Зображення сторінки

with grey



mind me of the promise, may share in the distribu- commenced his operations upon the first of Septem- surface, a small stone, specimen No. 2, four inches tion--and as soon as the increase will enable me to ber last, and after boring for five weeks without thick, was found; another at 149 feet, was found do so, it will afford me pleasure to supply any per- material interruption, tapped the spring on the 18th six inches thick, but it was pounded to dust by the son who may wish cuttings, and on the same terms of October, and finally completed his task on the chissel. A third was found at the depth of 153 feet; I received them, from the individual who was the following day. The depth from which the water it is marked specimen No. 3. At 162 feet from the first to introduce this kind of hedge, and who has so first rose was 317 feet, and the whole depth of the surface, the clay became veiny, and intermingled extensively and generously distributed them;-viz. well, when completed, was 329 feet; the additional with very minute glittering fragments; this is specithe expense of transportation.

12 feet of boring having been made in order to men No. 4. At 173 feet the clay became more sanI am respectfully,

gain a perfect opening into the bed of the spring, dy, (specimen No.5,) and continued so until it alterJ. S. SKINNER. EDW'D STABLER, Jr. which flowed, when first tapped, less copiously than ed into the next kind. P. S. On the same day the Cherokee rose slips which the water immediately comes is soft, but the after the final depth was obtained. The chalk from 30 feet-Coloured Clay, varying from brick-red,

mixed with blue and yellow, to many shades of were planted, I set out a sufficient number of small bottom of the well is in hard chalk. The water in all dull purplecedars, to make a hedge fifty or sixty yards in the neighbouring

wells appears to have been obtained Specimen No. 6, came from 190 feet; specimen No. length. They were on an average six inches high, at about the same depth; and the strata through 7, from 200 feet

; specimen No. 8, from 203 feet; when planted, and in two years have formed an im. which the perforations were made, are nearly simi- specimen No. 9, from 211 ft., when the seam changes pervious, and very handsome enclosure, to the height lar to those met with in the present instance. into the next, which more yellow. of about two feet. It was several times clipped, to

The tackle and instruments used were very sim- 22 feet.—Clay, with nearly an uniform colour of make it spread at the bottom, or the height would have been doubled. I have no hesitation in saying, posed orifice of the well, on which a platform was

pie. A scaffolding was raised 20 feet above the pro- yellow ochre, occasionally mixed irregularly that this article will soon make an elegant, strong fixed to support a windlass, by which the rods used and durable hedge, sufficient to turn ordinary stock. in boring were lowered into, and raised from the previous stratum. Among this water rose in some

Specimen No. 10_This was more sandy than the The Cherokee was planted in such a way as to pro. well. These rods were of tough iron, about an inch quantity. duce the greatest quantity of slips; and I cannot and a half square, and ten feet long; the ends of 28 feet 6 in.-Soft soil, apparently composed of speak from my own experience, as to its value for each screwing on to, or unscrewing from the top of hedging. When I have an opportunity of testing it the next, as they were lowered in to or raised from

clay and sand

It varied very much in colour, being sometimes fairly, the result shall be communicated, and a com- the hole. The instruments fixed, as occasion required, bright green, otherwise yellow, intermixed with parison made with it and other articles used for the

to the lowest extremity of the series of rods when in green, or sometimes beautifully veined with dark same purpose.

E. S., Jr.

action, were augers, of various dimensions, for boring red and yellow. Many specimens are sent, viz: |--steel chissels, for punching-and a hollow iron

Specimen. Specimen. Specimen. cylinder, (called a shell,) fitted with a valve at its BUGS FOUND ON PEACH TREES.

12, . . 242 ft.

13, . . 243 ft. lower end, for bringing up soft mud. The rods, 11, . . 240 ft. 4th mo. 30th, 1825.

14, .

244 when an auger was attached to them,

15, . . 245


were turned Esteemed Friend, round by means of moveable arms or dogs, which

17, 247 18,.. 255 19,.. 261 By the bearer of this, I send thee two small bugs. were made to lay hold of the part of the uppermost

The last specimen is of the soil immediately above In the early part of this month, while examining my rod at the top of the hole; the auger being thus the chalk. Two stones were met with in this strapeach trees, in order to remove the worms which forced through the stratum of clay or sand, was tum; one like those formerly mentioned, of which are so destructive to them, I found in many in-drawn up as soon as its cavity was filled with the no specimen could be preserved; the other a flint, stances bugs of this description adhering very close-substance it had loosened. The chi-sels were em- specimen 20, at 257 feet. ly to the body of the tree, just below the surface of ployed for punching through stones, hard sub

67 ft. 6 in.-Chalk, among


flints were the ground. For what purpose they had fixed stances, or hard chalk; the rods, when these were at- scatteredthemselves there, is more than I know; but a query tached, were moved by means of a powerful beam

Of these specimen 21 was one foot in thickness, and has arisen in my mind, whether or not this insect acting as a lever, and worked by four men. so unusually hard as to occupy the workmen three does not deposite an egg which produces the worm. The water is discharged at the surface of the days in punching before they could force a way 'If the foregoing appears worthy of notice in any ground after the rate of six gallons per minute, and through it

. The water was found at the depth of 317 way, thee is at liberty to make what use of it thee is capable of being carried 20 feet above the ground feet, in a bed of soft chalk mixed with small flints; pleases, for I, as well as many others, would be level, and even then supplies a copious stream. The the hole was bored 12 feet among the water, so that glad to find a remedy for so great an evil. well is lined for the first 186 feet with cast iron the total depth of the well is 329 feet-and it is supVery respectfully, thy friend,

pipes, with a three-inch bore, jointed by means of posed by the workmen that the last piece of chalk that THO'S P. STABLER.

wrought iron collars, which are rivetted into the was brought up sticking to their punch, was from the [These bugs shall be submitted to some experi- pipes; the succeeding 77 feet 6 inches are lined upper surface of a new layer of chalk in which there enced bug-ologist.)

with copper pipes, with 24 inches bore, soldered is no water. Specimen 22, is a morsel of a hard stone, into a single length and resting in the chalk, through apparently containing ore, which was brought up in

which the remainder of the hole is bored, and in the auger from among the chalk at the depth of 274 RURAL ECONOMY. which no pipes were used. The whole series of pipes feet

. Specimen 23, is of the first chalk, which was were introduced at once, the hole having been pre

found at 261 feet 6 inches. Specimen 24, is from pared for receiving them as soon as it was ascer- 317 feet, when the first water was found; it was sa

tained that the augers had reached the chalk stra- turated with moisture when first brought up. SpeciIn the Garden of the Horticultural Society at Chis- tum. The land springs in the gravel, above the blue men 25, is the last piece of chalk, brought from 3:29

wick-(comnunicated by Joseph Sabine, Esq., S. H. clay, were kept out, in the first instance, by extra feet, and supposed by the workmen to be from the S. &c.)

iron pipes. The spring which was found in the upper surface of a new and dry layer of chalk. [The specimens adverted to in the following sand below the blue clay, and above the chalk, rose Specimen 26, various fragments of large flints brokpaper are deposited in the mineral room, at the to within a few feet of the surface, but did not over en by the punch at different depths in the ground. Royal Institution.]

flow. The whole of the water of this spring is, how. Specimen 27, morsels of flint and pebbles washed In consequence of the success which had attended which it is lined. ever, excluded from the well by the pipes with out of the chalk raised from the water-source, and

supposed not to have been broken in punching, but the operations of several persons in the vicinity of Chiswick in boring for water, it was determined by boring, and every other expense whatever, did not tion. In cutting a solid piece of chalk which had

The cost of the well, including that of the pipes, to have laid among the water in their present condithe Council of the Horticultural Society, that an at- exceed 1301., and the manner in which it was exe

been brought up in the auger, a morsel of flint extempt to procure an overflowing well should be made cuted, was, in every respect satisfactory. Indeed it actly like these specimens was observed, with every in the society's garden, for the purpose of obtain: is impossible to speak too highly of the care, atten- appearance of not having been forced into its place ing a supply of water for various purposes--but tion, and dexterity of Mr. Worsencroft, and the in the chalk by violence. more particularly to form an ornamental canal in workmen whom he employed.

The principal impurity discovered in this water the Arboretuin, for the growth of hardy aquatic

Turnham Green, Nov. 27, 18.3.

by the action of re-agents, is common salt, of which plants.

it contains about four grains and a half in the pint. After the necessary inquiries had been made, it

Memoranda of the various strata bored through.

When evaporated to dryness, the residue contains was determined that Mr. John Worsencroft, a per

a sufficient quantity of carbonate of soda to render son who had previously succeeded in making an 19 feet.-Gravel.

it very manifestly alkaline. This is also the case overflowing well for Messrs. Bird, of Hammersmith, 162 feet.—Blue Clay

with the waters of the other deep wells in and about should be employed to execute the experiment. He! Specimen No. 1-At the depth of 59 feet from the London.


J. 11.


First year




they expected to find furniture and some valuable None of the crops, which, in the old system of

articles. The trowel touched a hard and resisting the country, were immediately necessary for the Alexandria, April 29, 1825. DEAR SIR,

body. The workman removed the ashes very slow farmer's subsistence, could be dispensed with. I received yo'ır communication, and the enclosedly, and he perceived a bronze ornament. Beautiful They, therefore, continued to begin with the culletter of Mr. Ilenderson, of Elkton. I commenced carved leaves rose from the ground; they adhered ture of maize, for which the land is manured. boring here four weeks back, and have progressed to branches, having fruit upon them, which were Wheat follows it; beans are then sown immediate114 feet down, passing various strata of clay, sand, oranges. The stem of the tree rested in a vase of ly after harvest. "This crop being intended to feed and gravel, until we got 50 feet down, when we met the same metal; it served as a pedestal, this bronze, cattle during the winter, is taken up sufficiently a strata of black marsh mud, in which we found de- of an elegant form, was only a candelabra, in the early to admit of the land being prepared to receive tached pieces of wood and bark, some of which

fruit of which were inserted sockets, which diffused the cotton seeds by the end of March; after this is was in a sound state; we passed 20 feet without around the light of twenty lamps. Art has produc- harvested, wheat is again sown the same autumn, much alteration--then met with a very tenacious ed nothing more natural, or more graceful, than to which succeeds the purple clover. Melons are

this candelabra, whose reappearance I witnessed grown after the clover, and legumes planted as clay, (which we are now in, 24 fect-enclosed is a sample,) resembling soap stone, but variegated with after two thousand years, as clean and as polished soon as the melon crop is taken off, occupy the

as when it first came out of the hands of the work- ground until the spring, and finish the course. It various colours. The boring is about 200 yards

is as follows: from the river, on a rise of 30 feet above the level On the side of this bronze, and on the same pe

Maize-manured. of tide water. The water in the well is within 20

destal, was a bust of Marius; I was gratified at being Second Wheat, followed by beans. feet of the surface. When any thing occurs wor


Cotton. thy of note, you may expect to hear from me again. present at discoveries of so much interest, but night

Fourth put a stop to the work; the workmen, as well as Respectfully, yours,

Wheat, followed by wild clover.

the antiquarians, went away, and I followed them

Melons, followed by legumes. with regret. In this short time I could not help Five years—eight crops.

thinking, how one might pass a whole life in these This course, thus, furnishes eight crops in five REISCELLANEOUS.

places, without experiencing a moment's fatigue or years, two of which are corn, three are leguminous, ennui.

one is commercial, and two are for the support of

animals. It is impossible to arrange these different NOTES OF A DESULTORY READER.

crops in a better way. The nature of their growth, Communicated for the American Farmer.

As pursued on the plain of Sorrento, in Naples. and the different culture they require, alternately

The plain of Sorrento is almost the only part of rest and prepare the soil, whose fertility is kept up RUINS OF POMPEIA.

the kingdom of Naples, in which can be seen the by this variety, producing the utmost which can be I took the road to Portici, and I did not stop un-effects of an active and will directed industry. It is rendered by nature to human industry. til I arrived at Pompeia, where I spent the remain- also in this beautiful country that the villagers have der of the day. I will not repeat to you what has successfully introduced the culture of cotton; a culbeen so well said, on the unexpected impressions ture which the usages of society have rendered so After travelling a long way in the maremmes, we produced on seeing these beautiful remains of anti

necessary. It had been, before, adopted at Naples; discovered, on the confines of the horizon, some soquity. The ashes have kept them in perfect pre-but, until within a few years, it was sown only on litary buildings, but entire, and which time has resservation, and they appeared to want only inhabi small spots, for a local and limited consumption. pected. As we approached them, they seemed tants. I shall merely add, that, within the last four The continental system, having raised the value of larger, and, at length, appeared immense. We, at years, the digging has been much extended. They this plant, a larger space was allotted to its cultiva- last, discovered a colonade, very massive, and of a have discovered an entire new quarter, the buildings tion; and the farmers, in this country, profiting by regular structure. These monuments projected from in which being much ornamented, indicate the re- the natural advantages of their climate, furnished, the azure sky, and their architecture, could be dissidence of richer proprietors than those of the in the year 1812, nearly sixty thousand bales of tinguished at a considerable distance. They are houses previously discovered. They have found a cotton to the manufacturers of Europe.

the three temples at Paestum; And it is here trasecond gate of the city. With a few years more The land which I have just seen, promises, this vellers finish their journey. labour, Pompeia will rise completely from the tomb year, an abundant crop, which will enrich some Of all the ruins in Italy, these are the most anin which it has been buried so many ages. families, who little expected, in this world, any cient, and the most striking. The times are un

There are no ruins in Italy, nor probably, in the more than a moderate existence. This considera- known in which they were built, but they are called world, which excite so much interest as those of tion added much to the interest I felt in visiting heroic, because it is easy to place heroes beyond the Pompeia, for there is nothing conjectural in what this country.

history of the human race. These temples have we see there: the imagination has nothing to fill up, I learned the method of cultivating the cotton, on witnessed the lonis li-tory of Rome; they have seen nothing to suppose.

Évery thing remains there as a large scale, adopted by the metayers of Piave de its termination, and seem destined to witness the the Romans left it; every thing indicates their ha- Sorrento, and the way in which it has been intro- last days ci the world. bits. We live with them; we use their furniture; duced into their regular course of husbandry. At what period of history, at what age of the we eat at their tables; we view their drawings; we The land is turned over, by the spade, in the world, must we fix the epoch of the existence of read their manuscripts. The time which has lapsed month of March, and the seeds are sown in lines, at those unknown, but astonishing nations who built, since the day when Pliny met his death there, seems tree feet distant; the plants, in the lines, are two in Italy, Cyclopean walls, while in Africa they raisto be lost, and it might have been yesterday. ieet asunder. The earth is so rich as to require no ed the pyramids of Gize and the avenue of the

I remained a long while looking at the workmen, manure, but only to be constantly kept clean; wo- Sphinx? History is silent, and gives us no inforwho were digging. They had just gotten into the men are, therefore, employed, during the whole mation respecting the miracles of that age, whose inside of a house, and every stroke of the spade season, in weeding the fields of cotton. As soon as monuments confound our reason and almost our made a discovery. I know nothing likely to excite the flowering is over, and the well-formed capsules imagination, for they appear above human power. so lively an interest as the digging in such a cele- require only the sun to ripen them, the ends of the Nothing in nature has, to this day, explained the brated spot. Expectation and curiosity equally branches are nipped off, thus determining all the singular mysteries of this monumental civilization; affect us. The imagination is excited by the his-sap to the fruit.

a civilization so great as still to astonish the world torical recollections, at this instant, called forth. The harvest lasts a long while, and consists in by its ruins, so religions as to have raised colossi for The eyes are involuntarily fixed on the trowel with collecting the capsules as they ripen. It is then the altars of its gods, and mountains for the tombs which the workman cantiously removes the ashes. only requisite to clear the cotton, by separating it of its dead. for fear of breaking the articks which he may from the seeds. This operation is long and tedious. How is it that all the traces have been lost of that chance to expose.

They were endeavouring to make machines to sim- race of giants who had mammoths for their domesI was immoveably fixed near these labourers; they plify the process; but I have not learned whether tic animals, and who constructed their ramparts threw shovels full of ashes into wheelbarrows. they have succeeded.

with rocks? The ruins which they have left us They discovered a wall; it was painted in fresco- The course of husbandry adopted in the land astonish us the more, because we cannot conceive beautiful arabesques gradually appeared. May not which has been covered with volcanic ashes, and that genius of the ages which presided at their these medallions explain some of the secrets of an- of which I gave you an account in a preceding let-birth. It is a world, the secret of which has never tiquity? But our expectation, in this instance, was ter, left no room for the cultivation of cotton. It reached us, and with respect to which we can do disappointed—they represented only bacchants and could not be adınitted without changing the estab- nothing, but remain mute before those august mocupius.

lished course; the succession of crops which I am numents, which time has preserved by placing them The work went on; in emptying a room of the going to describe, is the result. It merits attention, in wildernesses. ashes with which it was filled, we came to the lower because it is, probably, the best arranged and the Nature, in our days, does not seem to have part of it, and the precautions were increased, as 'most productive of any in the world.

strength sufficient to destroy these ruins, they are

so massive, and the earth has been so long accus


The lady-slipper, gay and neat, tomed to support them, that they seem even like a

Seem made for Cinderella's feet; Being on board the brig Mary & Eliza, of Boswork of the Creation.

Striped ribband-grass these sandals lace, These enormous colonades, imperishable in the lon, from Baltimore, on Wednesday, 27th April,

And modest thrift her ancles brace; midst of solitudes and ages, appear destined only to S. S. E., distant 4 leagues, discovered something 1825, at 6 A. M., Race Point, Cape Cod, bearing

And daisies quilled in triple row, see the seasons roll on, and to serve as a retreat for

Hang "on her light fantastic toe"the animals on the plain, for they come to these tem- at a small distance, found it to be a living animal a little on our larboard bow, hauled up for it. When

Bright silver bells her footsteps print. ples to seek shelter during storms. An aged buffalo took it to be what has been called a sea serpent.

“Her very step has music in't.' is often seen waiting the return of day behind a We passed it a small distance, tacked ship and

A golden rod is in her hand, pillar, which, for twenty years, he has chosen as his stood for it again Found that there were two of

More gisted than Prospero's wand; resting place. The rest of the herd respect him as the master of the desert, and never dispute with him took them. Being some time in company with them, them--they made from us—however, we soon over

At every step she onward takes

Some living thing is roused and wakesthe place he has selected.

The lilac blooms within its reach, On resting near these ruins, we experience an we had a fair view. They appeared, when head to

Forth bursts the blossom of the peach; emotion which I know not how to describe. We us, more like horses swimming than any thing we

them to. Their length appeared to

The naked crocus lists its head, think we are viewing a scene where every thing be about 40 feet, their head and neck about 6 or 8


Cold shivering from its leafless bedpassed in a world, and in an age, which are stran- feet, which they kept out of water about 4 feet. From

With haste the yellow daffodil gers to our time. Nothing, in the solitary scenes the top of their heads to the water, the head part

Throws o'er her neck a golden frill; which surround these temples, destroys the illusion; and when we withdraw from this theatre of an un-knots of divers colours; being about 100 feet from appeared to be full of bunches like barnacles, or

And pale narcissus, Ovid's theme,

Leaves the lov'd shadow in the stream; known world, the illusion, for a long while, follows them, we could view them well. Their bodies ap

And lowly periwinkles run, us, rendering, by comparison, every aspect of the peared to be the colour of a whale, their tails lay

Blooming without a summer's sun-. world cold and diminutive. Aat Ways in the water, and spread about 8 feet, like

And glittering butter-cup, that throws a whale's tail. After viewing them about 15 mi

Its yellow dust upon your nose;
nutes, we tacked ship, and stood on our course.

And on side-saddles gaily ride
They likewise tacked and swam after us, when they

Fair-maids-of-France and Londo-pride;

Blue-bells from Scotland hither come,
appeared more like horses than ever, and their way
through the water was nearly as fast as ours. There

And with the shamrock find a home;
was a white streak running about two-thirds round

And snowo-drop pluck'd from Russian bear, their heads at the water's edge, which we took to be

And Bethlehem star, to christians dearwhere the mouth was. They sometimes blow like

All rise to deck the virgin's bower,
whales.—The spout holes were about 4 feet from

Fresh glittering with an April shower.
their nose, on their backs. They had a very blunt
nose. They must either be sea horses or sea ser- THE FARNDR.

pents, for such fish none on board ever saw before. Potomac FISHERIES.—This great source of pro

ABNER H. LOVELL, master. fit to the proprietors and of benefit to the neigh

BENJ. SMALL, mate.

BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, MAY 6, 1825. bouring community, has not, as yet, been, we learn. 80 abundant this season as in usual years; owing to

Wild Turkies-for General la Fayette. the remarkably forward spring, and the fact that


The Editor of the American Farmer is desirous the great schools of fish which annually run up to

of procuring some wild turkies, to be sent to France the fresh water of this river, when it reaches the

For the American farmer. and England. The first are for the “NATION'S temperature proper for receiving the spawn, having been, in the unerring operations of nature, some

GUEST,” its early, steadfast friend indeed, as he wbat ahead of the calculations of the wary fisher

Cold winter's frosty head lies low,

was our friend in need. men. The first of April is the time when these

Hard on a bed of driven snow;

He has repeated to Mr. Skinner the wish to obcount on meeting the first schools, and they con

Oh, that his dreary reign were o'er,

tain two cocks and three or four hens, for his own tinue to run for about a month or six weeks; but it

And spring were entering at the door. use, at La Grange, and wishes them as black as seems that this year they found, on putting out their

The wish had scarcely pass'd my lips,

they can be had. Besides the pleasure which he is seines at the usual time, the fish were in as great

When from the south the maiden trips;

sure it will afford any one who has it in his power abundance as they generally are in the middle of

Hither with eager steps she hies,

to gratify the wish of the General, any reasonable the month—so that it is feared that nearly half the

When stiff and cold the tyrant lies.

expense will be paid by Mr. S. for the fowls, and She listens to his hideous snore,

for transportation, &c. season for taking the fish had passed away before

Baltimore-and they shall the nets were spread. But there is one evidence

Whilst north-west winds in concert roar;

be presented to him in the name of the person or which deserves to be recorded, that they are still in

Nearer she comes with noiseless pace,

persons from whom they are received. If it be not plenty: within the last few days the greatest haul of

And breathes upon his icy face.

practicable to get grown turkies, it may be that rock fish ever remembered by the oldest fishermen

Her balmy breath his eyelids warm,

eggs may be found, and placed, for being hatched, on the Potomac, was made.

He raises up his rugged form,

under tame turkies. Both, indeed, would be desiraWe have it from such a source as to have no

And struggling to regain his power,

ble, lest old ones might not so well bear transpordoubt of the fact, that on Friday last there were

He spouts alost a snowy shower.

tation by sea, or might not be so far domesticated tken at the Sycamore Landing, on the estate of Gen. The snowy shower dissolves in rain,

as to breed. D'ason, of Georgetown, about twenty-five miles be

And down the tyrant sinks again.

Any communication on the subject will be thanklow this city, at one haul of the seine, four hundred Once more she breathes-the sunbeams play, felly received, and transmitted to Gen. la Fayette,

'Till quite subdued, he melts away;

by and fifty-four rock fish, averaging at least sixty

J. S. SKINNER, sounds each, and that many of them weighed as From hill to vale he's gliding fast,

Post-master-Baltimore. n uch as eighty pounds. They were all brought

And in a stream is drown'd at last.

P.S. For a distinguished cultivator of natural bisfiesh to the markets of Washington, Alexandria,

With April face of smiles and tears,

tory in France, Mr. George Washington la Fayette and Georgetown, and although sold at very reduced

No more his iron grasp she fears;

requested the Editor of the American Farmer to prices, it is said the produce of this single haul was

Gaily sbe carols forth her song,

procure, if practicable, either an impregnated feabout two hundred and fifty dollars.

Whilst early birds around her throng. male opossum—or if that were not practicable, a
With hyacinths her head is crown'd,

male and female opossum. They are required, to Shedding delicious fragrance round;

enable naturalists to settle a very curious question Alexandria, April 2. And violets, with their rich perfume,

in the natural history and habits of that animalWe daily hear complaints of the ill success of Around her neck in clusters bloom

which will be better understood, if any gentleman our Potomac fishermen, while those of Susquehan- Her cheeks display the blushing rose,

will have the goodness to loan to the Editor, for na ar represented as more than usually fortunate. Carnation on her lips repose,

publication in the American Farmer, Doctor BarThe number and quality of the shad and herrir Sweet pinks upon her bosom rest

ton's Essay in reference to this subject, or to inform taken there far exceeded expect-tion. At one fish- And heart's-ease lie within her breast;

him where it can be had. ery it is stated that 300,000 herrings were taken at Of brightest green ber robe is tinged,

Editors of newspapers would confer a favour a single haul of the seine.

With jonquils and with tulips fringed I by giving the above paragraphs a single insertion.




per from





20 18


6 50

17 16 22 22 40

17 26 24

16 12



13 14 11

8 10 33

2 50 6 50 7 50






none 11 5 50

41 1 15



55 37 50



STRAWBERRIES.—Much perplexity, and loss of 17d have been refused. Upon a change of wind, time and labour, results from persons not know- we must have large arrivals, but I do not think they

PRICES CURRENT. ing how to distinguish between the male and female will affect prices materially, if at all.”—N. Y. paper. plants--a certain proportion of the former being


from necessary to the fructification of the latter. Whole TOBACCO.--Actual sales.--A hogshead sent into mar. beds, of large dimensions, prepared with great ket by Daniel Murray, Lsq., weighed 830 lbs., and sold Leif, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 10

Ib. care in other respects, prove unfruitful from this at $30 per hundred.--Mr. Chas. Hill, of Prince George's BACON, and Hams, .


25 This is, perhaps, yet more apt to be the county, sold 52 hhds., common red for $6.50 per hun- COFFEE, W.I. Green,

do. Common,

20 case with the hautboy, and may be thus accounted dred, round.-Col. James Thomas, of St. Mary's coun for; on turning to page 197, vol. 6, the reader will ty, sold part of his crop at $12 per hund. for first, and COTTON, Louisiana, &c. $6 per hund. for seconds.-One hogshead of Ohio to

Geor, a Upland, . find the best instructions, from the best horticultu- baceo, made by Isaac ljams, weighing 833 lbs. nett, sola COTTON YARN, No. 10, rist in the state; he there says, that except the haut- for $10 per hund. Several other sales, not reported

each number to No. 18. boy, he has not known any strawberry to have their in time for this number, shall be given in our next. male and female plants separate and distinct; that Inspections during the week in Baltiinore.-At Ware- CANDLES, Mould,


11 all others that he has seen, are hermaphrodites. In house No. 1, 400; at Warehouse No. 2, 414—total 814.

CHEESE, . this way it may happen that a bed of haytboys may

Live Cattle may be quoted at 5 to $5} per hundred. FEATHERS, Live, be without a single male, or with a number altoge

FISH, Herrings, Sus. new bbl. 2 25 ther insufficient. What we want, therefore, is, if


Shad, trimmed, new, they can be en, some plain directions for distin- Deposited since last notice with the Editor of the American FLAXSEED, Rough, :

bush guishing the sexes. If, besides such directions, some

Farmer, for the use of his subscribers.

FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 5 50 5 75 gentleman would have the goodness to send to our


A bunch of genuine GUINEA GRASS-left by an unoffice the plants, it is possible that by drawing and known hand.

Susquehanna, superfi.

lb. engraving, the difference may be intelligibly repre- The seed of a new and extraordinary species of PINE, GUNPOWDER, Balti. . 25 lb 5 sented. Our engraver, Mr. Butler, is a young gen-with the following notice of it by Doctor Spence: GRAIN, Indian Corn, . bush tleman of genius and taste, who can do, whatever

Synapuzent, 25th April, 1825. Wheat, White,

1 10 can be done in that way. I also herein forward seeds from a pine tree, which do. Red,

1 06 1 12 is an entire stranger with us, and was raised from the Buckwheat, THE MARYLAND Society FOR INTERNAL IM- seeds of a cone, left by the tide on the sea shore.- Rye,

40 PROVEMENT will be glad to receive any documents, The tree is yet young, but its enormous seed cones, Barley,

Clover Seed,

3 25

3 50 3 75 tracts, maps, essays, &c. which any friend of inter-spires, and the seed themselves, seem to indicate thai

Ruta Seed, . nal improvement may have the goodness to deposit it will attain gigantic size. Should you not already be

familiar with this species of pine, allow me to say you Orchard Grass Seed, amongst their archives, for the use of the society.

will find it beautiful as an ornamental tree; and it will Mangel Wurtzel Seed, 1 50
no doubt prove a valuable addition to our timbered Timothy Seed,

2 25 FOR SALE—by the Editor of the American Far- lands generally.


22 25 mer, “MEMOIRS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA AGRICULTU- Have you ever seen seeds more elegantly winged? Peas, Black Eyed, RAL Society," with elegant engravings, published

I am yours, truly,

Beans, White,

1 12 by J. S. Skinner, for $1.50, or four copies for $5.-- John S. Skinner, Esq.

JOHN S. SPENCE. HEMP, Russia, clean, These memoirs contain communications from the [The leaves, or spires, sent, measure more than nine HOGS' LARD,.


27 best practical farmers in the state of Pennsylvania, finches, and the seed very much resemble the wings of LEATHER, Soal, best,

Eastern Tan, locusts.) and elegant engravings of Col. Powel's Improved


33 37 50 Short Horn Buil, Wye Comet-of three Tunisian The straw OF ONE grain of Rye, with the following MOLASSES, Havana, letter:

MEAL, Corn, kiln dried, bbl. 2 37 mountain broad-tail Sheep-of a Spanish shepherd's

Potte:-'s Landing, Caroline county, Md.,

NAILS, Sa20d.

b. 6 Dog-of Eastman's Improved Straw-Cutter-of|

April 23, 1825. NAVAL STORES, Tar, bhl. 1 50

1 751 Mr. Kurtz's Substratum and Shovel Ploughs—of

I saw in your paper a short time ago, an account of Pitch,. . Pope's Patent Threshing Machine—and of Dishley the increase of one grain of rye, from a Hartford far

Turpentine, Soft,

2 50 and Southdown Sheep. mer. I send you an account of the increase of one OIL, Whale, common,

25 It is amongst the most valuable and the cheapest grain on my farm, which is as follows: 128 heads from


15 agricultural work ever published. one grain, which produced 7552 perfect grains. This PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl

do. rye came up in a lot of turnips, which was sown in the


10 501 The Editor returns thanks for his friend in Ohio, month of July, and was ripe by the middle of June; the PLASTER, cargo price, ton. 6 75



50 to the gentlemen who have so kindly answered his ground was manured with shell and clay mould. I send you the bunch of straw, the growth of this RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 4 001 4 25 5 request for holly berries—whereof a sufficient num

single grain.
Yours, very respectfully,

SOAP, Baltimore White, Ib. ber has been received.

John S. Skinner, Esq.

10 WHISKEY, Ist proof,


37 • Will the Editors of papers on the Eastern Shore [A case of extraordinary increase by transplantation PEACH BRANDY, 4th pr

821 of Maryland, and at Annapolis, have the goodness is given in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. Iviii. APPLE BRANDY, 1st pr


15 to notice the liberality of Capt. Vickers, of the Steam P. 203.)

SUGARS, Havana White, c.lb. 13 00 13 50 14

do. “Mr. Charles Miller, of Cambridge, sowed some Boat Maryland, in having offered, on the part of the wheat on the 20 of June, 1766, and on the 8th of Au


10 25 Louisiana,

10 2010

12 company, to transport gratis, animals of improved gust one plant was taken up, separated into eighteen Loaf,

lb. qualities, intended to be exhibited at the Cattie parts, and replanted; these plants were again taken up, Lump, Shows at Baltimore and Easton—when they are ac- and divided between the middle of September and the SPICES, Cloves,

1 101 companied by their owners.

middle of October, and again planted separately to Ginger, Ground,
stand the winter; and this second division produced Mace, .

3 501

Nutmegs, All persons who intend sending any thing for ex- sixty-seven piants; they were again taken up and di

3 00 hibition at the next Cattle Show, on the first of June, vided between the middle of March and the middle of Pepper,

bush will please give notice thereof to J. S. Skinner, April, and produced five hundred plants. The number SALT, St. Ubes,

of ears thus produced from one grain of wheat was Ground Alum, without delay

21,109, which measured three pecks and three quar- SHOT, all sizes,

ters of corn, weighe i forty-seven pounds seven ounces, WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal. 2 50 3 25 3 004 00 COMMERCIAL RECORD. and were estimated at 576,840 grains.”

do. Sicily,

11011 15

Lisbon, We have been favoured by a commercial friend



doz with the following extract of a letter, dated the Lorain's Husbandry, on ploughing-Banking with the Port, first quality,

gal. 2 evening of the 30th of March:Spade-On the Improvement of Sheep and other do- WOOL, Merino, full blid Ib. 40


uin washed “Since mine by the Balæna, we have had no ar- mestic animals--Remedy for Hoven Sheep and Cattle

crossed, .

int free of

Common, Country, rivals. The demand for Cotton is most animated. On the management of Milk Cows and rearing Calves

tags. Skinners' or Pulled,

30 35 The total sales of the three first days of the week Prospect of Crops--- Agricultural Inquiries, cob mill

General Coffin-Bugs found on Peach trees--Overflowwere 29,500 bags. This day about 10,000 bags ing Well, London-- Boring for water--Notes of a De- Printed every Friday, at $5 per annum, for JOHN S. more were sold, and prices are fully 11 higher than sultory Reader-Potomac and Susquehanna fisheries- SKINNER, Editor, by John D. Toy, corner of St. last week-167 have been paid for Boweds, and for Poetry, On the Approach of Spring-Editorial-Com- Paul and Market streets, where cvery description of a lot of old, of as good quality as I have ever seen,'mercial-Prices Current,

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed,

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No. 8-VOL. 7.

57 upon him, the same attention. And certainly they without at the same time multiplying the number AGRICULTURE.

have more of reason and humanity upon their side, of drivers, of ploughs, of wagons, of carts, &c. &c.

than those who think that the ox is to do all manner when the expense is, of course, proportionably inTHE HORSE AND THE OX, of work, and to get little to eat, and (so to speak,)|creased—for a great objection to the ox, is, that less to wear.

with a limited number of implements, a greater IN ANSWER TO “SANDY" AND "COLUMELLA."

We come now to what, with many, has very can do little more work than a smaller number: e.g. Buck's County, Pa., May 2, 1825.great weight, and which, if the fact were really as six oxen, with two wagons, cannot haul in hay or TO THE EDITOR:

represented, would be much to the point, viz: that grain, as fast as four horses with the same number of "Sandy" and "Columella,” in their respective the ox, after rivalling the horse in his day's labour, wagons; much less can they plough as much ground, essays, have offered some arguments in opposition requires nothing but hay or grass for his nourish- per diem, with two ploughs-whilst it would cost as to the subject of a communication addressed to you ment. But is the fact really so? It is admitted, that much to keep them. If you have four oxen in the upon the superiority of horses over oxen, for the working cattle very generally get nothing more place of four horses, their slowness constantly general purposes of farm labour; which, not having than has been represented; and it is equally well leaves exposed to the risk of damage or loss, prohitherto had the leisure to notice, I now proceed to known, that in very many instances, it is the prac- duce ready to be secured; for while the oxen are examine into the value of the several considerations tice to give no grain to horses, except when per- reflecting upon the propriety of moving from one urged by them.

forming the severest labour. But is the practice, in cock of hay or shock of grain, to another, the ît may, however, be observed, that by a refe- either case, a good one? Is it, in truth, an economi- horses have already accomplished the business; or rence to my communication, it will be perceived cal one? Does not true economy, in the manage- while the oxen are composedly walking from the that the object was, not to contend for the entire ment of domestic animals, as suggested by an en- barn or stack to the field, the horses have already neglect of oxen as labourers upon the farm, but to lightened cultivator of Virginia,* and as must be arrived there at a long trot. T'he case is the same advert to what has appeared the error of those who apparent to the careful observer, consist in liberali- in ploughing. A day too late, in critical seasons, is assert their equality or superiority to the horse, and ty towards them? And is there as much profit in of great consequence. The losses resulting from the consequent entire exclusion of the latter.

the labour of a hall-fed animal, be he horse or ox, these delays may, in theory, appear trivial, but they "Sandy" commences his correction of my errors, as in that of one well nourished and vigorous? Is are, in practice, of real and great importance-addby committing one himself, when he makes me assert, even the return in manure as valuable?

ing, in the course of the year, as much to the value that the superior intelligence of the horse depends Lipon this point, it may be to the purpose to of the horse, as they detract from that of the ox. upon an increased allowance of food; whereas, on the quote the opinion of one of the most zealous advo- Upon the subject of the necessary expense of contrary, I believe such superiority to be innate, and cates of ox labour. “To the idea of the ox being keeping a horse, there have been very exaggerated independent of extrinsic circumstances--as will ap- capable of labour without the alimentary support of statements

; instances of which we have in the essays pear evident, from a comparison of the two ani- corn, I never could attach any great importance under consideration. "Columella’s" is high, but mals, in their wild, as well as their domesticated theoretically, still less since I have paid to the sub- "Sandy's” is beyond bounds—and if his horses realsiate. As a proof of inferiority, upon the part of the ject a certain share of practical attention. It is ly devour as much as he supposes, they certainly horse, it is contended that he will not go by word; probably mere habit, that we have continued the belong to a race “nati consumere fruges," and I am when if "Sandy" had ever travelled northward, he ancient economical method of feeding the ox, and not surprised at his alarm. By the former, the exwould have discovered that our teams are constant that we have not tried its success with the horse. pense is stated at about 931 per horse per annum-ly so driven, and a Pennsylvania carter would be The latter measure, we know, has been strongly by the latter at $52 per annum. I can ac 'ount for much amused to be told that his horse would not go recommended, in times of scarcity, by our econo- this difference in no other way, than from a differto the right, or to the left, precisely as bidden, with-mists

. Has not the shining example of a Suffolk ence in the prices of grain, and, perhaps, from the out the aid of a check-line, or even of a pole to man been held up to public imitation, who, upon a circumstance, that as among our southern neighstrike him over the head, in order to quicken his large scale, fed his labouring farm horses, through bours the ability to run a four mile heat in a given apprehension-as usual with that favorite of "San- a course of years, upon nothing but raw potatoes time, is considered as the acme of excellence in a dy's," the ox. If he require a bridle, what does it and straw? Have they not discovered, in Notting- horse, there has no room been left for the propagaprove, but that he has too much spirit and anima- hamshire, that both English and Swedish turnips tion of a more useful breed of animals. My horses tion to be trusted without one. But if any one ven- are equal to oats? And do we not tind a number are large, very powerful, labour almost constantly, ture to speak of the natural sluggishness of the ox, of such wonderful things in old Gervase Markham? are always fat and in good spirits, are considered to evident from the time of his birth to his death, we I have been as diligent in experiments in this line, be fed much above the common standard, and conare immediately referred to the feats of some ani- as most men; and once, with the most ardent zeal sumed last year, as precisely as can be ascertained, mal groomed-like a race horse, who has ploughed of improvement, fed all my horses into the mange. "t 794 bushels of grain, consisting of ground oats, an eighth or a sixteenth of an acre in a certain To which I may add, that I also have heard of many corn and rye, at the average market price of 32 cts. number of minutes, or to the equally decisive fact wonderful accounts of oxen doing the work of per bushel, amounting to the sum of $25.44. of their keeping company for a few miles with re- horses, and living upon grass, hay or straw alone; The question now appears to be brought to a gular team horses, who are customarily slow; whilst, but upon examination, have found that the com- narrow compass; and is, whether the superior acperhaps in the next paragraph, it is admitted that parison has been made with the most wretched of tivity and intelligence of the horse, the accuracy they are not particularly well calculated for regular horses; or that the oxen have been worked only oc- with which he performs his work, the greater amount road serrice.

casionally, and at intervals; or that is worked with performed, and his acknowledged superiority in his It would be much more satisfactory, and to the tolerable regularity, and fed in the way mentioned, adaptation to every kind of labour, do not render purpose, for some gentleman who farms 2 or 300 they have invariably been miserably thin. him preferable to the ox for the general purposes of acres with oxen only, to inform us of the quantity It appears then that the ox,with the horse, requires farm labour, notwithstanding the acknowledged, but of work done by them in the year–of the manner to be well fed. As to the comparative quantities solitary advantage, which the ox possesses in his in which that work is executed, and of the food con- consumed by either, if it were a question of mere ex- being an eatable animal. sumed by the said working oxen.

istence, it is possible that the former might be kept If the ox is to be preferred, it must be upon this We are told of the great gentleness of the ox; alive upon less than the latter, although I am not ground alone, as he is manifestly, and by the admisbut when directions are given for breaking him, it acquainted with any experiments that have been sion of many of his advocates, inferior in nearly appears to be at least as difficult a matter as is the made to decide the point. This, however, is en- every other desirable property. And much imporsaine process with the horse. The fastest walking tirely immaterial—but it is, or may be, within the tance is to be attached to the decided and very geneox that I recollect to have seen, almost always upon experience of every one, that a horse not at work ral preference shown to the horse in practice; for it being put to work after some days rest, ran away. will keep fat upon less than an ox of equal weight, is in vain to compare the subject of ox labour to

It may also be recollected, that if the horse be under similar circumstances, and supposing, that that of some modern improvements, to which it is worked hard, and be scantily fed, he is altogether when at work the former requires rather more food often thought a sufficient objection, that they are as quiet and as resigned, although not so slow as than the latter, (a point not apparent,) I contend modern-for oxen have been used from tine immethe ox, under similar circumstances. But if he is that he will do a great deal more work, and that it morial, and notwithstanding that ancient prejudices made fat, he is immediately changed into an animal will be much better done.

are as much in their favour as of any other estafull of vigour and energy, whilst the ox, by the same Our opponents seem to imagine, that if they can blished practice, they appear to lose ratner than to process, is made still more lazy, and his inclination prove that 6 oxen will do the work of 4 horses- gain ground, being a general attendant upon imperto sleep still more increased.

supposing them not to consume more, that they fect modes of agriculture. We are also told of the cheapness of his harness, have decided the question. But it may be answer- I would not wish to be the advocate of any pracwhen by others of his warm advocates, it is consi- ed, that it is vain to multiply animals for labour, tice at war with a sound economy; but the present dered one of the greatest of modern improvements,

discussion involves the question of the comparative not only to harness him like the horse, but to curry * Colonel Taylor.

efficiency, as well as the cheapness of labouring and brush bim, and to bestow, in every respect, † Lawrence's General Treatise upon Cattle. animals.

8-VOL. 7.

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