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The conclusion, that it appears to me ought to be the old ridiculous notions of monopoly, &c. &c. are the 8th March, they say, “the extended operations arrived at, is, that the ox ought to be regarded as an wearing away so fast, and affairs, in consequence, in cotton are founded on the presumption that the animal to be fattened and killed, but who may in are bearing å so much better aspect, that there is supply for the year will not equal the consumption. the mean time be made to contribute to his support, scarcely any thing he can ask for that he cannot ob- On this important question, as it 80 mainly depends by assisting in the labours of the farm.
tain. For instance, look at the “unmeaning oaths on the American crop, a more correct opinion may I had intended to make a few observations upon and obsolete statutes"* swept away by the surrender be formed in America than in this country. Our “Columella’s” proposition to substitute mules for of the charter of the Levant company. I still think import for the first two months of this year, includhorses, possessing, as they do, some of the disad- it possible the East India company may partially ing 9,537 bags from Egypt, is 66,823, being an in vantages of each kind of stock under discussion, submit to a similar arrangement, if they can derive crease of 2,634 bags on the imports of the two first without their respective advantages—but I have al- any advantage from it to their cottons and sugars.t months of 1824.” But these Liverpool letter writers ready far exceeded the limits proposed to myself. But, we shall soon hear of a property tax, and an are droll fellows. One in the National Gazette, of
C. almost total repeal of the assessed and colonial the 16th of March says, “from the prevalence of P. S. I take this opportunity of correcting a mis taxes and if the East India company see this, and easterly winds the import is nearly suspended." -take in my former communication. In adverting to the West India proprietors also, it will give a very Another, in the Charleston Mercury, of the 15th of the use of oxen upon the king of England's farm, different complexion to all their affairs.
March, says, “the import of the week is 14,000, of through inadvertence, it was said to be his Norfolk,
Mr. Lowe (p. 395, London edition,) says, that in which 10,000 are Egyptian.” To be sure this is not instead of bis Windsor farm. The printer, also, by in- the event of new taxes being called for, a property quite a suspended commerce. But their contradicserting over for one, in the 5th line and 3d word, (vol. tax of 21, or even 5 per cent, would be preferred to tions are curious. Many of them seem to have stu6, p. 388,) has entirely perverted my meaning; the a revival of such duties as those on malt
, salt, lea- died Geoffry of Monmouth. amount of which was, 'that the ox advocates had ther, coals, or the house and window tax.
A writer in the Augusta Chronicle has presumed hitherto walked their hobby undisturbed through
Mr. L. (p. 389,) states, as imposts bearing on pro- there will not be a bale left in Great Britain, in the pages of the Farmer, and I thought it but rea- ductive industry, various taxes amounting to 30 mil- January, 1826." However, if he will refer to the sonable that the horsemen should, in turn, canter lions pounds. Leather, cotton, paper, glass, can- New York Mercantile Advertiser, of the 8th of April, their favourites upon the same ground. C.
dles and tallow, bricks and tiles, auction duties, (or Charleston Mercury, of the 19th of April,; he hemp and stareh-these produce about 2,700,0001., will find be has made a slight mistake, as to the con
sugar produces about 3,000,000l.; and the assessed sumption of Great Britain, of only 258,446 bales! COTTON
taxes about 4,500,0001.--in all, 10,200,000l. Now,
as in 1815 the property tax, at 10 per cent, produced
RED CLOVER AND RUTA BAGA. Sir,
cent tax now, would produce a sum very little short In the National Gazette, of the 19th April, is to of sufficient to discharge all these taxes.
Mecklenburgh County, N. C., April 19, 1825.
What. be found an extract of a letter received at New then, would be the result? The discharge of the
DEAR SIR, York, from a French manufacturer, stating the sugar from duties--of the cotton also; and, indeed,
I must give you a description how the Northern Egyptian cotton to be “very inserior (11 per cent.) all the above enumerated articles.
Red Clover grows in this section; also the Swedish this year,” (mark, this year, and that 5 or 6 perj The public cry as to the duty on salt has procur-Turnip or Ruta Baga. cent'is sand.” “We (says the editor,) are confident. ed its repeal. And how was this effected? "By Sir
On the 26th February, 1824, I measured out one that no permanent rivalry is to be apprehended” by Thomas Bernard, and his friends, constantly ap- acre of old worn out ground, consisting chiefly of Immediately under this sage paragraph, there is ductiveness. Now, Sir H. Davy (Agricultural Che-70f old lime, from the lime rat--21 loads in all;
pealing to the publie on its impolicy and real unpro then hauled out 7 loads stable manure, 7 old ashes, another, stating that cut of 20,583 bales, there mistry, Phila. 1821, p. 60,) says, the nutritive were 10,200 Egyptian sold at Liverpool, on the perties of sugar are well known. Sie the British then harrowed it and broke it up again; and then 15th March. The price is not stated, but in the market has been overstocked with this article from sowed four quarts of red clover seed, with half a Gazette of the 14th April
, there is another Liver- the West India islands, proposals have been made bushel of oats on it, and l-arrowed them in the 1st pool account of the sale (on the 14th of March,) of for applying it as the food of cattle; experiments of Mareh. in two weeks the oats and clover came 17,120 bales--9,471 of Boweds at 11: to 15d, and have been made, which prove they may be fattoned up, and grew very well, particularly the oats and 2,308 Egyptian at 13} to 15d. llere we see the by it, but dilliculties, connected with the duties laid weeds, which I thought would have destroyed the lowest Egyptian 2: higher than the lowest Boweds, on sugar, have hitherto prevented the plan being clover: About the 25th of June, I had the oats and and not one word about deficiency of quality, sand, tried to any extent.”
weeds mowed off, and the clover took a start to &c.-a fact worth ten thousand arguments, or one
If Sir H. Davy's doctrines should gain ground, grow-but after that time we had a severe drought, million rash assertions.
perhaps these dijficulties may be removed. But cui which burnt nearly all the tops of the clover. ToThere is, I fear, a miserable mania that will lead bono? perhaps you will say–what have we to do wards the fall it recovered from that and kept green to much inconvenience in the cotton market. A with British duties, &c.? In this case I would re
through the winter. I pastured it down with colts great source of the deception arises from a forget ply, that such is the rapid progress of improvement for about three weeks. The last of February, 1825, fulness of the fact that the present high prices in in that country, it is highly necessary this should it took a start to growing; since that time its growth Great Britain springs from speculation alone--that
, watch it, and carefully regard its every step. And, has been astonishing. I have been cutting at it now the stock of the speculators in fact, not finally sold of all the measures of Mr. Adams administration, i for two weeks for my horses and cattle, and all are out, is always liable to be thrown again upon the think his taking Mr. Rush into office is most to be remarkably fond of it. Where the ashes were thrown market, and hence that there is a danger of a heavy applauded. Though some persons are pleased to the clover is the best, generally about 2 feet high; fall—that the produce of the Carolinas and Georgia think that gentleman's talents not of a towering de- the stable manure second best; the lime does very the Gulf of Mexico intinitely exceeds that of past ligent and active mind must be to the events pass where there was no manure thrown, the clover is is nearly equal to past years-that the produce from scription, really believe that (alive, as every intel- well, though not so good as either of the others; years--that there is no danger from the Mediterra-iny around it, he will bring with him a mass of nean—and, finally, that the impulse given this year, practical knowledge, that, perhaps, men of higher not 2 inches in height, and quite thin, whereas the will lead to an immense quantity being planted the (not more useful,) ambition would not have pos
other is tall, thick, and quite rank. next year. Virginia will produce a large quantity, sessed.
The Ruta Baga I sowed the 29th July, in small if she has common luck; and, by having been accus
I have carried this communication to a lengti, ridges about two feet apart, and 18 inches in the tomed to a neater cultivation, will in all probability and made it more various than I intended; but the drill
. They came up well; I gave them two dressbe highly successful.
interest of the subject increased as I advanced, and ings with the hoe; they were the finest I ever saw, It is true the consumption is increasing in Great
you, as well as your readers, will, I hope, excuse its measuring from 20 to 25 inches in circumference. Britain; but the sources of its supply are also aug, prolixity.
Stock of all kind are very fond of them. They have menting in proportion-and the increasing value of
I am, sir, yours, &c.
surprised those people in this county that have the East India cotton is remarkable. It holds a
seen them, as they are a new thing here; and they much better proportionate price than it ever did in
have more strength than the white turnip. the market, and appears to me to be constantly im
P. S. Many persons are deceived by calculations. The Millet that I cultivated last summer, grew proving. Again, I perceive it is the intention of the In a letter from Messrs. Thornley, of Liverpool, of large and well, but the animals prefer our meadow Chancellor of the Exchequer to take the duty off
grass to it. It might do pretty well for a manure, colonial ashes. His funds are annually increasing, * See my last observations on Mr. Walsh and the by burying it in a ripe state. The Egyptian Grass and it may be possible he contemplates another re- cotton trade.
seed I could not get to grow at all. duction of West India and East India duties. He + See a communication in the Farmer, of 31st Decem
I remain, with respect, yours, can do it more easily than people imagine. Indeed,' ber, (vol. 6, p. 321,) dated 7th November, 1824.
JONAS C. RUDISILL.
THE USE OF EGGS.
hinder parts, and could not stand; penned her close. worse, they were all turned out but one, which as
On the 14th, had an incision made through the skin expected to die, and left for further attention. Carrington, Del. May 4, 1825.
over the right kidney, 24 or 3 inches long; raised About three hours after I again examined my flock, I have often read and heard so much said of the the skin on either side of the incision, so as to ad- fully calculating on the death of several at least. value of orchard grass, as induced me to try it. I mit the forefinger to the second joint; pulverised a With the exception of four they were all eating, sowed two acres in my orchard very thick by itself, small table spoonful of rosin, and slipped it with and apparently sprightly. The next morning nine and alongside of it red clover; no difference in the finger under the skin; then sewed up the inci- of them showed marks of disease. It is worthy of the quality of land. The first year mowed the closion with three stitches; same evening the sow was remark, that several of the above mentioned sheep ver, a good swarth, the orchard grass not worth walking. On the 20th, having all this time been sed were with lamb, and that nearly all the diseased mowing, turned the hogs and horses on it—they on corn, boiled in ley of wood ashes, she was appa- were among the best of the Rock. I infer, that poskept eating the clover, but never touched the or- rently well
. On the 21st, farrowed, pigs and sow sessing stronger appetites and possibly more wanchard grass, except when they were drove through doing well.
tonness, they ate more readily and plentifully of it, and then only with their hoofs. When hard Last fall, my hogs had the sore throat. I had tar this poisonous shrub. Like most other poisons of frosts had killed the clover and other pasture, the put in a trough; sprinkled powdered sulphur on it, the materia medica, the laurel possesses valuable horses and cows would eat it, though sparingly.-- and then corn; all of my hogs but one could eat of medicinal properties; but as there is no scarcity of The second year, the orchard grass got into coarse, it; that one could not open his jaws: when lying it in our country, I would advise every breeder of tussocky bunches, grew very rank, and made coarse down he would be heard breathing some distance. sheep carefully to eradicate it from his farm, or field light hay, little, if any better, than oat straw that It occurred to me that blistering might save him. I at least. It is equally destructive to all other stock. was cut green. It is not ten days earlier pasture had a shovel full of coals and hot embers emptied Among the Alleghany mountains, where the laurel than clover, and not half as good; the hay no better on the back of his neck, as he lay; he mended im- may be said to be indigenous, I am told that cattle than millet, which is bad enough. A horse that has mediately and got well. These two experiments are often poisoned by it, and eggs are in common been kept on the best clover and timothy hay for a have grown out of the rational, and medical gen use as the antidote. "The dose for a cow, four hen's benth of time, will eat oat, rye or wheat straw, in tlemen may account to you, perhaps, for their suc- eggs. But this shrub, so properly called lamb kill, preference to the good hay, for a day or two. I sup- cess. None of my hogs died with the sore throat, is also very abundant in many places between the pose they like a change, and accounts for their although the neighbourhood lost many.
mountains and the sea coast. It grows on lofty eating orchard grass and millet straw in preference
MARK HARDIN. rocky cliffs, in the coldest exposure and most barren to timothy, as I have seen stated; but keep a horse
soils. on millet or orchard grass for a month, after he has
I believe that the steep northern banks of most been eating good timothy and clover, and if he does SHEEP AND CATTLE POISONED BY IVY-CURED
BY of our rivers are well provided with it, so far at not fall off and look the worse, he must be very dif
least as their estuaries extend. The antidote to the ferent from my horses. When I first gave them
Loudon, April 6, 1825. poison is so cheap, so easily administered, and so millet, they left the timothy and eat it greedily--s0 Sir,
quickly efficacious, that the knowledge of it dethey did oat, rye and wheat straw; but after a day). Through the medium of your paper, I beg leave serves to be widely extended. And it is, perhaps, or two they would pull all the millet, &c. under to communicate to the farming community, what I worthy of investigation, whether eggs are not usetheir feet, and refuse eating until hunger forced deem an interesting circumstance in the manage- ful in other poisons of a similar kind. Hoping that them. I feel so satisfied with the trials I have made ment of that valuable animal, the sheep; and know- your valuable paper may long afford information with orchard grass and millet, that I shall never sow ing the interest which you take in all such subjects, to the agriculturist, any more for å crop. On strong rich land, I would proofs of which you have often given us, I shall I remain, very respectfully, advise to sow as much orchard grass as is sufficient make no farther apology for so doing. However we
Your obedient serv't, to keep the clover from lodging, and no more. I am may differ as agriculturists and manufacturers, and
HELVETIUS. fully of the opinion it is the best grass to sow with quarrel about these conflicting interests, sheep are clover to prevent its lodging, we have, on account of certainly a valuable part of our rural economy. Havits ripening at the same time the clover does; but ing lately been a witness to an efficacious remedy in PROCEEDINGS OF AGRICULTURAL SOthe hay is not so good as timothy: cutting the latter an incidental disease to which these animals are
CIETIES. before it is in bloom injures it, and the clover is al subject, I feel a strong desire that the knowledge of Communicated ry the Agricultural Society of the Valley, for ways ready for the scythe two weeks before the it might be made general to all the growers of wool
publication in the American Fariner. timothy.
THOMAS MASSEY. and lovers of mutton. I believe, Mr. Editor, that
PROOKING'S THRESHING MACHINE.
magnolium,) is very generally known to be destruc- The following letters from two distinguished in
tive to sheep. But I am of opinion that sheep very dividuals, in commendation of this valuable machine, I have read the trial of ploughs at Washing - frequently die from eating it, and the owner or shep- were read at the last meeting of the Agricultural ton. Wood's, or Freeborn's plough, appears to herd is all the time ignorant that this poisonous Society of the Valley, and ordered to be printed. hare run heavier than the Georgetown plough made evergreen was the cause. In this way, a few days The proprietor, Mr. Brooking, is now at capt. Barby Davis. Query-If the Wood's plough was no! since, I had nearly lost a number of my very best ton's, in this county. a folloro plough, the mould board of which is much
sheep; which I certainly should have done but for shorter in the ear than his sod plough? If it was a a timely discovery of the disease, and also of the Dear Sir,
Washington, December 12, 1824. fallow plough and the trial was made on hard ground antidote. A very small portion of this “favourite of that had been a long time unploughed, the trial is in the ancients," taken into the stomach of a sheep, of my departure for Washington, or I should have
I did not receive your letter till just upon the eve complete. Wood's, or Freeborn's ploughs, are made in a few hours will occasion his death. The symp. done myself the pleasure of answering it sooner. on the principle of an inclined plane, as laid down toms are ioaming at the mouth, then vomiting the You ask me to give you all the information in my by president Jefferson, in the first volume of the half masticated leaves and green juice, by which power, in relation to the machine constructed by New Edinburgh Encyclopædia, Am. ed. p. 242, and the mouth of the animal is discoloured-next suc- Mr. Brooking. They are very much used in the diagrams for constructing the mould board with the ceeds great debility, the creature staggers, and county of Orange and the adjoining counties, and least possible resistance, plate 6th, fig. 1 to 10. and death soon puts an end to the hopes of the shep-are, I believe, approved by all. With regard to is the only scientific rule I have ever seen.* These herd. As soon as I discovered my sheep with the the quantity which can be threshed per day, I am ploughs run easier to the eastward than any others symptoms just mentioned, knowing there was laurel not able to state it with precision, for this reasonthey have tried, and have taken the premiums at in the field, and suspecting the cause, I immediate-that, unless where the wheat bas been immediately Brighton and other places. Col. Timothy Picker- ly repaired to the spot, and found they had been about the machine, it has always threshed it as fast ing told me they had the preference in his neigh-eating it. bourhood to any others. I have three of different they were driven up, and an egs given to each of quent pauses, in consequence of threshing faster
By the advice of a worthy neighbour, as my team could supply it; indeed there are fresizes, and for different work. I prefer them to any the diseased, in the shape of a natural' bolus, by than it is hauled. You will understand, that it is our ploughs I ever used; they each save 3 or 4 a year in suply breaking the egg, and slipping the yolk and habit, not to stick the wheat in large stacks, but to smuth's work, besides the time lost in taking them to as much of the white as practicable down the throat put it up in the field in shocks, and to haul it as we the smith's shop, which is as much more. T. M.
of ihr ani'nal. To five or six of the sickest, I gave thresh it. This is usually done very soon after har
a go se's erg each. This prescription being so sin- vest; the wheat in the chaff is thrown into the graDISEASES OF HOGS.
guler and simple. I watched, very particularly, its nary, and thus is protected from the weavil. Four On the 13th February last, I had a sour heavy flest. Several of the sheep, soon after swallowing good horses are amply sufficient to operate them, with pigs, and so weak in the loins as to drag her the eve, pomited up the leaves and green juice, but and, when ordinary care is used, without in 'try to
none of the egg was discharged along with it. Per the horses. I do not think that they would perform * For all these, see American Farmer, vol. 2, p. 187, Iceiving in a short time that they were evidently not more laborious service, than in a wagon with the
ordinary loading As to the duration of the ma-stance, and the following is the result, being an ex- The foregoing is preceded by the following inchines, I cannot speak with certainty, further than tract of a letter from Wm. M. Barton, Esq., the troductory remarks: to say, that one of mine has been in operation, I zealous and indefatigable vice president of the Agri- . “The desire I felt of giving you every possible think from twelve to fourteen years, and promises, cultural Society of the Valley, to H. S. Turner, Esq., information, derivable from unquestionable sources, from appearance, to be capable of service for many one of the best and most enlightened practical far- as well as my own observation, in relation to the years to come; they will, of course, occasionally re- mers in the United States.]
threshing machine I have just got in operation, has quire some little repair, which however is altogether “Brooking's machine is turned by four horses, ex- prevented my acknowledging the receipt of your inconsiderable. I should think seven hands suffi- pending about the same labour that is usual on a farm letter until this period. I now do it with much pleacient to attend to one, excluding from that number(many of my neighbours who witnessed our experi- sure, because I believe I can, with propriety give those who are engaged in loading the carriages in ment, say much less.) The horses walk upon a such a description and character of the machine as the field, and in driving the carriages: and indeed path of 30 feet diameter, and are hitched to 4 levers will tempt your public spirit to an introduction of it that part of the hands engaged in driving the horses running through a perpendicular shaft, on the head in the county of Jefferson, where, in my opinion, which operate the machine, may be (except one,) of which is a cog wheel driving a cast iron wallower there is scarcely a farmer who should not be in poslittle boys of but little service any where else. fixed upon a shaft running into the beam; within session of one, and who would not find its labour
You are at liberty to lay this letter before the so- the barn upon the shaft is another wooden cog saving properties amply repay him, in one or two ciety. I regret that my professional occupations wheel
, which works a cast iron spur upon the axle years, its first cost.” have so absorbed my time as to prevent me from of the drum--so that the beaters are operated by giving you that detailed practical information de- two large wooden wheels and two smaîl cast iron rivable from the close personal superintendance of a ones; thus making the machine remarkable for its
HORTICULTURE, farmer who attends to his own affairs.
simplicity of construction. It occupies within the Yours, respectfully,
barn a space 20 feet one way and 10 the other. The Strawberry-Genus, Fragaria; Class, Icosandria;
P. P. BARBOU'R. straw is thrown out of a window cut opposite the Ilm. M. Barton, Esq. end of the machine, by netting attached to it. The
Order, Polygynia. wheat falls within, prepared for the fan. It is said
District of Columbia, May 8, 1825. Washington, December 15, 1824. these machines will get out 200 bushels of wheat in DEAR SIR, DEAR Sir,
a day. Having no wheat unthreshed, I cannot test On seeing your inquiries, made in the American Yours of the 20th ult. was received this morning. this fact. You will recollect, however, the Secreta- Farmer of the 6th inst., as to the sexes of the straw. I answer it with pleasure, because, as you justly re- ry of War, and his brother, Judge P. P. Barbour, berry plant, (fragaria,) in the desire to be servicemark, I take a deep interest in the agricultural im- state in their communications to me on the subject, able to your correspondents, in return, in some small provements of my native state; and because also, that for a constancy their hands get out one hun- degree, for the valuable information I often receive Bir. Brooking (James, I presume,) is a very worthy dred and fifty bushels a day." I threshed one hun- from you and them. I immediately resorted to my man, whom I should like to see succeeding.
dred and twenty-six bushels of oats, with seven strawberry beds, with the design of furnishing you Of the threshing machine alluded to in yours, I hands, in two hours and thirty-one minutes. It was with some plants of the hautboy, male and fehave had five built on my estate, having used them remarkably well done. From this experiment I be- male; (commonly so called;) but, as I apprehended for near twenty years. This fact of itself is the lieve two hundred bushels of wheat can be threshed from the state of the season, I found the flowers best evidence you can have of my conviction of daily.
passing away, and in such a state, that I fear it will their utility. Several of these machines were built “Brooking charges $120 for making these ma- not be easy to judge accrirately of their formation, hy Mr. Brooking and his brother. They are capa
chines, his employer finding every thing. The to- or to take drawings from them. A few of them are, ble, with a sufficient force, of getting out almost tal cost may be set down at $200.
however, sent with this. Of the male plant, I could any quantity. I usually drive 6 small mules, about
“The following is a list of the stuff required for find no flowers less advanced than those enclosedequal to four of your horses in strength. For a a single machine:
they having generally performed their functions for constancy, 150 bushels a day is as much as we
5 pieces 15 feet long, 4 by 16 inches square
3 thresh, to a machine. Running two a day on dif
Not having at hand the numbers of your last vo4 do 14
12 ferent parts of my estate, we get 300 bushels, which
lume, I have not been able to turn to that to which 3 do 12
16 soon enables me to clean my crop. One of my dis
you refer for instructions on the subject, from a Ma3 do 10
31 14 tant neighbours, captain W'm. Mallory, in the pre
ryland horticulturist; but in what you quote from 3 do
3 10 sence of several of his neighbours summoned to vit
him, there is no doubt he is correct. It is only in do
10 ness the experiment, got out upwards of 40 bushels in
the bautboy variety (fragaria muricata,) that any 3 do 12
4 an hour: but his wheat was short in straw and very
difficulty in the culture is experienced, on account 2 do 8
5 good. When the wheat is long, the quantity thresh
of the sexual difference in the plants. ed is of course diminished. I feel no hesitation in
14 scantling 14 feet long, 3 by 4
The fragaria is, by botanists, assigned to the saying that any man who raises 500 bushels of small
100 feet of common inch plank
class icosandria, consisting of such plants as bear grain, should bave a machine. I estimate that by
75 do of three-quarter plank
hermaphrodite flowers, of a particular character, them I have been enabled to raise a third more of The above to be of good pine and well seasoned; and capable, within themselves, of performing all wheat than I could without them. The time for
3 pieces 12 feet long, 3} by 9 inches square the operations of fructification; and this is the class 3 do 12
31 merly appropriated to treading, is now employed in
from which is derived our most esteemed fruits—the
3 do 12 iallowing. My greatest crop, made in 1819, was
order is polygynia, (having many styles,) and they 7500 bushels . To tread it would have required, of good white oak, and seasoned;
are described as having the perianthium, one leafed, with the loss of time from actual bad weather, and
One shaft 10 feet long, 22 inches diameter, hewn ten cleft--petals five, inserted in the calyx-filafrom the fear of such weather, the whole of the au
16 sides; one do. 16 feet long, hewn 12 sides, ments twenty, shorter than the corolla-anthers lutumn. As it was, with the machine, I threshed it either pine or oak; one beam 32 feet long, 14 nular-germs numerous, very small, collected into in about a month.
by 14 inches square at each end, and 22 by 14 one head-styles simple, inserted at the side of the I regret not to have received the proceedings re
in the middle; two levers 30 feet long, 5 by 12 germ-stigmas simple. ferred to. I thank you, however, for your kindness
inches square, of pine, if possible; 300 cogs 14 But the variety called the hautboy differs from in sending them--they may yet come to hand.
inches long, 2} by 44 square, split out and well this general character, (believed to be common to
seasoned.” I ofler you my respects,
all the other varieties,) inasmuch as its female flow“I shall with much pleasure obtain for you, when- er at least, is an imperfect hermaphrodite—imperJAMES BARBOUR. (I'm. M. Barton, Esq.
ever practicable, from my northern friends, infor- fect as to the male organs. On inspection, the fila
mation relative to the threshing machine described ments appear thicker and shorter than in the scarlet [On reading the above papers upon their being in No. 45, vol. 6, American Farmer. I have for and other strawberries, and the anthers are small sent to us for publication, the same defect was dis- some time entertained the opinion, that no machine and effete; and experience proves that these flowers covered which too often occurs in such cases-to operated by two horse power, could ihresh well a are, of themselves barren, or at best produce small wit: an omission to state the price of the machine. quantity that would justify its purchase. I believe and juiceless fruit. The germ is of the proper size, That is the first question asked by farmers on read the draught of two horses cannot possibly keep up and is found, when properly impregnated, to be ing accounts of newly invented agricultural ma- that regular motion which is so essential to clean fruitful. In the male plants, on the contrary, the chinery, and no account of them should ever be threshing. I shall be much pleased, however, if filaments are longer and more erect than in the published without stating the whole cost to be in- facts prove me to be in errour. I know the inventive common strawberry, and they have the anthers curred in putting the machinery in motion, and the alent of the northern people, and to them we have perfect, and the germ smaller--this too, is believed force and atiendance required to keep it going. We been, as we shall continue to be, indebted for much then to be what botanists term an imperfect hermahave waited for this information in the present in-Ithat is useful.”
phrodite, but predominating in the male organs-as
the other predominates in the female organs—and tary of the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, are in the height of about 3 feet from the floor, and the that thus dame nature has, in her whimsies, per general use throughout England, by farmers and wheel end of it about 11 inch lower than the other. mitted two mules in the vegetable world, when gentlemen who keep horses. They are calculated When two persons are employed in turning, the sufficiently approximated, to procreate and continue for the purpose of breaking oats and barley, fine power is frequently applied at A and B, in which the species.
enough for hogs and cattle, splitting beans or peas, case they lose their power at the same time, which In practice, it is well known to the observing hor- and grinding malt for private use. You, no doubt, causes a jerking motion; whereas, by applying the ticulturist, that there being, of this plant, but a small are aware that it is very common, in England, for power at C and B, as one loses, the other acquires proportion ordinarily of males to that of females, private families to brew their own malt liquor. In it in the same proportion-and the result of this the beds will, if nature is left to herself, be in great fine, it is a complete family Mill, and I have no doubt, arrangement is an uniform motion. The mill is set part barren—and that to remedy this, it is necessa- when it has had a fair trial in this country, its me-to grind fine or coarse by a screw on the wheel side: ry, in planting them, to intersperse the males among rits will be appreciated.
being set to your mind, fix the ferrule D close up to the females, in a certain ratio. One to about twelve The price i have fixed upon a mill of the size sent the bush; by this means the mill is kept up to its or fifteen, is enough; and the most attentive keep a is $25. After it has been exhibited, have the good work; the screw may then be turned back a little to separate plat of male plants, carefully treated, for ness to sell it for my account.
avoid the friction against the ball. A little neat's the purpose of the necessary occasional supply to
Your obedient serv't,
foot or sweet oil, should be put into the bushes frethe fruit bearing beds.
ZACHARIAH PARKES. quently
HORSE MILLS AND COTTON GINS.
South Carolina, April 29, 1825. Dear Sir,—I send you some holly berries. If dis- farm an effective, and well contrived Kibling Mili, appointment frequently happens respecting this fruit for grinding Indian corn, oats, rye and malt, which Sir, I am inclined to believe will be useful to persons
Having obtained some information relative to Mr. vegetating, it must be attributed to an unfortunate
Ellicot's (of Philadelphia,) Saw Mill, I beg to transselection. The trees are distinctly male and female; whose farms are distant from grist mills. some producing fruit, while others blossom and never
He has shown great liberality in giving every mit it to you, with a view to creating a greater infruit. My garden contains several trees of each sex. opportunity of fair trial, and I am satisfied, is terest in so useful a machine.
The castings for a two or four horse power Saig I recommend as the best method known to me, that himself assured of its utility. the berries be placed in a barrel, half barrel, or key,
As he wishes you, to make an experiment at the Mill will cost $120, the wrought iron work $77, the having a few holes bored in the bottom; that this Maryland Exhibition, I trust you will pardon my wooden work $103. patterns $12, the timber 976– vessel should be placed in the shade, and where it requesting you, to give as much publicity to his in-exclusive of the timber $312. may receive the drip from the gutter or eve of a tentions as practicable.
As the cotton gins have horizontal wheels, they house, and there to remain through the summer and
You know, that I am not disposed to promote the may be made to answer for the saw mill. The laiautumn, and in the month of October drill the seed fanciful inventions which some of my neighbours ter alone would cost $260—a grist mill, in addition, in a clean piece of ground, covering very light, and run away with, and therefore do not hastily take up from 50 to $150, according to the size of the stone. best with a coarse wire sifter. A cool and well a favourable impression, merely because a thing is A six inch stone would grind from 30 to 35 busheis shaded spot should be selected, the young plants
I am yours, truly,
of grain per diem. A fiftecn or-sia teen inch stone
JOIN HARE POWEL, has ground 55 bushels. The whole is very simple, being impatient of sun. If, early in March, after they have come up, you discover that they have
Cor. Sec. Penn. Igr. Soe'y, but my informant is more pleased with the grain
than with the saw mill, as a more useful machine been thrown up by the winter's frost, you should
on a plantation, for which he thinks it admirably carefully sift some good earth over them, to a suffi
adapted. Separately, the grain mill would cost cient depth to cover the roots; allowing for the light
from 60 to $160, in order to be made ready to be sifted earth to settle. In the seed-bed they should
attached to the horse propelling power. remain three years, and in February, March, or
I proposed to obtain a drawing, but was nnpleaApril, according to the climate, they should be care
santly disappointed by learning that Mr. E. is so fully tra: splanted into a nursery in rows three feet
much occupied in completing the orders he has reapart, by eighteen inches in the drill; and in this
ceived for these mills, that he cannot now spare they should remain until about two feet high. It is
time. However, I will hope that, ere long, he will in vain for you to expect a perfect hedge, unless
be able to give you a wood cut for the Farmer, of your plants are of equal size, and equal vigour; I do
the saw mill alone, the grist mill alone, and both, know that it is almost impossible to fill a vacant
connected with the cotton gin. place in a strong growing hedge of any kind; when,
Or its value upon plantations with a force of 100 therefore, you intend to plant your hedge, let your
negroes, and a consequent weekly allowance of 25 ground be neatly prepared, and select from your
bushels of corn, costing a toll of 3 bushels for grindnursery, beginning with the largest plants. It is an
ing, besides, perhaps, a day's journey for a wagon object that they should be well rooted, and if possible, the roots should not for five minutes be exposed
and team, you will easily form an estimate--not to
say any thing of the value arising from an ability to to sun or wind. No plant suffers more than the
crush the corn for the stock. We may also take holly, though all evergreens are more affected by
into account the use of the saw mill, and the saving exposure than deciduous trees. The Spring is the
of the sawed timber bill to all plantations. In many proper season to plant all evergreens, and at the
districts of this state (Colleton, for instance,) where moment when you discover in the bud symptoms of
the shape of the country does not give a fall for saw growing. The holly is the most beautiful and per
mills, they would give value to many acres of land, manent of all ornamental hedges; bears clipping; is not, like the cedar, injurious to vegetation, nor does
now, comparatively speaking, valueless. One of
their great benefits will be found in the means they it, like that, become ragged and unsightly; and, I think, has in the sharpness of its leaf, greater
afford to lesser capitalists, to employ themselves for
their own and their country's benefit. power of resistance than the cedar. To insure pro
These considerations unite in making me hope ductive seed, I have surrounded a fine berry-bearing
that Mr. E. will, at a convenient period, enable the plant with four male plants. No tree succeeds better
public to avail themselves of his ingenuity, and enaby layers than the holly.
ble him to be rewarded for his exertions.
I am, sir, &c.
RAIL-WAYS, CANALS, ROADS, &c.
The subject of internal improvement having atSir-Mills of the kind referred to in the enclosed Fix the mill firmly on a post large enough to fill tracted the attention of our citizens, the following letter from Col. J. H. Powel, corresponding secre- up the cheeks or side plates, keeping the spindle at remarks, several of which are the result of personal observation, during a tour in Europe, contain somethe remarkable facility they afford to transportation, a given weight, one ton for instance, as if the road, hints which may not be uninteresting.
tured by Zachariah Parkes.
may then prove the salvation of a country. Our by winding around the bases of these hills and thereThe great object of roads, canals, rail-ways, last war with England afforded melancholy demon- by preserving a level, were increased to double the bridges, steam and other engines, is to transport a stration of the force of this argument.*
length, viz. to ten miles. This is demonstrable in given weight, or to produce a given effect, with the Having premised these observations which are the following manner. One horse can draw on a least quantum of labour, and with 1. expedition, 2. applicable to every species of public works, it is in- level road on the plan of M'Adams, one ton, or one certainty, and 3. safety.
tended to inquire the extent to which ist, roads, 2d, ton and a half, the wagon inclusive, at the rate of In the following essay it is intended to inquire, to canals, 3d, rail-roads, are severally conducive to the three miles per hour,* whereas, his power of draught, what extent these objects are attained by these seve-objects mentioned in the commencement of this by the dynamometer ranges only from 80 to 180 ral inventions, previously submitting the following essay. In this place we must repeat the demonstra- pounds—the maximum obtained for a continued observations. In these labour-saving machines, if ble law of motion, “that any given weight, however length of time from excellent horses, with the foremore labour (or what is equivalent, money,) is ex- great, may be transported to any given station, by any going velocity, assuming the average at 120 pounds, pended in their erection, than can be saved by their pover, however trifling—provided the line of motion (a liberal estimate,) a horse can consequently raise assistance, the sound dictates of political economy be horizontal, and friction and the resistance of the by the medium of a pulley, or other power where would forbid their adoption; this inference may ap- atmosphere be removed.". This, it is obvious, can the friction does not exceed twenty pounds-one pear a truism to many, but has been so frequently never be completely attained in practice; the most hundred pounds perpendicularly at the rate of three neglected in practice, to the great detriment of com- simple and perfect machinery can overcome a por- miles per hour; or a horse can raise perpendicularly monwealths,* that it cannot too frequently be pre- tion only of die obstacles by which motion is im- only one thirtieth of the weight he is capable of sented to our view, the neglect of it having occasion-peded. Various methods have been attempted to drawing horizontally, with the same velocity, on a ed losses of enormous magnitude to individuals, who partially accomplish this object. 1st. Roads are the turnpike. have embarked their capital in these enterprizes most ancient and obvious improvements in the art
Even the diminution of distance is inconsiderable. from motives of patriotism or interest, without a of transportation; which was previously effected by On some steep hills a line over the summit, or on a due consideration of the causes which alone could dragging the weight, unassisted by wheel carriages, level around the base, is nearly of similar length; produce the result they anticipated. Capital, (which over the natural surface of the country, abounding this occurs in a hill of one hundred feet elevation, otherwise would have been employed in agriculture, with rocks, swamps, trees, and other obstacles.
when a road over its summit, is one thousand feet commerce, or manufactures, and have produced the some countries, where civilization has made little in length—if the remaining sides be abrupt, a road usual returns of interest,) has been squandered in progress, this tedious and laborious method prevails may be sometimes conducted around the base, of a schemes, which the projectors wildly imagined to at the present hour. Sometimes the weight is placed length not greatly exceeding the former, a weight be improvements, which have not enriched the pub- on the backs of men or other animals; this prevails could be drawn on the latter in half the time, or lic, whilst they made them poor indeed. In these in Spain and the late Spanish colonies generally. with half the labour it would require on the former, instances, individual losses are national impoverish- The prodigious advantage resulting from science or if the level road should require double the disment
may be appreciated by reflecting that a weight, tance, the weight would require only the same It is not intended to assert that the production of which, on an improved rail-road, could be trans- moving power. The delay always occasioned by the average rate of interest of any country is the ported with facility by the agency of a single horse, hills has given rise to the proverb, “the longest way exclusive test of the utility of works constructed for would, among our red brethren, require the labori- round is the shortest way home." By the absurd the public accommodation. ous application of a 1000 squaw power to remove.
practices alluded to, even ground is not saved; for When works are executed at the expense of the Wheel carriages were in due time invented; on
the extra labour expended in toiling to the summit government, although no tolls be collected, (which common road, or even turnpike, they encounter nu- of these hills, requires an additional number of is the case, generally, on the continent of Europe, merous obstacles: 1st, if the soil be soft, (u bich is horses to be maintained for this purpose; the ground the nation may be benefited by their operation-- always the case to a certain extent, particularly in requisite for their support is incalculably more than if, firstly, the commerce, which is transacted by moist weather, or in sandy districts,) it accumulates the trifle saved by the shortness of the road. An their assistance, be sufficiently extensive to enable in front of the wheels, and however level the general apparent exception to the policy here recommended the government, (if deemed expedient to levy tolls,) surfuce of the road may appear, the carriage whrels must now be mentioned. Several persons accusto receive an amount equivalent to the interest of are perpetually toiling up hill. 2d. Derp ruts occa- tomed to travelliny, have observed, that when a the capital expended in their erection and annual sion so much friction, that the progress of the car-horse has for a long time drawn on a perfect level, repairs, although no tolls be collected in fact, if the riage is always impeded, and sometimes entirely if a very slight ascent and descent occurs,
appears capacity of yielding them be established by any evi- stopped, and only extricated by the application of to be refreshed; the reason assigned is, that another dence, the effect is beneficial. The state will, in this very great force. To these may be added, 3d, im- set of muscles are called into action, allowing those case, be benefited by the additional wealth of her pediments from stones and other opposing bodies, fatigued some repose: some difference of opinion, inhabitants, and the increase of her population- and 1th, frequent hills of great elevation.
however, prevails on this subject. (the certain consequence of the facility of mainte- Turnpikes are the next improvements. As they
Having now considered the benefits resulting from nance, produced by an easy access to market:) are usually executed in the United States, the im- roads; it is proposed to institute a comparison with thereby affording to government additional objects pediments are numerous and powerful,-composed canals, in reference to the objects stated in the comsuitable for taxation.
of very large masses of rock at the foundation, and mencement of this essay. Or, 2d. When toils are levied, and for a few years small stones with soil at the top, which, invariably
1st. The expense of constructing a turnpike in a after the execution of the work are deficient, if af- sinking to the bottom, expose the rugged surface of proper manner, is almost equal to that usually exterwards they amount to interest on the deficiency and the foundation covered with mire. capital united. In the event of war, the transport These and other obstacles prevail almost invaria- Road Commissioners.
* See M'Adams on Roads. See also Reports of the of munitions may be sufficient to justily the execu- bly on the turnpikes in the United States. The su
+ See a description of the dynamometer in the Encytion of works which would perhaps be useless to a periority of the turnpikes in England, constructed clopedia. Also, an account of some experiments perconsiderable degree in peace. The policy of con- in many instances on the principles of M'Adams, is formed by the Philadelphia Agricultural Society, in structing them will, in this case, depend on the com- apparent to every observer. They are entirely com- which a much greater power was exerted, for a short parative duration of war and peace; sudden invasion posed of very small angular and equal pieces of time, than the above. Some more definite and precise may require the forwarding troops and supplies with rock, a heavy roller passed over the surface, and term is required in mechanics than horse power. This expedition and economy of labour; in accomplishing the motion of carriages soon occasions a consolida- adopted unit of power is very variously estimated by this object, (the benefits of which are beyond cal- tion; as no earth is used, rain occasions but little engineers. See the works of Watt, Smeaton, Fulton, culation,) roads, bridges, canals, and rail-ways, from mud on this hard, solid and smooth surface,-the London dray horse compared with a Shetland pony.
Rennie, &c. where it varies more than the power of a phenomenon of a carriage disappearing in the mire, * For instance, the celebrated canal du Midi, usually of course, occurs rarely! The route usually winds in ascending, is gained in descending, is not applicable
| The law of gravitation, viz: that the power required known as the Languedoc canal, which has been the sub- around the bases of the high bills, in place of ad- to roads, for obvious reasons; the surface of the road ject so frequently of injudicious eulogy, is an instance hering to the absurd and unpicturesque mathema- when hilly, is uneven and rough, this is occasioned by of this misapplication of national enterprise; no toll istical straight line, so much admired in the United the rains and the methods resorted to to protect the the amount of commerce is so small that it is acknow- States, under the erroneous idea of saving distance, materials: the great fatigue experienced by the horses ledged that two per cent. per annum on the principal and consequently, labour. If, for instance, the dis- prevents them from exerting their full power when experded could not possibly be collected, if it were tance in a straight line of two places be five miles, is required to prevent tno rapid a motion, and the attempted. This work, however, has indirectly been and the hills, in the aggregate, equal to 1000 feet, it wheels are frequently locked; in this manner, the advery beneficial, as it induced engineers to turn their will require the same labour and time to transport vantage in descending by no means ba! nres the disadattention to the subject of vanais; and a though not the
vantages in ascending, &c. Ma y: ther reasons inight first executed, may be just!y styled Ike mother of inland * See the report of Mr. Gallatin to Congress, on this be offered; these remarks do not apply to rail-ways to navigation. subject
the same extent.