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the "insular patriotism” of the Englishman abroad, who is said to go about “like a puritan in a cathedral, longing to break down the symbols of an erroneous worship”; or with that “model Englishman," as he is called in this one particular, Robinson Crusoe, who, on finding an idol set up in a barbarous corner of Asia, could not refrain from burning it at the risk of his life, and without even the pretence of converting the ignorant heathens, merely by way of relieving his feelings. “He felt it to be absolutely incumbent upon him to insult the stupid idolaters, though he had no chance of preaching to them, or explaining his motives.” But ce cher Robinson is rather an exaggerated type of the model Englishman as now understood. Not so perhaps John Howard, who writes in one of his letters from Rome: “The Pope passed very close to me yesterday ; he waved his hand to bless me. I bowed, but not kneeling, some of the cardinals were displeased. But I never can nor will prostrate myself to any human creature or invention, as I should tremble at the thought of the adoration I have seen paid to him and the wafer.”

My Lord Chesterfield is a proper type of the man of the world's theory and practice as regards Protestant recognition, abroad, of Roman error. To his son at Rome he writes, after urging him to be presented to his holiness, and to kiss his slipper with a will, if need be : “For I would never deprive myself of anything that I wanted to do or see by refusing to comply with an established custom.” The earl goes on to say: “When I was in Catholic, countries, I never declined kneeling in their churches at their elevation, nor elsewhere when the host went by. It is a complaisance due to the custom of the place, and by no means, as some silly people have imagined, an implied approbation of their doctrine. Bodily attitudes and situations are things so very indifferent in themselves, that I would quarrel with nobody about them.” Possibly the noble lord would have been ready, for a consideration, with Themistocles to worship the king of Persia ;l or

1 Being assured by Artabanus that it would be an infringement of the with Napoleon I. to play the devout Mussulman? pro re natâ. There is a rather curious passage in the memoir of the late Dr. Ebenezer Henderson, in which admiration is claimed for one Pastor Gossner, a “ zealous and awakening preacher," once the curate and pupil (as afterwards the biographer) of Martin Boos, and who had long “ been freed from the error chains of popery, though he had not as yet thrown off the outward badge of servitude to Rome.” When asked why he still adhered to a communion which he no longer approved, he was wont to reply: “Because I compassionate the destitute state of those in whose church I have been nurtured, and am anxious to preach to them the pure, simple, unadulterated gospel of the grace of God; whereas if I were to own myself a Protestant, not one of them would ever come to hear me.” When asked how he could sanction the popish ceremonies by kneeling at the tinkling of a bell before an altar which in heart he had forsworn, he made answer: “While I kneel there I take no note of the mummery that is going on around ; I am wrestling with God for a blessing on the word that I am about to proclaim to the multitude.” With some naïveté Dr. Henderson remarks that “there will be a difference of opinion as to the validity of his reasoning, the soundness of his policy, the propriety of his conduct.”2 The spirit of the apologist is of no remote affinity with that of Luther in regard of the

custom of the country for the king to admit any one to audience that did not worship him, Themistocles replied: “My business, Artabanus, is to add to the king's honour and power ; therefore I will comply with your customs, since the god that has exalted the Persians will have it so... So let this be no hindrance to my interview with the king.”—Plutarch, Life of Themistocles.

1 When in Egypt in 1798, Napoleon made all his troops join with the multitude in celebrating the festival in honour of the inundation of the Nile ; he took part with the scheiks and imauns in the ceremonies at the great mosque; joined in the responses in their litanies like the faithful Mussulmans; and even, says Alison, “balanced his body and moved his head in imitation of the Mahometan custom.”—History of Europe, chap. xxvi.

2 Be it added, however, that the Pastor Gossner did not persevere in this course, although “it is certain that his conscience did not then condemn him in the thing which he allowed ; certain also that the end which he had in view was very fully attained.”

Count di Cattinara (Mercurino Arborio), the eloquent and powerful chancellor of Charles V. at Aachen, in 1520, who was always the advocate of lenient and conciliatory measures towards the Protestant reformers, insomuch that Dr. Martin said, in one of his letters, that perhaps God, to help them, had raised up this man to be like Naaman the Syrian, who believed in the Lord of hosts, although he went in with his master to bow himself in the house of Rimmon.

Cornelia Knight records, in her Diary in Rome, the attendance there at high mass at St. Peter's, on Christmas Day (1783), of the Emperor Joseph II. and Gustavus III. of Sweden, and mentions that the king at first hesitated about kneeling, and asked the emperor what he should do: “Do as I do,” replied Joseph. “But I am not of your communion,” rejoined the other. “Well,” resumed the emperor, “believe what you will; but as you came here of your own choice, you should act so as not to scandalise others.” Gustavus took the hint, and knelt down. But no men on earth can be more tolerant than the Romans, according to Madame de Stäel, who makes them out to have been no way displeased, for instance, at her Oswald's omitting to join the kneeling crowd of supplicants ? in the Coliseum. In one of her letters to Bishop

1 Miss Knight herself was eminently disposed to do at Rome as Rome does, whenever the compliance was practicable ; above all, whenever it seemed innocently gratifying to the Romans. She tells complacently how on one occasion of a “demonstrative” sort in the streets, she was standing with her friends at the windows to “look at the people as they marched past in an orderly manner. They looked up, and, in a cheerful tone, desired us to cry Viva il Papa! which we did very willingly, and added Viva mille anni ! for which they applauded us. One of them, however, a well dressed young man, said, with an air of drollery, ‘But will you cry Viva la Santa Chiesa ?' Vivan tutte le Chiesi !' cried I ; to which he replied, Brava / Bravissima !'" Woman's wit was here good at need. It was the anti-republican bent of the demonstration that won Miss Knight's sympathy, however.

2 Who, when the Capuchin preacher threw himself on his knees before an altar, crying, "Mercy and pity !” followed his example; and the appeal from wretchedness to compassion, from earth to heaven, echoing through the classic porticoes, was provocative of “a deeply pious feeling in the soul's inmost sanctuary. Oswald shuddered; he remained standing, that he might not pretend to a faith which was not his own; yet it cost him an

Burgess, great interest is expressed by Hannah More in the fate of an army lieutenant, “who is broke, and for ever disqualified to serve,” because he “could not wound his conscience by joining, as an officer, in firing, bell-ringing, etc., in a popish procession at Malta. He has been to see me. He is a very sensible, correct young man ; but, though connected very highly, and a relation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, he is left to starve for disobeying orders. I will not say whether he was right or wrong, but surely there are greater sins left unpunished than following the dictates of a too tender conscience.” Edward Irving, fresh from a tour in Ireland, related at a party at which Dr. Chalmers was present, his going to a Roman Catholic chapel in Dublin, to see high mass performed, a ceremony which he had never witnessed, and how, to escape observation, he ensconced himself behind a pillar, where he stood. Every now and then, however, an old woman behind himl pulled him by the skirts, saying, “Sure you'll go down on your knees.” “And did you go down ?” asked one of the, elders of St. John's,—the church which then counted both Chalmers and Irving its ministers. “I went down at last, both to please the old woman, and to prevent the tails of my coat being torn off by the tugs she was constantly giving.” The question as to whether Mr. Irving should have done this or not was raised and keenly discussed. Dr. Chalmers, his biographer tells us, said nothing: the discussion closed, and conversation took another turn, while the doctor stood still in dreamy abstraction, as his manner was. He was evidently, says Dr. Hanna,“ still busy trying to settle the quæstio vexata satisfactorily to his own mind; nor was it till some practical question had to be determined that he came out of his

effort to forbear from this fellowship with mortals, whoever they were, thus humbling themselves before their God.”-.Corinne, livre ix., chap. ii.

1 Was he reminded of Madge Wildfire's similar manipulation of Jeanie Deans, during the service at an English church? Jeanie's perplexity at the changes of posture was not much relieved by her crazy companion's taking the opportunity to "exercise authority over her, pulling her up and pushing her down with a bustling assiduity, which Jeanie felt must make them the objects of painful attention.”

abstraction.” No doubt he recurred anon to the quæstio as one still vexanda.

Brydone mentions in his travels the case of an Englishman who attended mass at a church in Naples, through curiosity, and on the elevation of the host remained standing, while those around knelt; for this he was reproved by a gentleman near him, as a violation of the rules of delicacy and good breeding, in thus shocking the feelings of the congregation. He answered that he did not believe in the real presence; “No more do I, sir," was the reply, “and yet you see I kneel.” Archbishop Whately, without attempting to vindicate the conduct of the Englishman, who was under no compulsion to be present at a service in which he scrupled to join, takes or makes occasion to remark, that the Neapolitan, or Mr. Brydone, would probably have been disposed, if entrusted with the government of any country, to compel every one's compliance, in all points, with whatever the feeling of the people required ; not only to kneel before the host, but to attend in processions the image of St. Januarius, etc., if their omitting it would be likely to give offence.“ The plea of conscientious scruple they would not have understood.” 2

THE SPOTS OF THE LEOPARD, AND THE WALLOW

ING OF THE SOW.

JEREMIAH xiii. 23 ; 2 PETER ii. 22. ETWEEN the pard and the swine there is a distinction D not without a difference, and a marked one, in all that

1 Apply the lines in Milton :

Chor. Where the heart joins not, outward acts defile not.
Samson. Where outward force constrains, the sentence holds.

But who constrains me to the temple of Dagon,
Not dragging ? etc...

-Samson Agonistes, 1. 1368–72. 2 Dr. Whately was convinced, and prompt to assert his conviction, that atheists, should they ever become the predominant party, would persecute religion. See his Essays on the Kingdom of Christ, 1., § 13.

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