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WHOLESALE.

RETAIL.

per. from

22

.

per week

none

75
40

Rye,

37

22

none

9

20

Cottons remain very firm. Georgia and Alabama below the usual quantity, and that 34 a 36; Louisiana 36 a 39. The imports this month the demand is good, but taking that

PRICES CURRENT, from America have been as yet but 8000 bales, and it of last year, will be

50,000 is expected will prove a great deficiency, when com- Consumption. Notwithstanding the

ARTICLES

to from

to pared with the same month in 1824. Although the report, that the trade held 40,000 daily sales are not extensive, still our stock diminishes, bales on the 31st Dec. 1824, more

BEEF, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 10 than at the end of 1823, the result

BACON, and Hams, . and we calculate on a continuance of the present rates,

Ib. 6 50 8 has shewn the spinners and dealers

17 COFFEE, W.I. Green, .

21 as long as our market is kept as bare as it is of that

20 25 (with the exception of a few of the

15

do. Common, staple.

16

18 Campeachy logwood, 14 a 15f.; fustic, 16f.; cochi- leading houses) to have had only

26 COTTON, Louisiana, &c.

22 24 neal, 25 a 271. in bond.

Georgia Cpland, . average stocks; taking the consumpRice sells readily at 36f.-duty paid.

tion therefore of 1824 at, per week,

COTTON YARN, No. 10,

40 11,550

An advance of 1 cent *Calculation of Import, Export, Consumption and Stocks, in And adding the average in

each number to No. 18. crease of 5 years past,

CANDLES, Mould,

12 13 14 Manchester, for 1825.

16 which, notwithstanding the

Dipt,

10 11 10 12 The stocks on 31st Dec. 1823, were bales 383,000 advance of prices, may be

CHEESE,

6 8 10 The imports of 1824 were, from the

reasonably expected from

FEATHERS, Live,

32 33 United States,

282,000
the great increase of ex-

FISH, Herrings, Sus. new bbl. 2 25 2 50 Brazils,

144,000
ports and demand for home

Shad, trimmed, new,

6 6 50 7 50 East Indies,

50,400
use of goods and yarns,

600

FLAXSEED, Rough, . bush 80 S. West Indies, 30,100

FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 5 12 5 25
Egypt,
,
39,000 539,500

12,150 637,000
Fine,

4 87

687,000 Susquehanna, superfi. 922,500

FLAX,

Ib. 9 11
Deduct Exports,

53,000
Estimated stocks in London, Liver-

GUNPOWDER, Balti. . 25 15 5 5 50
Quantity taken out of the ports for

pool and Glasgow, December 31,

GRAIN, Indian Corn, . bush

41

39 consumption,

634,000 687,000
1825,

150,000 Wheat, White,

1 05 1 10 Against the stocks in the same places,

do. Red,

1 001 1 02 Stocks on hand,,31st Dec. 1824,

235,500
Dec. 31, 1824, of

235,500
Buckwheat,

55
Probable Import of 1825.
United States. The estimated growth,

Barley,

50 allowing the crop and the produce

SEEDS, PLANTS, AND GRAIN,

Clover Seed, .

3 25

3 50 3 75 of the states on the Mississippi to

Ruta Baga Seed, .
Deposited since last notice with the Edilor of the American

1 make up for the deficiency of 50,000

2 Farmer, for the use of his subscribers.

Orchard Grass Seed, bales, occasioned by drought and

Mangel Wurtzel Seed, 1 50 floods in Carolina and Georgia, is A Plant of the Everlasting Pea, six feet in length,

Timothy Seed,

2 25 generally taken at not more than the growth of this Spring in open air, from Mr. Moore,

Oats,

25
430,000
with the following note:

Peas, Black Eyed,
Deduct, for native consumption and
Dear Sir,- take the liberty of submitting to your Beans, White,

1 1 12
exportation to the continent of Eu-
inspection, á specimen of the Everlasting Pea, or Vetch, HEMP, Russia, clean, .

ton 1215 rope,

140,000
(Lathyrus latifolius.) The plant from which it was HOGS' LARD, .

lb.
taken, is now of four year's growth from the seed; in a LEATHER, Soal, best,

24

27
290,000
lean or thin soil, and has seventy-eight shoots of this Eastern Tan, .

18
Deduct 5 per cent. for loss in
year's growth, of from ten to thirty-six inches in length. MOLASSES, Havana, gal 27

33 37

50 spinning, owing to inferio

Being a lover of nature, and delighted with your ex- MEAL, Corn, kiln driel, tbl. 2 37 rity of quality,

14,000
ertions to embellish, improve, and enrich our common NAILS, 802.d.

Ib. 61

7 7 기

8 country with all that is valuable, both of foreign and NAVAL STORES, Tar, bhl. 1 50

1 75 276,000 domestic growth, I feel a pleasure in calling your at- Pitch,

1 501 751 2 Add possible remaining stock tention to this Vetch, as a beautiful and most voluable Turpentine, Soft,

2 2 50 of the growth of 1823, in

plant for early and steady pasture; believing that it OIL, Whale, common, . gal. 25 27 stead of 30,000, say

17,000
would afford, if planted in drills, about two feet apart, Linseed,

65
This estimate will exceed the
more nutritive sustenance for domestic animais, and PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl 14

15 import of 1894, by 11,000 for a greater number of years than most of the plants do. Prime,..

10 50 11 bales, 293,000 or grasses. generally cultivated. With a hope that it PLASTER, cargo price, ton.

6 75 Brazils. A degree of uncertainty may have a fair trial and prove useful.

POTATOES,

lbush

35 50 hangs over the imports from thence,

I remain your most obed't.

RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 3 501 4 25 5 but the average of imports of the

Ballimore, April 27.
HENRY MOORE. SOAP, Baltimore White, lh. 14

18 last four years is calculated upon,

do,
Brown,

6
A species of GUINEA Corn, apparently; from J. Mid-

10 which will be equal to the arrivals

WHISKEY, Ist proof,

23 25 gal.

37

75 in 1824,

dleton, Esq. found among some Turkey figs. 144,000

PEACH BRANDY, 4th pr

65 82 1

1 25 East Indies. It is supposed that the

APPLE BRANDY, Ist pr

27

37 arrivals will be precarious, on ac

GARRICK,

SUGARS, Havana White, c.lb. 13 00 13 50 14 count of the state of warfare and

An imported full bred Devon Bull, will stand this do. Brown, the consequent employment of prispring and summer at the first Toll-gate on the Balti- Louisiana,

10 20 vate ships. The imports from Calmore and Harford Turnpike Road, and be let to cows

Loaf,

lb. 15 24 151 25 cutta are expected to be very modeat five dollars each; the money in every instance to be Lump,

15 16 16,

17 rate, and from Bombay less than last sent with the cows, and for which aswarranty is given. SPICES, Cloves,

1 10

25 year, say

31,500

Garrick was purchased under this name last summer, Ginger, Ground, Egypt. The calculations extend, inat one year old, from the celebrated stock of Mr. Mace,

3 00

3 50 cluding arrivals from various ports Chilues near Bewdley, who has for some years been

Nutmegs,

2 50

3 00 in the Mediterranean, to an increase the most extensive and successful breeder of North Pepper,

20

25 above those of 1824 of 100,000 bales,

Devon cattle in England, and Garrick was acknowledig- SALT, St. Ubes, bush 44 making

133,000
ed to be his best yearling at the public sale in Septem- Ground Alum,

50
Deduct, for decrease of wt.
ber last; he is by Prize out of Fill-Pail, as per cata- SHOT, all sizes,

cwt. 9 25 10 from the average of Amerilogue and pedigree which accompanied him.

WINES, Madeira, L. P. (gal. 2 50 3 25 3 004 00 can packages,

33,000 100,000

April 2.
JOHN BROWN, Gate-keeper.

do. Sicily,

11011 15 West Indies and other ports. No rea

Lisbon, .

1 301 sonable expectation exists of any

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.

Claret,

doz. 3 increase in the quantity imported

Port, first quality,

gal. 2

2 50 30,000 601,500 Proceedings and Report of the Union Agricultural WOOL, Merino, full bla lb. 40 45 Society-Agricultural Society of Albemarle-Fruit

unwasher! do. crossed,

30 35 This calculation of import is 162,000

but free of Trees-Docking Horses—Twin Calves-Method of pre- Common, Country,

20 30 bales more than the arrivals of 1824, 837,000 venting Dogs killing Sheep—To destroy Tobacco Flies- Skinners' or Pulled,

tags.

301 35 Probable Consumption and Exporis

Prospect for Crops--Solanum Tuberosum, Potato in 1825.

Culture of the Vine-Scuppernong Wine-Milk Pans-- Printed every Friday, at $5 per annum, for JOHN S. Export. The general impression is,

Locomotive Steam Engine-Miscellaneous Items-Edi- SKINNER, Editor, by JOHN D. Toy, corner of St. that the stucks in the continental

torial --Mar land Association, Races-Sale at Cattle Paul and Market strects, where every description of markets, 31st Dec. last, were much Show-Commercial-Advertisement--Prices Current.

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed.

8

8

10
9

1

7

8

7

last year,

AMERICAN FARMER—BaltiMORE, MAY 6, 1825.

49 No. 7-VOL. 7.

to leave more shoulder or bed to them than was de- also obvious, that his mode of cultivation is well AGRICULTURE.

sired, to avoid burying them with the earth falling calculated to cause an extensive, useless waste of

back; therefore, the plough, on having worked the animal and vegetable matter contained in the NATURE AND REASON HARMONIZED IN THE PRACTICE through the field, immediately returned to the place soil

. Likewise of the farm yard manure, if that be where it began to plough from the plants, and it applied for the growth of the crop. OF HUSBANDRY,

now took off as much more earth, still turning it Respect for Mr. Bordley's opinion induced me to By 'the late John Lorain.

from them, on each side, as they could well bear try his practice. The cutting of the roots of plants, [Under the above title, a very valuable work has without danger of tottering." "This is a tedious (as might and ought to have been expected,) is very been recently published, by Messrs. Carey & Lea, piece of business, as are most other things opposed injurious to the crop; the more so, as it exposes of Philadelphia, for account of Martha Lorain, re

to the economy of nature and to common sense. that part of them which remains attached to the lict of the deceased author. It consists of 550

But to proceed—“All now rested ten or twelve stalk, to the injurious effects of the sun and air, ad

pages octavo, and is divided into four books, under these days, even in the driest weather, with intention that mitted by leaving the surrows next to the plants general titles: Book !. On Manures and Vegetation, the artiücial surface of the ground formed by the quently turning up the soil, and admitting too much

the lateral roots should take their direction under open. Fermentation is also much checked, by frejects.-Book IV. On Gentleman Farming. The books ploughshare. The ploughs next turned a furrow, air, and the decomposed matter arising from it is are divided again into chapters, in all fifty-two- on each side of the rows, to the plants, through the subjected to the useless waste that has been before embracing almost every subject within the range of whole field; and then ploughed through the balks, described.

The undecayed vegetable substances are dragged American husbandry. Though there is to be found or the whole of the intervals not before ploughed; in the work much of the philosophy of agriculture and so repeatedly continued to plough through the up by the harrow into heaps, where they perish on that is introduced in a language and manner calcu- intervals from and to the plants. The alternate the surface of the soil, and do but little good' to it.

Reason, if it had been properly consulted, would lated to give greater value and effect to the practi ploughings from and to were continued, even during cal remarks and illustrations of the writer, it is, in the forming and filling of the grain, and it was con- have been sufficient to convince me, that cutting truth and essentially, a practical treatise on subjects share passed rather over the roots

, which spread tice; still I tried Doctor Anderson's mode of culti

tinual work for the ploughs, in which the plough- the roots of plants, was in itself an irrational pracof the most general and indispensable moment, to and ran deeper than if they had taken their first vation; this cuts the roots, also leaves them, either every man whose fortune it is to look for his suste- start under the common surface of the earth, and on one or the other side of the rows, exposed to the nance to “mother earth.” That our readers may be the better able to judge

therefore they were not torn up, or the plants fired injurious effects of the sun and air, until he tells us for themselves, and with a view of making better or checked in their growth."*

the plants ought to be earthed up. However, one known and more effectually recommending it to the

Mr. Bordley ploughed from each side of the rows trial of this very plausible, pulverizing system, (perreading portion of agriculturists, (which, we trust, is

of the plants five inches deep, while the plants are haps formed in the Doctor's closet,) was sufficient every day increasing, we shall take the liberty' or young; he then let them rest ten or twelve days on the to convince me, that the roots of plants ought not to inserting two or three chapters. The work is well narrow ridges formed by this practice; this was done, be cut in any way, even while they were young: printed and well bound, and for sale at $3.50, by under the artificial surface of the ground formed by from them, especially as nature had constructed

that the lateral roots should take their direction also, that it was irrational to turn the earth away our neighbour, Edward J. Coale, Esq.]

the ploughshare. If the corn plant, when scarcely them to grow in it. BOOK 11.-CHAPTER XIII.

three inches high, be pulled up by the roots from Some cultivators, in order to make the soil open The practice of ploughing from and to plants consi- an open free soil

, the lateral roots will be found and mellow, turn it from the plants into the first dered, and its injurious effects explained. The ex- about twelve inches long, beside what remains in cultivation, but after harrowing well, turn it immepanding force of fermentation cannot be powerful the ground; consequently these roots are cut off on diately back to them, least injury might be done by where a sufficiency of animal or regetable maiter each side of the rows, even by the first cultivation, leaving the roots exposed. This is a more rational does not oblain. of the marked fertility arising while the plant is yet very young; they are also cut practice than either of those just mentioned, but it from ploughing in buckwheat, or turning up a off by every succeeding cultivation. If the surrows is laborious and also imposing. The open texture clover lay from a wheat crop. The depth of plough- made along each side of the rows, by the first culti- of the soil is obtained at the expense of the roots ing should be in proportion to the animal and vege-vation, were kept continually open, and the lateral of the plants and the useless waste of the animal table matter contained in the soil.

roots of the plants compelled by this means to cross and vegetable matter contained in it. As fermenPloughing from and to fallow plants has been would not cause the roots to grow under the artifi- (unless it be sandy or very rich,) settles, and be

the bottom of them, a little within the ground, this tation is greatly checked by this practice, the soil highly recommended by gentlemen of the first agri- cial surface of the ground formed by the plough- comes harder than it would have been, if the cultural talent. It is said to be still extensively prac- share." Nature, immediately after they passed the grounds had not been so carefully pulverized; espetised in England, by the most enlightened agricul- open furrow, would direct them up into the soil cially if heavy rains follow this inconsiderate and laturists in that country. Names may, and too often above, to take their natural range through it

: espe- borious practice. have, the power to sanction and perpetuate error. cially in that part of it, where the most genial heat

It should, however, be recollected that the powThey cannot, however, change the nature of things, and nutriment obtained. This is clearly seen when erfully expanding force of fermentation, cannot or make any practice right, if it be opposed to na- the lateral roots of trees cross ditches, or even deep exist in a soil where perpetual ploughing and cropture and common sense.

gullies, at the bottom of them, a little within the ping has destroyed too much of the animal and veDoctor Anderson advocated this practice, and ground. They immediately mount upward after getable matter that had formerly existed in it. In furnished an engraving of the lines, by which this they have crossed the bottom of the ditch, and take this case a sufficiency of vegetation ought to be inmode of cultivation might be executed in the most their natural growth at the same distance from the troduced, by red clover and the use of gypsum. Or ingenious way. His plan turns the soil to the plants surface of the soil, as would have happened, if they if the grounds have been so often excited by that on one side of each row, and from them, on the had met with no obstacles in getting into it. substance that it will no longer cause good crops of other side of it. As the ploughing is reversed every time the crop is cultivated, the roots of the plants ward from the stalk, also those that take their riching manure, such other plants as the soil will

The roots of the corn plant which proceed down- this grass to grow on them, without the aid of enare alternately cut off, and lest exposed on one side course along the rows, are not injured; neither are grow, should be cultivated and ploughed under for of the row; they are by this means always covered, all those which grow the deepest within the soil in manure.

When as much vegetation is procured on one or the other side of each row; therefore this the intervals cut off. Therefore as the corn plant is from an exhausted soil as it is capable of producing, gentleman's practice is not quite as much opposed very hardy, it is supported by these roots, until na- and also as much animal matter as may be obtained to nature and reason as Mr. Bordley's. He recom- ture repairs the damage done by this truly inconsi- from the cattle grazed on it, and the animaleula mended ploughing from the plants on both sides of derate and barbarian practice. It is of consequence which are fed and sheltered by it, the next thing to the rows, in the same cultivation. This gentleman by no means wonderful, that Mr. Bordley, who was be considered is, how this scanty product may be says, “observing much irregularity in the standing in many respects a judicious farmer, should by his most advantageously used, and with the least possiof maize in rows, I caused the seed to be placed general good management, so far counteract the ble expense. "The quantity of inert earth is often close to the land side of the furrows; the maize thus evils arising from this savage practice, as to grow, very great in proportion to the animal and vegetagrew very straight in lines, and admitted the plough under all the disadvantages resulting from it, crops ble matter derived from the green crop grown

on it

: to pass near the plants. These being up and a lit that were more than equal to the general crops of, therefore but little comparative good is to be expecttle grown, the design was formed of directing the his neighbours. Reason, however, as well as prac-ed, unless this manure be so applied and ordered, finger-like roots to dip, deeper than common before tice, determines that crops obtained in this way that the whole expanding force and enriching mat. the lateral roots should strike out. The soil was must fall very far short of those that may be obtain- ter contained in it, be expanded within the soil ploughed five inches deep, and turned at the first ed from a rational system of management. It is to the best advantage. However, if this be done, ploughing from the maize, on both sides of the

the benefit derived from it, will be found mich plants: but they then being young, it was necessary * See his book on Husbandry, pages 101, 102, 103, greater than has been commonly obtained from

7-VOL. 7.

of fallow crops.

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ploughing green crops under the soil, for the growth on the surface of it, by the very easy and effectual wien the corn was nearly soft enough for roasting

means that have been described, nature will keep ears;” and that “no difference was observed beTo illustrate this, I will again refer to buckwheat. the interior of the soil more open and mellow, for tween this and the rest."** If this gentleman had That plant is too often threshed on the field where the growth of the plants, than can be done by us measured the product, he would have seen a marked it grew, and the straw left in large heaps to perish, with the plough? It should be also recollected, that difference. with but little ultimate use to the cultivator. We by the use of this instrument, we cut and rend the It was discovered early in August, 1810, that promay observe, after the straw has been decomposed, roots of the plants, and by turning up the nutritive per grasses for soiling my cattle would soon be very that the remaining matter is very little, when com- matter, expose it to much useless waste.

deficient; and on the 20th of that month one row of pared with the original bulk of the heaps. This, toge- It is, however, considered proper to remark, that corn, in a field of thirteen acres, was topped, to ther with the evident texture of the straw, seems to notwithstanding it clearly appears from the prac ascertain how the plant would bear early cutting. determine that water forms a very considerable pro- tice of turning a clorer lay, and ploughing in buck- It was thought that it had received po injury. On portion of the plant. It of consequence contains much wheat for a crop of small grain, that but little nu- the 31st of the same month, I commenced feeding less nutritive matter, than most of the plants plough-triment will produce surprising effects when it is the cattle with the tops, cut daily, as wanted. These ed under the soil for manure. It has, however, not- properly ordered, still the amount of the green crop lasted them until the 18th of September. After this withstanding this, been ploughed under with very ought to be sufficient to keep the earth open and the blades were stripped, commencing where the great success, for a wheat crop; especially in Eng- mellow. This being the case, it is evident that a topping began. They fed the cattle until the 5th land. Now we all know that although the wheat thin soil should not be ploughed deep, when the ve- of October. will stubble, fall, and become unproductive, when getation is turned under it, unless a sufficiency of In the process of topping and blading, one row too much manure is applied for the crops, still much farm yard, or other enriching manure, be added, to was left entire, standing between the row which had nutriment is required to grow a good crop of that keep the soil open and mellow, or the ground, be- been topped on the 20th of August, and another grain. Why, then, does a crop of buckwheat, low the usual depth of ploughing, is found to be row that was topped on the 2d of September.ploughed under the soil, supply sufficient nutriment richer than the soil which has heretofore been em- These three rows were cut off by the roots on the to effect this purpose, when it clearly appears to ployed. This last I have never seen, neither can it|2d of October, and hauled in and set up separately furnish but little nutritive matter for the growth of happen, except in soils originally very deep, but so under my own inspection. They were husked and plants. The reason is obvious, and the principle long ploughed and severely cropped, that the upper measured on the 8th of November. highly important to the interests of agriculture, if part of them has been exhausted. The idea of bet- Produce of the row that had not been topped farmers would make a general and proper applica- tering or enriching poor soils generally, by deep and stripped, nine bushels and five-eighths of corn tion of it. After the buckwheat is ploughed under ploughing, and exposing the inert earth to the en- in the ear. the soil, it remains undisturbed by folly, and the in- riching influence of the atmosphere, is certainly very One of the rows which had been topped and jurious and very expensive labour too generally used erroneous.

stripped, measured seven bushels and six-eighths; when fallow crops are cultivated: consequently fer- The poor inert earth, thus exposed, will imbibe and the other topped and stripped row, measured mentation keeps the soil open and mellow for the some enriching matter from this source: still, it will seven bushels and three-eighths of corn in the ear. roots of the plants, and decomposition supplies them be much less than if the grounds had not been deep- Thus it clearly appears, that mutilating the corn with nutriment. As none of the enriching and fer-ly ploughed. Such a large body of inert matter plant before its fruit is perfected, is a very injurious tilizing matter, arising from the decomposition of cannot be kept open and mellow by the fermenta-practice. The injury done to my crop by this mode the green crop, is uselessly wasted in the way that tion of the green crop grown on the grounds. Co-of management, was clearly seen some time before has been described, the product is as abundant as vering this vegetation so deeply under the thin soil the three experimental rows were cut off. Throughcould be rationally expected from the properties of and inert earth, will greatly retard the fermentation out the whole field, the husks were generally dry the manure. It therefore seems that quite as much of it. It is evident that plants grown on this bulky and open, except on the row which had not been (if not more,) depends on the proper use of manure, and inactive mass of matter, cannot be sufficiently topped and stripped. On this, they still retained as on the quality or quantity applied; especially as luxuriant, either to gather or secure by their shade, a greenish hue, and were close set to the ear when we all know that a clover lay is an excellent prepa- any thing like as much nutriment from the atmos- the plants were cut off by the roots. ration for wheat. If the ground be well stored with phere, as would be obtained from it if the depth of In 1811, I selected three rows of maize in the the roots of this plant, the crop seldom fails to be the ploughing were calculated to suit the depth of middle of my field, as nearly alike as possible. The productive, even when the soil is thin, provided the the soil. In the latter case, the quantity of inert plants were then about two feet high. I cut off the seed for the grain crop be sown on one ploughing: earth would be so much less, that the fermentation tops of the middle row as low down as might be On the contrary, if the lay be prepared by repeated of the green crop would be sufficient to keep the readily done without injuring the tassels, which ploughings, the crop is seldom good, unless the soil soil open and mellow. The roots of the plants will were wrapped in their own leaves within the stalks. be rich enough to supply the great loss sustained in also soon penetrate the decaying sod, where they I could not observe that the stalks, in the row which consequence of exposing the enriching and fertiliz- will find sufficient nutriment to cause them to grow had been cut, grew any thicker, until new leaves ing matter contained in the clover roots, to useless as luxuriantly as might be reasonably expected from had been formed from the crown of the plants. Bewaste. This fact has been often and well confirmed, the means employed. Healthy, vigorous plants re- fore this happened, the stalks in the rows on either by sowing one part of the same clover lay on one quire and obtain much more nutriment from the at- side of it, seemed to be as thick again as those ploughing, and the other part after the grounds had mosphere than feeble ones They also far better standing in it; and the ears grown on the plants in been oftener ploughed. Although the cause of this defend, by their more extensive shade, the enrich- this row shot, filled, and ripened, about two weeks marked difference ought to be known, it certainly ing matter that has been deposited on the soil, in later than the rest of the field. has not been sufficiently considered; especially in the way that has been before described. The better As several writers on agriculture had asserted the different application of clover and other grass crops will also furnish much more offal vegetation that the tops of potatoes might be cut and given to lays, or a more general and far better application for litter. The grasses following them will be much the cattle, without injury to the crop, I cut off the and cultivation of them, would have been adopted. more luxuriant: consequently, the shallow ploughing tops from a row running through the middle of a Gypsum, even when the soil is very thin, causes will return much more enriching matter to the soil. very luxuriant patch. Care was taken to cut them the clover to grow luxuriantly. The tops we know to This will enable the cultivator to plough something in that way which was supposed to be least likely be very nutritive, and have every reason to believe deeper at the commencement of every succeeding to prove injurious to the future growth of the plants. that the roots are not less so, as far as the food for round of crops, until any reasonable depth of plough- The debilitated appearance of the second growth of plants may be concerned. When the-clover has not ing may be performed, without doing injury either the tops, determined me not to risk a second cutting been injured by being too frequently mown or close to the crops or the soil.

of them. When the crop was gathered, the roots ly pastured, the interior of the soil is well filled with Some gentlemen urge, that turning up the inert in the row that had been cut did not seem to be its roots, and the surface of the ground is as regu- earth by trench ploughing, ameliorates it. They more than half as large as those in the rest of the larly covered with the tops of the plant. As it can- ought, however, to have considered, before they re- patch. not (like the speargrasses,) live after its roots have commended this very injurious practice, that this In fact, I have never seen any advantage arise, been reversed by the plough, a general fermenta- amelioration is pri ipally effected at the expense of either from carefully trimming, or ruggediy mutition quickly takes place; and as this is not checked the enriching matter contained in the soil above. lating, annual plants; on the contrary, much injury when small grain is sown on one ploughing, the By ploughing and harrowing, it is always more or certainly follows. "It is, however, probable, that crop is generally as good as might be expected from less mixed with the poor earth turned up from be- good housewives and ignorant gardeners will conthis judicious, and of course rational practice. low it. This spreads the fertilizing matter contain-tinue to tread and mutilate the tops of their onions,

Why, then, should we spend so much money ined in the soil thinner, or wider apart: consequently, as long as the world may happen to last, for the exuseless and very injurious labour, when it is eyi- causes fermentation and decomposition to act much press purpose of making the roots grow much more dent, so far as the practice has been generally tried, more feebly, and to progress much slower than if luxuriantly; unless, perchance, they may happen to that if we place the necessary materials properly this matter lay closer together. Mr. Bordley says, within the soil, and subdue the grasses and weeds' he has “stripped the blades and cut off the tops |

* See his book on Husbandry.

1

reflect, thal the tops would not have existed, if na-acre. The corn stood on an average of two feet indifferent about them, and that none will say, "let ture did not consider them as necessary to the well and a half apart, two stalks in the hills; it grew in such matters take care of themselves, all will be being of the plant as its roots. Certain it is, that height from 10 to 13 feet, and was perhaps as splen- right in time”—but will assist with their mind and the writings of many gentlemen, who ought to have did an exhibition of agricultural luxuriance as any estate, substantially, to give all due honour to that known better, are exactly calculated to confirm country ever witnessed. It was indeed a tangled celebrated and comprehensive sentiment, “that in them in this truly savage practice.

forest of corn. Judicious men rated the crop at this western hemisphere there is a new world of more than I have ventured to mention, fearing that matter for a new world of mind." The notice of an

some agricultural reviewers (for we have Jefferys in association, in the last Farmer, for the improvement BANKING WITH THE SPADE, farming as well as writing,) should say—this wood- of wool, headed by the President of the United Together with a thing, or two, on the subject of wooden en shoed fellow means to hoax us with his crop States, and followed by a number of distinguished soaled shoes-reclaimed marshes, &c.

made without seeding, ploughing or tending. Softly, characters, which I have just read with great satis

my masters, “I cry your mercy,” till I tell you some- faction, has induced me to take the liberty of sugMR. EDITOR,

thing about an ash pocosin—when I am sure your gesting, whether so important a branch of the interThe great value of wood in this part of the coun- wonders will cease. "An ash pocosin, is not an affair nal improvements of our country as may be includtry, together with the perishable nature of its fenc- of mud and bullrushes, as most marshes are, but a ed under the head of live stock, &c. &c. might not ing, (locust, cedar and chestnut excepted, which are collection of vegetable matter, decaying since the with propriety engage the deliberations of our navery expensive,) induced me to try an experiment in time of father Noah, and forming the richest vege-tional councils, and employ their appropriations, at banking and ditching, for the purposes of enclosure. table mould it is possible to conceive. The depth least so far as to authorise an agricultural embassy I first cut a ditch of five feet in width and three is unknown; a pole forced down twenty feet, finds to Europe. Now, permit me to take the advantage feet in depth, and leaving an offset of nine inches, no diminution of richness, and it may reach the cen- of great names and useful schemes, in proposing sodded the face of the bank, fronting on the road, tral regions of Cleve Symmes, for aught we know. one which I humbly apprehend may be made generof a western exposure. The bank was topped by a A part of this reclaimed land was put in oats, and al and national in its effects:-Let at least three perfence of two old rails. The sodding has stood well sowed at the rate of 8 bushels to the acre, but it all (sons be selected, one from the eastern, another from the effect of three winters; the offset peeled away fell down and made nothing. A vast crop of the the middle, a third from the southern and western by the post, which has induced me to dispense with sapling clover and timothy grew for one year, but states, for the purpose of touring it through the culit, and sod entirely to the bottom of the ditch. the weeds took possession the next year, and de- tivated parts of the United States, to ascertain what The height from the bottom of the ditch to the top stroyed the grass. Stock kept constantly on this may be the deficiencies and wants of this country of the bank, is now eight feet; two rails make about land is a great advantage to it, giving it firmness, in agricultural economy, which may probably be two feet more, which is ten feet in the whole. An and preventing the growth of weeds and wild plants supplied by the advantages of the old countries of enclosure thus made is proof against the inroads of of various kinds. In this case the green sward soon Europe—and thence repair for the important ail kinds of trespassing animals. If the puncheons roots out the wild growth, and gives the very finest purpose of examining and comparing the one are of locust, and the rails chestnut, will last, with pasture. The dykes are always planted with pump-with the other, in order to determine how far, in very trifling repairs, for half a century; where lo- kins, and afford a very great crop. Grubbing is what manner, and at what cost, it will be expeeust and chestnut cannot be had, the oak railing will not only unnecessary, but prejudi'ia', leaving the dient for the people of this country to import dolast at least twenty years. Very many advantages ground in holes; the ash trees being cut close to he mestic animals for the improvement of their ownmight be detailed as belonging to this mode of en- surface, the stumps will rot in three or four years, and make their report, adapting, to the best of their closure. Nobody burns it-nobody steals it, and if and become undistinguished from the other mould; judgment, the various breeds and grades of animals any part should fall down, it will remain where it ploughing may then be done as in other lands. to the different uses, climates, and circumstances, falls, till put up again. I would recommend the Are there not at least 100,000 acres of this poco- they had met with in their own country;-it is then banks to be made early in winter, so as to become sin land on most of our fresh water rivers. I verily that individual enterprise will act with confidence well settled, before dressing and sodding in the believe, that if properly reclaimed, and put in corn on the best authority, and the legislatures of the spring. If the crown of the bank was to be opened and grass, these lands would raise more product of states might, with an unquestionable policy, make with a trench, and then filled up with good mould, both, than all the other lands in the counties to such appropriations as in their discretion they would and cedar being sowed therein so as to produce an which they are attached. One trunk or flood gate think fit. The importance of being better acquaintbedge, the effect would be k autiful, and the whole will suffice for a pocosin of an hundred acres. The ed with our own relative resources, in regard to live work an affair for posterity.

annual cleaning out of the ditches, affords a supply stock is very great-how frequently does it happen Of the wooden soaled shoes, my dear sir.— They of the finest manure for the improvement of uplands. that some individual farmer has a stock far more bare done most famously. Of all the modern ero. In a word, these invaluable lands, when properly valuable than his neighbours? and from an ignorance nomics, they are the chef d'æuvre. My leather reclaimed, afford a certainty of the most enormous and apathy on the subject, they derive no benefitdealer's account has stood for the last three years; in products, not liable to the mischiefs of drought, as a comparison then, in the progress made by the difproportion to the times of leather soals, as 50) to they need not a drop of rain, easy of cultivation, ferent states, would, hy producing interchange, be $200 -say 75 per cent. My people at first appre- and lasting as time.

of signal advantage. Chancellor Livingston, of New bended broken shins, broken necks, and all the ills I will soon send you a very long-promised treatise York, so distinguished for his knowledge on the which flesh is heir to”—but now declare that no on sheep, particularly the Sea Islanders—and am, subject of sheep, gave it as his opinion, that the thing would induce them to return to leather bot. with best wishes for the continued success of your middle states were better adapted to the raising of toms. This fact is bottomed on the experience of valuable work,

them than any part of the Union; and I am perthree winters, and very wet ones, and the roques

Your friend, &c.

suaded, that a considerable portion of the south and now admit that their feet are always warm-which,

GEO. W. P. CUSTIS.

west would be equally so. Then, why not extend in former days, were always cold. I have made an Arlington House, 24th April, 1825.

the limits of the association, and have the place of improvement in the mode of ironing these shoes.

its meeting more central? Would it not be desirable using broad headed nails in preference to the plates,

to make the seat of government such place? Howwhich were more liable to be knocked oi on the ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF SHEEP AND OTHER DOMES- ever, I rejoice to see the subject assume so much frozen ground.

importance as it already has, supported by wealth of reclaimed marshes only a word, as my paper

Frederick county, Va. April 22, 1825. and enterprise, not doubting the example will be tells me that I have my full share of communica- Dear Sir,

soon followed in other sections of our country. tion io one number of your valuable work. I at- I ENCLOSE you, with a few hints in our way, my tacked an ash pocosin, with Irishmen, some four subscription so justly due to the American Farmer years ago, dyked and ditched it, with a dyke of 1.2 for its punctual receipt and valuable contents. The feet at the base, and 3 feet high, and a ditch of 8 importance of such a journal is becoming daily so

Easton, Pa., April 20, 1825. icet in with, which kept out the tide, and drained manifest, that its friends cannot but rejoice in its Dear Sir, the surface sufficiently for cultivation. In March a success—the sceptical give way to clear demonstra- In page 28 of your present volume, a Frederickspart of it was standing in wood, inhabited by ver- tion. It must be acknowledged, the 7th volume has burg correspondent states the loss of four fine sheep rain of all sorts. The wood was cut off, the brush commenced with great interest, hy ushering in plans from eating too freely of clover, into which they had humt, and the first of June, men brought on their with such spirit for the improvement of our domes-been turned, and inquires, “have any of your corbacks bales of corn plants (previously sown for the tic animals, especially the much neglected one car- respondents experienced a similar loss from the purpose,) without horse, plough or hoe— they made rying the fleece. Now that the chiefs of the nation same cause? And is there any cure when attacked?" a hole with a sharpened stick, and thrust in the bave given the formal sanction of their names to When a boy, at home on my father's farm, the plants, all of which lived and flourished, and after active enterprises, and experiments in rural econo- sheep flock was under my particular care, and in receiving two hoeings to keep down the weeds, the my, we may hope such subjects will be more fashion- more than one instance, some of them had eaten crop ripened to the tune of at least 20 barrels the able; be estimated by the heretofore lukewarm and too freely of clover, and had all the symptoms of

TIC ANIMALS.

REMEDY FOR HOVEX SHEEP AND CATTLE.

HONOUR WHERE HONOUR IS DUE.

GP

CALVES.

THE CHEROKEE OR NONDESCRIPT ROSE-IN MARY

LAND.

mer,

being hoven. The remedy which I applied was, from giving them too much to drink at a time of plantation two weeks since. We had, after ten simply to tar a piece of rope and tie it in their mouths, skim milk, just warmed; it is difficult to stop it, be- days of fine weather, a sharp frost on the 4th inst., and success uniforuly attended the application. I fore they are old enough to eat oats, and always but its effects were only visible on the tender leaves am not able to state scientifically how the cure was stunts the calf. My method to feed a calf and raise of the persimmon tree. effected, but suppose, that the disease is owing to it, is, to let it suck the cow for a week, milking the

Yours, respectfully, wind in the paunch, and the tar occasions eructa-cow before the calf sucks, so that it may get the best

H. W. HARRINGTON." tions, by which the wind is discharged and the ani- milk; when weaned, I boil the milk and let it stand mal relieved.

to cool, before giving it--simply making the milk I have known the same remedy applied to horned warm is not near so good, and brings on a loose

AGRICULTURAL INQUIRIES. cattle with like success. In fact, I never knew it ness; after a week, I tie up a bunch of the sweetest

Wayne county, (Georgia) 15th April, 1825. fail.

hay and hang it so as to swing about when the call Mr. Skinner, When horned cattle are attacked, I have seen touches it—this will induce it to smell and play You will do me a favour, to have the goodness to them relieved by making a hole with a knife or with it, and it soon begins eating it; give it ground inform me what will be the cost of a cob mill, to other sharp pointed instrument, in the side of the oats and corn meal in a trough or tub, it will soon grind corn with and without the cob. animal, and into the paunch, so as to let the air lick and eat it. The milk should be given three escape in that way. I'have known this operation times a day, the hay once, and meal once; two mills to enable him to answer the above inquiry.]

[The Editor will thank any manufacturer of such to be performed successfully, but we never, on our quarts of milk is sufficient for a meal three times a farm, did any thing more in such cases, than mere- day, more at once brings on the skit or looseness, ly to apply the tarred rope.

which is the worst thing that can happen to a young In turning cattle or sheep into clover early in the call; the quantity to be increased after a month spring, care should be taken if the clover is rank, old. The tirst winter, the calf should be kept on the Extract to the Editor, from one of the Trustees of the

Massachusetts Agricultural Society. that ihey should not be turned in while there is best hay, with potatoes, turnips, mangel wurtzel, or much dew or wet on the clover, as when in that some juicy esculent, in quantities sufficient to keep "In reciting the good deeds of Admiral Sir Isaac state it has a much greater tendency to wad, and its skin loose and give it an appetite for the hay; it Coffin, and he certainly has done nobly—you give injure them. They should also be driven about should be kept dry and clean, but not warm, the him credit for giving us the English Dray Horse continually for 15 or 20 minutes after being turned latter filling them with lice, which is very injurious Columbus—that is a mistake; it was presented by in, to prevent their eating too greedily, and thus to them an open shed is best for them, kept well his brother, GENERAL Corrin; and I am very cerinjure ihemselves.

littered. The second winter, they may run in a tain, the Admiral himself would thank us for corVery respectfully yours.

jard, and be fed with coarse hay. They may take recting the error."
the bull when 15 months old, sooner stunts them.

Calves should be kept separate, otherwise they
ON THE MANAGEMENT OF MILK COWS AND REARING suck each other's ears, and teaze one another when

HORTICULTURE.
they should lay quiet and sleep.
Carrington, April 27th, 1825.

Truly yours,

THOMAS MASSEY.
Having read a good deal concerning fine cattle,
Short Horns, Alderneys, Herefordshires, &c., and

Harewood, Montgomery county, Md. 5th mo. 2d, 1825. little wrote or published on the subject of making

PROSPECT OF CROPS.

Respected Friend, and managing them, I have given you my plan, and

In No. 36 of the 6th volume of the American Farshould any of your readers put me in a better way,

Hall's Roads, 30th April, 1825. I have observed a hint from Charles E. Row. shall be much indebted to them.

Until within a few days, my prospect for a good, and that individuals who have obtained from him A cow,

before calving, should be tolerable beef. very good crop of wheat was most promising; oh- cuttings of the nondescript or Cherokee rose, should I never had a cow that was lean and weak at the serving it to assume a yellow appearance, 1 yester avail themselves of that channel to diffuse the knowtime of her calving, that ever milked more than day examined it, and find that almost every stalk ledge of an article that promises considerable benehalf as well as she did when she was fat and of contains a small white worm, about 1-8 of an inch lit to the agricultural interest of this section of our course strong. A good cow should give at least 9 (some smaller) in length. I supposed it was the

country to 12 quarts of milk at a mess, and it is impossible Hessian fly, in one of its many stages; but on fur

In the spring of 1823, I planted 135 slips; but to get a poor core strony, while giving the above ther examination, with a microscope, together with

owing to inattention in the transportation, much of quantity of milk; this shows the necessity of having the opinion of my neighbour, Dr. Davis, an enlight- the earth was lost out of the box, and the slips so cows in proper order before they calve, and lays the ened and scientific gentleman, as well as one of the much injured, that 76 only lived through the ensu

best practical agriculturists we have, I am satisfied ing summer, and nearly all of these were in bloom foundation for raising fine calves. To have cows

it is not the fly, but an insect equally destructive the same season;—they continued quite green in proper order, costs no more in the end than

poor keeping, and a cow that dorit pay for proper keeping wherever it makes its attack; its location is in the through the winter, and the succeeding spring were should not be kept for milkin? I give my milk hollow of the stalk, just above the surface of the trimmed close, and afforded from 6 10 700 good

in the fall, chopped pumpkins and a quart o! :round, I hope its ravages may not be general slips. There were so many applications for them, corn meal twice a day; when the pumpkins are all through the country; but as I have not been from which I could not refuse, that no progress was made

home for some time, am unable to say to what ex- in the hedge. This spring there were applications eat, a bushel of clover hay, cut and scalded or

tent it is in this county. steamed in a hogshead and a quart of meal twice a

I have lately purchased a considerable quantity giving only a few slips to each person, I again fell

for more than the nursery would supply, and by day, with good hay and corn-fodder three times a day, and the fresh calved cows double that quan form me what is the proper quantity to apply upon very short hedre. Ảnother year I will first plant

of ashes from Hyde's soap factory;--can you in- Short of the quantity necessary to set out, even a my cows milking all winter, and until 2 or 3 weeks an acre. The parcel I have contains a considerable

my own, and then others shall be supplied. of their calving; continuing to feed them until they portion of barilla. Herrings are much used with

The nursery has lost much of its beauty by the calve; the butter and milk amply pays the expense us as a manure, 22 to 25,000 per acre being sutli

severe frusts of last winter; but I do not observe and trouble, and my cows in April look like stall-fed cient, is found cheaper than almost any other that beef. I tried a cow that inade me 10lbs, of butter we can apply. When purchased, the price is from far as my observation has extended, sheep and rab

any of the plants killed, or materially injured. So per week, from the 20th of May to the end of July, 25 to 35 cents per fi000; but several on the water bits are the only animals that will nip the tender

she was milked three times a day,) was fat when she have small seines of their own, and catch them with branches and leaves—in no instance have their de calved in 18-22. I then lived in town, and had no

predations been observed near the stalk, or where other cow. Next year she was only in middling or

the branches grow close together; —every thing else der when she calved, and after calving had as good Extract of a letter duted Sreedsborough, N. C. 10th approaches it with great caution. When in bloom, keeping as she had in 1822, but could not get more

.Ipril, 1825.

the Nondescript is certainly the most beautiful of than 71bs. per week. I thought she was passing her “The spring opened very early with us this sea- the rose kind, I ever saw, and when accustomed to prime--in 1814, lad her fat again when she calved, son. The wheat and barley were in head on my the change of climate, will probably be quite as and she made as much butter as in 1992. I think

handsome as an evergreen. this clearly proves the propriety of what is above

For the benefit of those who may wish them for

* Subscribers may be assured that the Editor knows stated.

nothing which is not to be found in the American Far- ornament, I will forward, the next season, a small To raise calves—the great point is to keep them As fast as he receives inforination, it is deposit-box containing one or two hundred cuttings, to the from purging, or being too loose, after weaning. ed there; keeping nothing longer than is necessary to office of the American Farmer for distributionThey are very subject to this, owing, I believe, meet its turn.

(Should it escape my memory, any one who will re

mer.

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