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HABITS OF THE WOODCOCK.

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FEMALES.

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MALE SLAVES.

FEMALE SLAVES.

.

CHESAPEAKE AND DELAWARE CANAL.

MISCELLANEOUS.

coloured population in 1820, was as follows. I state

it on authority: This magnificent work is now rapidly progress

Whole population of Baltimore in 1820- 62,738 ing, and will , in all probability, be entirely com

ORNITHOLOGY.

FREE COLOURED PERSONS, MALES. pleted in the year 1827. It is 14 miles in length,

Under 14 years of age,

1,663 60 feet wide, and 8 feet deep; it has two tide and

Of 14 and under 26,.

903 two lift locks, which are in length between the gates Cæcil County, Md. April 10, 1825. Of 26 to 45,

1,110 100 feet by 22 feet wide; the walls are 140 feet long. DEAR SIR: In

your
last
paper,
I observed a report Of 45 and upwards, .

687 It will at once be seen that this canal will admit of the season, from Stephenstown, Rensellaer counsloops and schooners of a large class. ty, New-York, to evidence the forwardness of the Free males, .

4,363 At the summit level, where the cutting is about season, that “even the night-bird who screeches to 70 feet deep, there will be a bridge with a single us in May, is now amongst us, high in the air at Under 14 years of age,

1,827 arch of 200 or 250 feet space; the under side of the evening." Your correspondent labours under a mis- Of 14 and under 26, .

1,606 arch to be 90 feet above the bottom of the canal. take, when he supposes the notes of a bird which Of 26 to 45,

1,674 he hears at twilight in the evening, to be the night- Of 45 and upwards,

756 bird, or whippoorwill. I do not wonder at the Extract of a Letter from the vicinity of the Chesapeake and mistake, because I have known it frequently made. Free Females,

5,863 Delaware Canal dated March 25, 1825.

The bird which he takes for the night-bird, is the “We hope soon to have our number of men in- woodcock, who always commence their songs in Free coloured persons,

10,226 creased to two thousand on this Canal—but we fear the beginning of March. They fly high in the airthe article of beef and other provisions, will be very are seldom seen when they commence first their Under 14

years

of
age, .

787 high before next autumn. It appears as though the flight. The note resembles that of the night-bird, Of 14 and under 26,

595 drovers would soon drain the country of cattle to drive but by stricter attention, you will observe, they soon Of 26 to 45,

421 to New-York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, where, leave this hackney song for one of greater melotly- Of 45 and upwards,

165 we are informed, they are selling at great sacrifices. indeed, one of the finest I ever heard. The whipIt would be much better for farmers to slaughter poorwill never comes until the weather has become Male slaves,

1,968 their own fat cattle, and salt them up. I shall be settled, and 'tis a saying among farmers, when this very much mistaken, if beef does not command bird comes, you may plant corn.

Under 14 years

of
age,

790 double in price before next August. It has already

Your friend,
Of 14 and under 26,

862 advanced with us. The labourers on the different

BENJ. F. MACKALL. Of 26 to 45,

511 canals in New-York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland,

Of 45 and upwards, .

226 will soon consume from thirty to fifty head of fat Distressing as were the effects of the inundations bullocks per day. The number of workmen on the lat St. Petersburgh, where 580 persons perished,

Female slaves,

2,589 different canals now exceed ten thousand. Good they were not as destructive as those in Hanover, as salt beef is worth twelve dollars per barrel.” to the loss of property. The inundations covered

Slave coloured persons, .

4,357 [Franklin Gazette an extent of twelve square leagues between Harbourg Rit Zebuttel and Bremen. About 7000 houses

'Total coloured persons,

14,583 were under water, and more than 200 persons pe

Hox striking is the disproportion between the UNION CANAL. rished.

deaths of free and slave coloured people—while the The bill authorizing the extension of the Union

population of free is not more than 2] to one slave, Canal eastward from the mouth of the Tulpehocken,

the deaths are as more than seven for one-proving so as to unite with the Schuylkill Canal, at or near

NOTES OF A DESULTORY READCR.

how vastly superior is the condition of the slaves in Reading, has passed both branches of the Legisla- Communicated for the American Farmer.

all that contributes to comfort, health, and the proture, and received the signatures of the Governor.

In the city of Philadelphia, during twelve months to human increase than the circumstances of mo

longation of life. Nothing can be more conducive It is understood that the company will thus be enabled at once to finish and put into operation, the deaths of these 324 died of natural small pox:-50 time existed in the middle, and as they are rapidly

prior to the 1st January last, there were 4,399 dern slavery, as these circumstances have for some whole of the line east of Lebanon, comprising a of apoplexy!—151 of inflammation of the lungs- extending through all the southern states—where indistance of 35 miles, and forming in connexion with 379 of consumption--and 307 of typhus fever. of humanity has become reproachful, if not anomalous. the Schuylkill works, a complete water communica- the above-mentioned deaths, there were, tion from this city to that place—and that this most

1017

Males of 20 years and upwards, desirable object will probably be accomplished by

Males under 20 years,

1303 the end of August next. The residue of the work,

-2320 stretching on the one hand to the coal regions of

Females of 20 years and upwards,

The drill system originated with Tull, who, hav

1076 the Swatara, and on the other to the Susquehanna

ing conceived a theory, which induced hiin to supFemales under 20 years,

919 at Middletown will also be prosecuted with the ut

pose that the beneficial effect of manure consisted, most vigour during the present season.

1995 principally, in its rendering the particles of the Children, principally under one year,

earth so friable and minutely divisible as to adwhose sex is unknown, .

84

mit of their being absorbed by the roots of plants, UNION CANAL LOAN.—The whole of the loan of

imagined this state of pulverization might be equal$200,000, authorized by the Union Canal Company

Total,

4399 ly induced by the mechanical division of the soil, in Pennsylvania, was taken on the 7th inst. at a pre

Of the foregoing deaths, 590 died in the Alms- and which, he conceived, would be effected by more mium of 4 per cent. As high as 7 1-2 and even 10 house, and 703 were people of colour.

frequent ploughings, and other means of well stirper cent was offered for a considerable portion of

ring the earth, as well after as before the seed is the loan; but the managers were obliged, by the

In a statement of deaths in Baltimore, for the year sown. To accomplish this, he deposited the seed terms of their proposals to place the highest bid on ending 1st Jan. 1825, prepared for the Philadelphia in parallel lines, at such a distance as allowed the a footing with the lowest accepted offer; and it was Freeman's Journal, it is set forth that the total of intermediate space to be ploughed, or otherwise rated at 104. It has since been sold at 106 per cent. deaths were 1468, of which two only died of natural turned over, during the growth of the crops. His The interest is payable quarterly.

small pox-17 of apoplexy—188 of consumption- theory proved untrue, but his practice was excel2 of intlammation of the lungs, and 17 of typhus lent, for not only were the weeds more effectually fever.

destroyed than by any system of hand-hoeing beOhio Loan.—The Commissioners of the Ohio It is further stated, that of the deaths in Balti- fore in use, but the growth of the plants was much canal fund received, as we learn, many offers for more, 416 were coloured people, of whom 368 were accelerated and perfected. This was, however, obthe loan of $400,000, for which they had advertised, free and 48 slaves. This is correct, but the follow-viously effected on a principle very different to his and effected it, as we are further told, at 97 1-2 for ing N. B. is so far false only as the facts stated are theory; not by the absorption of the divided parti100 of stock, bearing an interest of 5 per cent.- the reverse of the truth.

cles of the earth itself, but by the absorption of the This is equal to a premium of about 13 per cent. N. B. The coloured population of this city, in different principles which the earth never fails to on 6 per cent. stock. The highest offer for 6 per 1820, according to the United States census, was evolve, or attract from the atmosphere, in a more cent, stock was, we are informed, 110 per cent.- Free 4,357, Slaves 10,294.

than ordinary degree, every time it is turned over The persons to whom the loan was awarded are, This error was derived from some Baltimore pub- and well stirred, as water, caloric, several gases, Messrs. Eleazar Lord, and John Rathbone, jun. lication. The state of the case as to free and slave'and other principles detected and defined by modern

ORIGIN AND PHILOSOPHY OF THE DRILL SYSTEM OF

HUSBANDRY.

.

FOR THE AMERICAN FARMER.

chemistry; and which absorption was also evidently 7. Never spoil a joke for a relation's sake; nor the prize; Hit or-Miss having stopped soon after greatly increased by the multiplication of the roots suppress the truth for any body's sake. Therefore, starting, and Boaster was thrown down by a mule of the plants, necessarily produced by their being if you do not like your husband as well as you ought, on the track, the first heat. Running time, 1st heat occasionally divided, in these processes, by the out with it, and convince him you are no respecter 8 min. 25 sec.—2d do. 7 min. 30 sec. plough or horse hoe. The quick and more perfect of persons.

The second day's races, yesterday, afforded fine vegetation of grain, when deposited imme iately 8. You should endeavour not to keep your tem- sport, and finer running was never seen in Louisiaafter the land has been stirred by the plough, is a per-let it off as soon and as fast as you can; and na. The three mile heat for a purse of $600 was well well known confirmation of this general principle. you will then be as calm and as quiet as a bottle of contested between Gen. Hampton's sorrel horse

The mechanism of this system included different cider after the cork has been drawn half a day. Candidate, and Mr. Dauplantier's bay horse Louisiimplements for sowing the seed, earthing up the

ana Eclipse. The race was won in fine style, in 6 plants, cleaning and stirring the soil; and as the first

EARLY RISING,

min. 2 sec. by Candidate, who proved himself a and principal process consisted in depositing the

horse of superior speed and bottom. The two mile

To rise early is so truly the one thing needful heat for $400 was equally well contested, and affordgrain, and was effected by an apparatus worked by horses,

and constructed so as to drop the seed re- above all to those who are candidates for either of ed equal gratification and pleasure. gularly in lines, which were drawn or drilled, it those capital prizes—Health, Wealth, or Wisdom,

The same horse that was thrown down by a mule was called a drill machine, and the process acquired that it is the only sure foundation for securing any on the first day, was yesterday stopped by a cow in the name of drilling. chance of obtaining either of them.

the first heat. These occurrences should be preTo the early adoption of this system, its gradual

"He that would thrive

vented. [Undoubtedly!) developement, and extended application, the Holk

Must rise by Five;

In addition to the heats for the purses, many ham agriculture owes much of its excellence, and

He that has thriven

minor races were run, which added much to the particularly its extraordinary improvement in the

May lie till Seven.”

amusement of the day. Besides the race for the culture of the Swedish turnip, bringing with it the Instances may be found (but very seldom) of per- Jockey Club purse, several matches are already beneficial consequences of a more perfected process sons, who have set up late becoming wealthy, but made up for this afternoon, and real sport is antiof cleaning and stirring the land, of an increase of they have paid for it the unwise price of their health. cipated. stock, and of a greater accumulation of inanure. You cannot remember one solitary example of a

sluggard having ever obtained one of these blessings
SPANISH PROVERBS.
of life. “Shake off dull sloth and early rise.” There

POETRY.
A handful of mother wit is worth a bushel of is no time spent so stupidly as that which inconside-
learning.

rate people pass in a morning between sleeping and A pound of care will not pay an ounce of debt. waking. He who is awake may be at work or at A wise man changes his mind, a fool never will. play; he who is asleep is receiving the refreshment

THE APPLE. You had better leave your enemy something when necessary to fit him for action; but the hours spent

When from the womb of nature sprung you die, than live to beg of your friends. in dozing and slumbering are wasted, without either

The various sweets her bounty flung,
That's wise delay, that makes the road safe. pleasure or profit. The sooner you leave your bed
The foot of the owner is the best manure for his the seldomer you will be confined to it. When old

And each in wild luxuriance hung,
land.
people have been examined in order to ascertain the

A banquet feast, He is my friend, who grinds at my mill. cause of their longevity, they have uniformly agreed

Her choice gifts it grew among,

Nor here the least. Enjoy that little you have while the fool is hunt- in one thing only, that they “all went to bed and all ing for more. rose early.”

With blooming hue to charm the eye,

And fragrance fresh as seek the sky, Western PRODUCTS.--The following is the

GERMANY.

And sweets the most deliciously amount of Live. Stock which, in the year 1824, passed the Cumberland Ford for an Eastern MarThe following interesting passage is taken from

All centre here, an article in the last London Quarterly Review,

While from it flows, and bounteously, ket: Horses and Mules,

As good a cheer. 4,005

upon a “Tour in Germany,” &c. an engaging little Hogs, 105 droves,

58,011

work, recently published in England: Good Beef Steers,

The sons of Hymen oft have sought 412

Amongst the ladies of Weinar, as also of Saxony, Probable value of Horses, &c.

Its gentle aid, when there was nought $360,450 there is a simplicity, which is quite delightful; knit

With so much power and beauty fraught, ting and needle work know no interruption at home Do. do. Hogs,

406,077 Do.

The heart to gain. do. Cattle,

16,680

or abroad, and a female going to a route might for-
get her fan, but would, assuredly, remember her

And by it many a one's been caught
Total value

In wedlock's chain. $783,207

work-bag. At Dresden, even the theatre is not Besides the above, a considerable number of protected from the needle and knitting-pin, and our

So when Cydippe proved unkind,
droves are said to have gone the Kenhawa route.
author has seen a lady gravely lay down her work;

Acontius, on the blushing rind,
wipe away the tears which the sorrows of Thekla
had brought into her eyes, and immediately proceed

In magic song revealed his mind,
Useful Rules for certain kinds of Housewives.

That knew not how with her stocking foot. It was not, however, to be ex1. When you arise in the morning never be par-pected, that in a town which prides itself upon its

In softer, stronger ties to bind ticular about pinning your clothes so very nicely; learning, the softer sex would always be free from

The maiden's vow. you can do that at any time. pedantry, and, accordingly a few clubs of Blues

And Atalanta, whose swift flight 2. Never comb your hair, or take off your cap have been formed to drink tea, and “talk about Had gained her all a maid's delight, until after breakfast. It is your business to take Shakspeare, taste, and musical glasses."

How in its form the metal bright time by the foretop, and not let him take you so;

Was used t decoy, therefore keep all tight in that quarter till 10 o'clock

And Hippomenes gained the right, at least. SPORTING OLIO.

And gained his joy! 3. When you begin the business of your toilet, you may do it before the window or in the front

"Tis here, where freedom's sacred ray entry; but the most proper place is in the kitchen.

Beams as the heavenly orb of day, 4. Never have any particular place for any thing

It grows more fair than far away in your house; and then you may rest assured that

In other soils, nothing will ever be out of place; and ihat is a great

And will more plenteously repay comfort in a family.

The labourer's toils. 5. Never follow the barbarous practice of brushing down cobwebs. A man's house is his castle;

New Orleans, March 19. Where freedom's noblest sons, who guide and so is a spider's. It is a violation of right, and On Thursday, 12th inst. commenced the New Or- Her noble empire, vast and wide, a shameless disrespect to the fine arts. leans Jockey Club Races over the Union Course; 4

Cease, when their public years subside, 6. Never teach your daughters to make or mend horses were entered for the first day's purse of 1000

From public care, any of their own clothes; it is taking the bread from dollars, four mile heats, which was taken by Mr.

Court the mild shade, and feel a pride the mouth of the labourer, besides, it will make them Bingaman's horse Walk-in-the-Water, winning the

Its boughs to rear. crooked and give them sore fingers. two first heats. Mr. Allain's mare Otway contested

WILLIAM.

.

WHOLESALE.

RETAIL.

per. from

to

to 10

9

8

6 50

17

20 18

27 22 40

28
24

14

8

6 32

7

80

85

4 751 4 87

11

37
1 05 1 12
1 00 1 05

37 40
50

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0P All persons having fine animals of any species, THE FARMER. for sale, at the cattle show in June, would do well to

PRICES CURRENT. give early notice in the Farmer, where they may do it

without charge. This will naturally attract buyers, ARTICLES. BALTIMORE, FRIDAY, APRIL 22, 1825.

from and good prices may be expected. Would the Virginia

papers give notice to their patrons, that a few thorough BEEF, Baltimore Prime, bbl. 8 509 We invite the attention of the farmers and plant-bred young mares and horses would command a fine BACON, and Hams, . Ib. ers to the following notice, relative to The Balti- price, New-Yorkers will come on and purchase, if they COFFEE, W.I. Green, .

21

25 do. Common,

15 16 MORE INFIRMARY; as we are aware that many valua- know what will be for sale. ble servants on their estates, are rendered useless

COTTON, Louisiana, &c. or even burdensome to their masters, by diseases FOREIGN News bearing on Agriculture.

Georgia Upland, .

COTTON YARN, No. 10. of the eyes, which may generally be cured by an Liverpool papers to the 23d of March have been re

An advance of 1 cent operation, that is by no means severe. The same ceived at New-York.

each number to No. 18. remark

Prince Metternich had arrived in Paris. It was eonbe applied to cases of tumours on varimay

CANDLES, Mould,

12 13

16 ous parts of the body, which impede action or ren- fidently affirmed that the affairs of Turkey and Greece

Dipt,

10 11 10

12

10 CHEESE, .

12 der labour painful; to the consequences arising from were connected with his journey. The accounts from Greece are of a favourable nature. FEATHERS, Live, .

33 various injuries; to fistulous ulcers; to ulcers with Constantinople was in a very unsettled state, and the

2 50 diseased bone, &c. &c. Address to Doctor Samuel Baker, North Charles-street, or to Doctor Richard Sultan and the execution of the ringleaders, had not FLAXSEED, Rough, discovery of a very dangerous conspiracy against the FISH, Herrings Sus. new bbl. 2 25

7 50

bush Wilmot Hall, East Lexington-street.

the effect of ensuring tranquility. Accounts from Corfu FLOUR, Superfine, city, bbl. 4 87
THE BALTIMORE INFIRMARY,
state that the campaign had begun auspiciously, and

Fine,

4 37 4 50 that in a paval engagement off Rhodes, twenty-five In Lombard-street, near the University, is open transports of the Egyptian fleet, laden with troops, FLAX,

Susquehanna, superfi,

Ib. 9 every day for the reception of persons with diseases horses and provisious, had been captured. or accidents which require medical or surgical treat

LIVERPOOL, March 22.–We have had a fair demand GUNPOWDER, Balti. . 25 11 5 ment. The institution is visited daily by the Physi- for Cotton during the past week, from speculators and

39

GRAIN, Indian Corn, . bush cian and Surgeon, and the Examiners of the Medical the trade; and, at the conclusion, rather better prices

Wheat, White,

do. Red, and Surgical Faculty of Maryland and the Medical were obtained. The sales consist of 6500 American,

Rye, Faculty of the University are invited to hold con- 3800 Brazil, 2400 Egyptian, and 400 East India; and

Barley, sultations on important cases when admitted. The the imports, 6400 American, 1800 Brazil, and 1600

Clover Seed,

3 25

3 50 3 75 sick are attended at all hours by the “Sisters of Egyptian Prices,Sea Island, 26 to 36; stained do.

Ruta Baga Seed,

22

Oats, Charity," who also preside over the economy of the 14 to 18, Upland, 12 to 15; Álabama and Tennessee, house. The whole expense for board, washing, and 124 to 14£; New Orleans, 13 to 16.

Peas, Black Eyed, professional care, &c. is $3 per week.

MEMOIRS of the PennsyLVANIA (not Philadelphia) HEMP, Russia, clean,

Beans, White,

ton 215 Agricultural Society, with elegant engravings, pub- HOGS' LARD,.

lb. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. lished, and for sale by the Editor of the American LIME,

bush

25 Agreeably to adjournment, the Board of Trustees Farmer, at $1 50.

LEATHER, Soal, best, Ib. met, on Thursday the 14th, at the residence of J. B.

Eastern Tan,
MOLASSES, Havana,

27 Morris, Esq. of the whole board there were but

gal.

37

50 Tobacco.—Mr. William Bowie, of Prince George MEAL, Corn, kiln dried, bbl. 2 37 two absent, and one of them was not in the state. county, sold sixty hogsheads for $94 per hundred

Ib.
NAILS, 8a20d.

64

7 Amongst other proceedings, the following resolu- Inspected, the past week, at Warehouse No. 1, 280

NAVAL STORES, Tar, bhl. 1 50 1 75 tion, offered by J. S. Skinner, was unanimously at No 2, 301-total, 581.

Pitch,

50 1 75 2 adopted.

The price quoted for white wheat is that of an actual

Turpentine, Soft,

2 50 Resolved, That it is expedient to appoint three sale; but the lot was very fine, and the sale perhaps a OIL, Whale, common,

gal. practical farmers, judges, in each county, with au- few cents above the average price.

Linseed,

15 thority to examine and report upon the claims of

PORK, Baltimore Mess, bbl the candidates in their respective counties, for the

do.

10 50 11 SEED, GRAIN, WINE, &c.

Prime, . premiums offered for best managed farms, in June, Deposited since last notice with the Editor of the American

PLASTER, cargo price,
POTATOES,

bush 1826, agreeably to the scale published in the Ameri

Farmer, for the use of his subscribers.

RICE, fresh,

c.lb. 3 50 4 25 5 can Farmer of March 11, vol. 6, page 401. That it Dear Sir, I enclose a small packet of Shiraz To-SOAP, Baltimore White, lh. 14

18 be the duty of said judges to proceed conjointly, on bacco Seed, which I have just received from Mr. Sa

Brown,

10 the invitation of any candidate, to the actual view bine, secretary of the Horticultural Society of London, WHISKEY, 1st proof, of his farm; and that, having compared the merits and which had been forwarded from Persia. I hope PEACII BRANDY, 4th pr

I 25 of the several claimants, they select the two, in that this variety of tobacco will Aourish in your soil. APPLE BRANDY, Ist their respective counties which they think best en- You are well apprised of the high estimation in which SUGARS, Havana White, c.lb. 13 00 13 50 14

do.

I am, very truly, yours, titled to the distinction of the society, and that they it is held.

Brown,
DE WITT CLINTON.

Louisiana, make particular report to this board, of the grounds Albany, April 15, 1825.

Loaf,
Ib.

25 of their decision; with an account of the expense, Yellow Corn—weighing sixty pounds to the bushel,

Lump, and a description of the management and system from Isaac Munroe, Esq., with the following note:

1 10

1 25 of cultivation pursued on the farms so selected; and “I send you the corn I mentioned to you. It is from SPICES, Cloves,

Ginger, Ground, finally, that said reports be sent in to this board, on the Susquehanna, and is deemed by good judges to be

Mace,

3 501 or before the first day of January, 1826. of very superior quality. It weighs at the rate of 60

Nutmegs,

3 00 Resolved, That the said reports, when received pounds to the bushel

, while the common quality rises
to about 50 pounds.
I. M." Pepper, .

25 by the board of trustees, be placed in the hands of a

SALT, St. Ubes,

bush Two dozen bottles of SCUPPERNONG WINE, from North Turk's Island, committee to be by them appointed, which said committee shall be required to compare these reland Agricultural Society, at their exhibition in June. SHOT, all sizes, Carolina--one doz. for the Editor, and one for the Mary- Ground Alum,

cwt. 9 25 10 ports, and from the best and most impartial view of the merits of different claimants, they shall award A PAMPHLET, containing a description of the cele-| WINES, Madeira, L. P. gal. 2 50 3 25 3 004 00

do. L. M. the premiums offered, as above mentioned by this brated “Clinton Vases,” and an account of their presen

do. tation.

1 10 1 15

Sicily, society, of a piece of plate valued at $50,* for the

Lisbon,

1 30 best, and one of $30, for the second best farm.

Sherry,

1 10 1 15 1 501 75 CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. CP Note. The board would have proceeded to

Claret,

doz. 3 On Sheep-Curing Tobacco-Indian Corn-Pennthe appointment of three judges in each county,

Port, first quality,

gal.] 2

2 501

40 but it was deemed best to postpone that until the sylvania Agricultural Society--Orchard Grass-Moles WOOL, Merino, full bla lb.

Onwashed do. crossed, .

30 next cattle show, on the first and second of June, and Cut Worms---Vines—The Holly for Hedges—Jesse

but free of Common, Country,

20 when it is supposed the appointment can be made Buel-White Mulberry and Silk Worms-Plantation

tags. Grist Mills-English Walnuts-Internal Improvements Skinners' or Pulled, with better understanding.

in Indiana and Illinois - Chesapeake and Delaware * In the farmer, vol. 5, pare 401, there is a mistake, Canal—Union Canal-Ohio Loan-Ornithology-Notes Printed every Friday, at $4 per annum, for JOHN S. Twenty of idars are there ouired for the best managed of a Desultory Reader-Races in New Orleans-Poetry SKINNER, Editor, by John D. Toy, corner of St. farm, ja... of fifty dollars. The board have judged - Infirmary-Maryland Agricultural Society-Com- Paul and Market streets, where every description of it best to make those premiums permanent. mercialPrices Current.

Book and Job Printing is handsomely executed.

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No. 6-VOL. 7.
AMERICAN FARMER-BALTIMORE, APRIL 29, 1825.

41 AGRICULTURE.

of the more favoured districts from the absorbing culture of the vine, yielding an annual value of pursuit of one object, and of directing them to those $100,800,000, being $75 to the acre nearly. The

which tend in a greater degree to domestic economy, result of Arthur Young's inquiries in France as PROCEEDINGS OF AGRICULTURAL SO- comfort and happiness. This is a subject fruitful in early as 1789, was that the average product per CIETIES.

remark, and pregnant in important consequences to acre amounted to $7.40 from arable lands, and Communicated for publication in the American Farmer. the advancement and happiness of the community; from vines to $32.37. That the interest on ca

but the limits of this report admit only of an allusion pital invested in the first was Si per cent-in the UNION AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY.

to it, and the simple statement of the fact, that latter from 7 to 10 per cent. The rent given for The report of the board of Managers of the Union where industry has been directed to the acquisition arable lands was $3 50 per acre, for that in vines, Agricultural Society, which we insert in this days of the conveniences and comforts of life, public im- $17.— The difference in favour of vines being nearly paper, will be read with much interest by the Agri-provement and private happiness have followed in as 5 to 1. The annual production of the vineyard cultural portion of our fellow-citizens; and we would its train;- but on the contrary, where the pursuit of at Vevay, on the Ohio, has been stated at 250 galcall the attention of our readers particularly to the one object, however lucrative, has absorbed atten- lons to the acre; which, at 30 cents the gallon, gives appeal to the community which will be found in the tion,-embarrassment, the want of comfort, the ab- a value of $75. We may assume that there are in latter part of it, made, in support of an institution sence of improvement, unhappiness, and vice have the United States about 800,000 acres of land emwhich holds out a high promise of general utility, if been the consequences

. We need but name the ployed in the cultivation of exported cotton, which it meet but with that support which the interest and mining countries of America—the tobacco districts yielded in 1823, 173,000,000 pounds, valued at welfare of all our Agriculturalists imperiously de- of Maryland and Virginia—and the cotton growing $20,445,520, being $25.50 per acre. — The usual mand.

states of Carolina and Georgia, in proof of the cor-crop of sea island cotton does not average more than At the second annual meeting of the Union Agri- rectness of these remarks, and as illustrative of the 150 pounds to the acre, which, at 30 cents, gives a cultural Society, the following gentlemen were elect- fact, that the true wealth of a country consists not in value of $45.—It appears therefore the average vaed officers of the institution for the present year: the mere amount of its gross production, but in its lue of the production of the vine is three times that John COUPER, sen. President.

augmented means of subsistence, comfort and hap- of cotton generally, and more than two-thirds Joseph Law, 1st Vice-President. piness.

greater than that of sea-island. This superiority JAMES SMITH, 2d Vice-President.

As the introduction of the vine, the olive, and the can be supported in a comparison with any other of James H. Couper, Corresponding Sec'y. hemp, and the revival of the culture of the indigo, our primary staples. It is believed that the labour James Troup, Treasurer.

from their intrinsic importance and peculiar adap- devoted to the culture of the vine, does not exceed Joseph JONES,

tation to our climate, have held out the highest pro- that of cotton. CHARLES West, Standing Committee. mise of utility and success, the attention of the The olive has been the theme of panegyric in all D. H. BRAILSFORD,

members of this Board has been particularly direct- ages. The imagination of the poet has delightREPORT of the Board of Managers to the Union ed to their encouragement. They are forcibly im-ed to associate it with the blessings that flow from Agricultural Society, at their annual meeting, 10th pressed with the important effects which may result peace and plenty, while the judgment of the philoFeb. 1825.

from the extended culture of the vine and the olive; sopher has placed it among the first in rank of those In compliance with the duty enjoined on the and therefore beg leave to trespass on the patience gifts of a beneficent Providence which contribute Board of Managers by the constitution, the follow- of the Society, while their attention is requested to most largely to the comfort and happiness of the ing report is respectfully submitted to the Union a few remarks tending to show—the probability human race. The ancients have conveyed to us Agricultural Society.

that they may be made to flourish in our climate;—the strongest evidence of the estimation in which it The earliest attention of the members of this their value as objects of culture;—their influence on was held among them, in that beautiful fable of Board, after its organization, was given to promote the comfort and happiness of the community;—and their mythology, where, in the contest between two the various objects of the Society as far as the limit- the advantages which they offer in reference to our of their deities who should produce the gift the most ed means within their reach admitted. On mature peculiar situation and wants.

beneficial to mankind, the Goddess of Wisdom obconsideration, they were of opinion, that the most The range of climate which admits of the culture tains the prize, by causing the olive-tree to spring valuable practical results would be attained, by di- of the vine, is so extensive as to leave no doubt that from the ground. recting the resources of the Society exclusively, for all parts of the middle and southern states are adapt- Mr. Jefferson, in his letter to the Agricultural Sothe present year, to the establishment of premiums. ed to it. In Europe, the region for the finest wines ciety of South Carolina, says of it, “of all the gifts These were announced at an early period of the last extends from the 364 to the 49° degree of latitude, of heaven to man, it is next to the most precious, if summer, and having been recently republished, it will which by a comparison of the growth of the same it be not the most precious.” This testiniony in its be necessary only for the Board, on this occasion, to vegetable productions on the two continents, pos- favour was the result of extensive and particular submit to the Society the principles which have sesses the climate of that portion of this, enabraced observation; and would in itself be sufficient to ingoverned them in the selection of the objects of en- within the 27o and 40°. If further confirmation cite to the inquiry, whether it could be introduced couragement.

were necessary, it may be obtained in our own among us. This is a question which we are unable These have been, to bring to perfection the cul- country, in the fact that vineyards have been estab- to answer as satisfactorily as could be wished. But, ture of the primary staples; to encourage that of the lished many degrees north of us, with the most that the probability of success is such as to warrant secondary crops; which contribute to subsistence tlattering prospects of success. That our climate is the attempt, we hope to show by the following brief and comfort; and to introduce new and valuable not too warni, we have every reason to believe, view. productions.

from the circumstances that some of the choicest The olive flourishes on the shores of the MediterIn reference to the first class of objects, they have wines of Europe are produced in the more southern ranean, between the 36th and 44th degrees of latioffered encouragement for the most successful cul- latitudes, and that the finest kinds of grapes require tude, nearly equivalent to the 26th and 34th of our ture only of each product. They are aware, how- a long and warm season to mature them. But we continent. But we have a safer guide than that of ever, of the importance of directing attention to spe- have stronger facts than any to be derived from a reference to climate, in the growth of the orange cific inquiry, in connection with the general mode of comparison and analogy, and which are only less tree, which is known to be much more susceptible culture; which, if judiciously selected, by contining conclusive than the establishment of vineyards on to injury from frost than the olive, and ceases to observation and experiment to a single and definite an extensive scale:—the luxuriant and fruitiul growth exist when the latter is still found to flourish. point, will be more likely to lead to distinct and of the vine in almost every variety of our soil in Hieres, one of the most southern points of France. useful knowledge, than if diverted to many: So which it has been planted, particularly in the sandy is the only one in that kinydom at which the orange strongly impressed are the Board with the efficacy Jands a little removed from the ocean, when in des- will thrive in the open air, and it has even there of this mode of investigation, that the objects of the pite of neglect and ignorance, it luxuriates as if ve- not been exempt from frosts which have cut it down premiums established, would, in part, have been se- getating in an indigenous clime.

to the ground. To the north of this lies that dislected on this principle, had they not deemed it im- The next inquiry is, whether our soil is favoura- trict of Provence so celebrated for its oil. As the portant, as a preparatory step, to procure general ble to the growth of the vine. Of this we have the orange thrives on the milder situations of our coast, information as to the best mode of culture in each most satisfactory evidence in the fact just mentioned, we have every reason to believe that at those points case; and thus to enable the Society to direct in- and in the declaration of the Abbe Rozier, the at least, the olive will be found to succeed. There quiry with more certainty, to the remedy of deti-nighest French authori y in agriculture, that the are also good grounds to presume that it may be ciencies, or to the prosecution of improvement. soils best adapted to produce the finest qualities of cultivated at almost any part of the maritime sec

In calling the attention of the community to the wine, are those which are sandy and gravelly; and tion of our state. improvement of secondary crops, the Board have that the vine thrives best in the poorest soils. Ad- That there is nothing in our soil opposed to its been governed by the double motive, of advancing mitting its successful culture, the question occurs introduction, may be safely assumed, as we are inthe interests of those sections of the country which whether it can be made profitable. On the autho- formed by the high authority already quoted, that offer no facilities for the cultivation of the primary rity of Chaptal, we are informed that there are in the nature of the soil is of little consequence, if it staples; and of drawing a part of the labour and skill France, 1,550,400 acres of land employed in thelbe dry," and "that they require so little nourish

6-VOL, 7.

ment, that if the soil be fit for any other production, The Board of Managers would here willingly support of their best exertions, unless it can be it may be cultivated among the olive trees without close this report, did they not feel it incumbent on shown that our agriculture has arrived at the point injuring them.” In the thin, dry soil of Attica the them to allude to a subject which must diminish the of perfection. olive finds its most congenial residence. The profit utility, and threatens even to terminate the exist- Is this the fact? Is the practice of our planters in which may be expected to result from its culture, ence of this society-the want of zeal evinced by the cultivation of any one of our numerous products may be drawn from the circumstances, that 100 the community in support of it. As they cannot conducted on fixed, accurate and scientific princitrees may be grown upon an acre of land, each of regard this indifference as proceeding from an im- ples? Have we a rotation of crops adapted to our which will yield annually an average of 10 pounds perfect view of the good which may be expected to soils and to our climate? Is an extensive system of of oil, which, at the moderate price of 10 cents the result from institutions of this character, they are manuring adopted, or are we as yet but awakening to pound, gives a value per acre of $100.

induced to make a brief enumeration of a few of the discovery that a fallow is preferable to the perValuable as the olive and the vine are, as highly the arguments in their favour, which although trite, petual recurrence of an exhausting crop? Is there productive objects of culture, their importance is may yet find an excuse for their repetition, in the no useful knowledge to be acquired of the nature immeasurably increased when they are considered fact of the existence of such a feeling.

and preventives of the diseases to which our most in reference to the peculiar wants of our country. That agricultural societies are the means of con- valuable plants are exposed? Do our plantations Who that casts his eyes over that wide extent of centrating scattered facts; that by bringing into no- exhibit an appearance of permanent and economiwaste and sterile soil, which, with the trifling excep- tice different practices they afford opportunities of cal improvements, of neatness, of order, of comtion of a few islands and narrow strips on water arriving at the best, and of giving to them a diffu- fort, and of plenty? To these questions we will not courses, spreads from the Atlantic to more than a hun- sive circulation; that they incite to inquiry and reply. But to those who cannot, it must be said dred miles into the interior, and which appears by useful experiment; direct public attention to the that they have yet much to learn. nature and an improvident custom of burning, doom- perfecting of improvements and to the correction We are aware that the disasters of the last year ed to the eternal curse of barrenness, will attempt of evils; that they excite a generous spirit of emu- and the general embarrassments of our communito estimate the advantages which will flow from the lation among agriculturists, and produce a union of ty, have produced a wide spread feeling of depres. introduction of plants which may convert that waste feeling and concert of action on all subjects impor- sion. We know that the moment of despondency into a garden, and change that curse of barrenness tant to the great interests of agriculture, are effects is not the most favorable for the establishment of an into a blessing of fruitfulness? What heart that de- no longer to be classed among speculative truths, institution, whose foundation is peculiarly the spirit lights in the contemplation of human happiness, can but recorded facts.

of its members. But we also know that accumulatmeasure the value of that which shall people with The importance of these objects will be suffi- ing embarrassments call for increased exertion; and a dense, comfortable and well informed population, ciently apparent from their mere enumeration. But that new disasters are only to be obviated by the this almost uninhabited region? Who will attempt if confirmation were necessary, it will only be re-acquisition of new skill. Do we perceive that our to predict the effects on the future destinies of our quisite to direct our attention to the other classes of staple products have declined in value? Is this recountry, of a culture, the tendency of which will society to perceive the advantages which they have duction in our incomes to be counteracted by relaxbe to substitute a class of free labourers for one of derived from an interchange of ideas and a concert ing our exertions and giving way to despondencyslaves—which presents the only obvious remedy for of action. We find them occupying a rank, which or by the application of greater skill to increase the evils of an institution that all deplore, and all is the effect rather of unity of thought and of ac- production, and by judicious economy to diminish despair to remedy.

tion, than of their intrinsic importance. On the expenditure? But there is another motive why we should now other hand, we have perceived agriculture a pur- But there is yet another view of the importance direct our attention to the introduction of new arti- suit which has been pronounced in all ages, by re- of agricultural societies, in reference to their effects cles of culture, which may prove more cogent than flecting and philosophical minds, to be the first in on that class of the community of which we are those which have been enumerated, because, bear- usefulness and the first in dignity, depressed the members,—their tendency to elevate agricultural ing more directly on our immediate interests—it is lowest in rank of the great pursuits of society-its pursuits to their proper rank, by inculcating large the necessity which is forced upon us of finding practice consigned to the most ignorant, and its and liberal views, and by establishing its practices some substitute for the rapidly depreciating staple, principles limited to vague empiricism. It is only on precise and scientific principles. We hold it to cotton. When we reflect that the United States since philosophical minds have carried into the be incontrovertible, that knowledge which constifurnish to Europe the greater portion of the cotton field the deductions of the closet, and correct obser- tutes power, is the source also of refined feeling and now used in her manufactures, that the extent of land vations of facts have been generalized by the lights elevated thought—that in proportion to the diffuoccupied in its culture is not greater than that con- and principles of science, that agriculture has be-sion of information, will be that of pure tastes and tained in this and the adjoining county of Liberty; gun to assume its proper rank. The first effort of lofty virtues. How much, therefore, should those that it comprises but a fortieth of this state; not a two its intelligent members has been to establish agricul-/institutions be encouraged in a country, whose gohundredth part of our territory congenial to its cul- tural societies, being well aware that a collision of vernment has no foundation but that of public ture; that the vast regions of South America, endowed ideas would elicit information, and that by the dif- opinion—and no security from that opinion, but in by nature with a climate and soil surpassed by none, fusion of information the surest foundation would be the intelligence and virtue of its members! How are now awakening into a developement of their laid for the dignity and utility of the pursuit. The much the more should it be cherished among that great resources; that the facilities of commerce result has every where realized these just anticipa- class, which, constituting five-sixths of the populabring into competition the productions of the most tions. Where intelligent agriculturists are, there tion of the United States, is destined by its numremote nations when we consider the ease of the are to be found agricultural societies; and where bers, its habits, its removal from the vices which culture, the simplicity of the preparation, and the agricultural societies exist, there the march of im- corrupt, and the passions which agitate more dense small amount of capital invested in the growth of provement has been rapid and steady.

communities, to exercise by its virtues a purifying cotton, can we estimate the extent to which it may By agricultural societies, we mean not those abor- influence on the moral atmosphere of the nationbe cultivated? Can we believe that its production tive associations, which are societies in name, but and by its numbers and its intelligence to resist the will cease to be augmented, until, like all other great not in fact-which are organized at a moment of progress of power and licentiousness. For ouragricultural products adapted to the climate of excitement, but which are destined even at their selves, whose wealth, whose happiness, whose conmany regions, it shall merely defray the expenses birth to witness the decay of the feeling which pro- sequence in society, whose dignity in the scale of of cultivation and of subsistence.

duced them—which linger through a short period of existence, is so intimately connected with the adThe increase of consumption has, until within a forced existence, and then pass away, leaving be- vancement of our profession, what arguments should few years, been commensurate with the production. hind the painful conviction that there is not in the be necessary to excite to the encouragement of But it is obvious that this ratio could not long exist; community, enough of zeal, or of intelligence, to whatever may have even a remote tendency to renand we have already found by a steady reduction of devote a little exertion, a little time, to make a der it worthy of the encomium of one of the greatest prices, that the latter has gone beyond the former. small sacrifice of selfish ease to an object of high minds of antiquity,"that there was nothing supe

Since 1818 there has been an almost continued de- public utility. But by agricultural societies, we rior, nothing more fruitful, nothing more delightcline. In 1818 the average price of all our cottons mean institutions supported by the combined zeal, ful, nothing more worthy of a liberal mind, than was 32 cents per lb.; during the succeeding years talent and information of the community—institu- the pursuits of agriculture." 24 cents, 17 cents, 16 cents, 164 cents—until in tions to which every member brings his portion of 1823 it had sunk to less than 12 cents. This de- useful knowledge, while he receives that which is Extract from the Proceedings of the preciation has been almost in the direct ratio of the furnished by others. And where a conviction exists increased production.

that it is not on the exertions of the few, but of the In 1819, we exported 87,997,045 lbs. many, that they can be either upheld or rendered

Monday, April 11, 1824. In 1823, 173,723,270 extensively useful.

The following Report from a committee appointBut while the production of the latter year nearly If such are the objects to be obtained from the ed for the especial purpose, was received, read, and doubled that of the former, the proceeds of it have formation of agricultural so the members of after some amendments, adopted by the Society, and een actually less by half a million of dollars. this community are called vpon to give them the ordered to be published in the American Farmer.

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF ALBEMARLE.

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