's goodness and power, rebuked such government, and to provide new guards for by stern facts that shall shame us into heroism that their future security. Such has been the patient will not doubt of victory in God's causes, but will sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the be as fully assured of it when arming for the assault necessity which constrains them to alter their formas if the white flag already streamed from the bat. er systems of government. The history of the pretlements. We need that no storm breaking upon sent King of Great Britain is a history of repeated our brows should quench the fire of hope that burns injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object in our bosoms.
the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these Within a few years have appeared three docu- States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a ments, which are worthy of all note as indicating candid world.
He has refused his assent to laws, the most whole For abolishing the free system of English law in some and necessary for the public good.
a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbiHe has forbidden his governors to pass laws of trary government and enlarging its boundaries so as immediate and pressing importance, unless suspend to render it at once an example and fit instrument ed in their operation, till his assent should be ob- for introducing the same absolute rule into these tained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly colonies : neglected to attend to them.
For taking away our charters, abolishing our most He has refused to pass other laws for the accom- valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms modation of large districts of people, unless those of our governments :people would relinquish the right of representation For suspending our own Legislatures, and declarin the legislature-a right inestimable to them, and ing themselves invested with power, to legislate for formidable to tyrants only.
us in all cases whatsoever. He has called together legislative bodies at places He has abdicated government here, by declaring unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the repo- us out of his protection, and waging war against us. sitory of their public records, for the sole purpose of He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeated people. ly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions He is, at this time, transporting large armies of on the rights of the people.
foreign mercenaries to complete the work of death, He has refused for a long time after such disso- desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumlutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the stances of cruelty and perfidy, scarcely paralleled in legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the returned to the people at large, for their exercise; head of a civilized nation. the state remaining in the mean time exposed to all He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken capthe danger of invasion from without, and convu ons tive on the high seas, to bear arms against their within.
country, to become the executioners of their friends He has endeavored to prevent the population of and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, for naturalization of foreigners : refusing to pass and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of others to encourage their migration hither, and rais- our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose ing the conditions of new appropriations of lands. known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruc,
He has obstructed the administration of justice, tion of all ages, sexes, and conditions. by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judi. In every stage of these oppressions, we have peciary powers.
titioned for redress, in the most humble terms: our He has made judges dependent on his will alone, repeated petitions have been answered only by refor the tenure of their offices, and the amount and peated injury. A prince whose character is thus payment of their salaries.
marked by every act which may define a tyrant, is He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent unfit to be the ruler of a free people. hither swarms of officers, to harass our people and Nor have we been wanting in attention to our eat out their substance.
British brethren. We have warned them, from time He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing to time, of attempts made by their legislature, to armies, without the consent of our Legislatures. extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
He has affected to render the military independent have reminded them of the circumstances of our of, and superior to, the civil power.
emigration and settlement here. We have appealed He has combined with others, to subject us to a to their native justice and magnanimity, and we jurisdiction, foreign to our Constitution, and unac- have conjured them by the ties of our common kinknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to dred, to disavow these usurpations, which would their acts of pretended legislation :
inevitably interrupt our connections and correspon. For quartering large bodies of armed troops among dence. They, too, have been deaf to the voice of us :
justice and consanguinity. We must therefore acFor protecting them by a mock trial, from punish- quiesce in the necessity, which denounces our sepament for any marder which they should commit on ration, and hold them, as we hold the rest of manthe inhabitants of these states :
kind-enemies in war-in peace, friends. For cutting off our trade with all parts of the We, therefore, the Representatives of the United world :
States of America, in General Congress assembled, For imposing taxes on us without our consent : appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world, for the
For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by of trial by jury :
the authority of the good people of these colonies, For transporting us beyond seas, to be tried for solemnly publish and declare, that these United Co. pretended offences :
lonies are, and of right ought to be, free and inde